B. Aas, W. Beer, I. Beltrami, K. Bongardt, P. Ebersold, R. Eichler, Ledebur Th von, H. J. Leisi, W. W. Sapp, J-A Pinston, J. Kern, R. Lanners, and W. Schwitz, "Crystal-spectrometer measurement of the 3d-2p X-ray transition in muonic /sup 31/P," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A329, no. 3, pp. 450--62, 1979.

Abstract:The authors have measured the wavelength of the 3d/sub 5/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ muonic X-ray transition in /sup 31/P relative to the wavelength of the 84 keV gamma -ray from a /sup 170/Tm source. The result is lambda /sup P// lambda /sup Tm/=0.957247(31). Using the reported value for lambda /sup Tm/ they find ( lambda /sub exp//sup P/- lambda /sub th//sup P/)/ lambda /sub th//sup P/=(-28+or-32)*10/sup -6/, where lambda /sub th//sup P/ is the wavelength calculated according to the prescriptions of QED. Combining this result with the corresponding result reported earlier for mu -/sup 28/Si, they obtain a limit for an additional muon-nucleon interaction. They compare this limit to the prediction of the Weinberg-Salam model, i.e., the interaction mediated by the Higgs boson. (43 References).

B. Aas, R. Eichler, and HJ. Leisi, "Transition wavelengths of muonic X-rays of magnesium, silicon and phosphorus," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A375, no. 3, pp. 439--52, 1982.

Abstract:QED calculations are presented for the wavelengths of the 3d/sub 5/2/-2p/sub 3/2/, 3d/sub 3/2/-2p/sub 1/2/, 3d/sub 3/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ and 3s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ transitions in muonic /sup 24/Mg, /sup 28/Si and /sup 31/P. These values are need for the interpretation of recent crystal-spectrometer experiments. Various contributions to the transition wavelengths including nuclear finite-size and polarization shifts and the electron screening effect are discussed in detail. The authors conclude that, for the wavelengths of the 3d-2p transitions, the Dirac energy and the radiative corrections have uncertainties of the order of 1 ppm. At present, the limitation on the final precision is the uncertainty of the electron screening correction ( approximately 6 ppm); ways of improving the situation are indicated. (39 References).

B. Aas, W. Beer, I. Beltrami, P. Ebersold, R. Eichler, Th Ledebur, H. J. Leisi, W. Ruckstuhl, W. W. Sapp, A. Vacchi, J. Kern, J-A Pinston, and R. Weber, "Vacuum polarization test and search for direct muon-hadron interaction from muonic X-rays," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 406--10, 1982.

Abstract:Results are reported on wavelength measurements of 3d-2p X-ray transitions in muon /sup 24/Mg, /sup 28/Si and /sup 31/P. The experiments were performed with the bent-crystal spectrometer at SIN. The results are analysed as a QED test and, alternatively, as a search for muon-hadron interactions. The relative difference between theory and experiment for the vacuum polarization effect is (0.6+or-2.4)*10/sup -3/. (17 References).

B. Aas, W. Beer, I. Beltrami, P. Ebersold, R. Eichler, ThV Ledebur, H. J. Leisi, W. Ruckstuhl, W. W. Sapp, A. Vacchi, J. Kern, J-A Pinston, W. Schwitz, and R. Weber, "Vacuum polarization test and search for muon-hadron interactions from muonic X-rays. Crystal-spectrometer experiments," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A375, no. 3, pp. 405--38, 1982.

Abstract:The authors have measured the wavelengths of the 3d/sub 5/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ and the 3d/sub 3/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ X-ray transitions in mu -/sup 24/Mg, -/sup 28/Si and -/sup 31/P with the bent-crystal spectrometer at the SIN muon channel. The X-rays are measured relative to the wavelengths of the 84 keV and the 63 keV gamma -rays of /sup 170/Tm and /sup 169/Yb which have recently been calibrated to about 1 ppm. The measured X-ray wavelengths lambda /sub e/x/sub p/ are compared with theoretical values lambda /sub th/, as obtained from QED calculations. The relative difference, averaged over all six measured transitions, is mod ( lambda /sub exp/- lambda /sub th/)/( lambda /sub th/)=(2+or-8)*10/sup -6/. This result corresponds to a test of the vacuum polarization effect in QED of (0.6+or-2.4)*10/sup -3/. Assuming the QED calculations to be correct, they can use the result to put limits on additional muon-nucleon interactions (as required by gauge theories). If such an interaction is mediated by a scalar, isoscalar boson with a mass smaller than 1 MeV, the coupling constant is found to be (g/sub N/g/sub mu /)/(4 pi )=(-4+or-17)*10/sup -9/. Alternatively, they can deduce from the experiments the most accurate direct value to date for the negative muon mass, m/sub mu /=105.65906(91) MeV. (41 References).

V. M. Abazov, V. S. Butsev, D. Chultem, D. Knotek, A. Mastalka, and V. Presperin, "Negative pion capture in heterogeneous mixtures of elements," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods*, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 423--5, 1980.

Abstract:Zn+Se and Cd+Te were studied by means of the measurement of the radioactivity produced by negative pion absorption. (6 References).

V. M. Abazov, N. A. Boinova-Eliseeva, V. A. Gordeev, C. A. Kutuzov, I. N. Mitropol'skii, H-G Ortlepp, B. M. Sabirov, and GE. Solyakin, "A test for monopole nuclear excitation in bound-muon decay," *Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Fizicheskaya*, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1008--14, 1988.

Abstract:The physical basis is given for an attempt to define monopole nuclear excitation in bound-muon decay. (11 References).

D. J. Abbott, V. Markushin, and RT. Siegel, "Comment on a proposed experimental method to measure the hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen ( mu /sup -/p)/sub 1S/," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 178, no. 5-6, pp. 398--9, 1993.

Abstract:The authors simulated an experiment which has been proposed to measure the hyperfine splitting of the ground state of the muonic hydrogen atom. The observable effect of a laser pulse which excites singlet mu p atoms to the triplet state is smaller than described in the original proposal. (7 References).

D. J. Abbott and others, "Diffusion of muonic deuterium and hydrogen atoms," in *Muonic Atoms and Molecules*, (L. A. Schaller and C. Petitjean, eds.), (CH--4010, Basel), pp. 243--249, 1993.

D. J. Abbott, G. F. Chen, P. Guss, A. D. Hancock, J. B. Kraiman, R. T. Siegel, W. F. Vulcan, D. W. Viel, R. E. Welsh, C. Petitjean, A. Zehnder, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, P. Kammel, A. Scrinzi, J. Marton, J. Zmeskal, J. J. Reidy, H. L. Woolverton, F. J. Hartmann, A. Adamczak, V. E. Markushin, and VS. Melezhik, "Diffusion of muonic deuterium and hydrogen atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 214--29, 1997.

Abstract:Diffusion of muonic deuterium mu d and muonic hydrogen mu p atoms produced following the stopping of negative muons in D/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/ at 300 K was studied at pressures of 47-750 mbar (H/sub 2/) and 94-1520 mbar (D/sub 2/) in two distinct target geometries. Time intervals were recorded between entry of negative muons into the gas and arrival of each resulting mu d or mu p atom at one of 50 foils immersed in the gas, and spaced regularly along the muon beam axis. The results of such measurements were fitted to time distributions generated by Monte Carlo methods, using theoretical scattering predictions and empirically chosen forms for the initial energy distributions of the muonic atoms in the 1S state. Results indicate muonic atom energy distributions which (a) are different for mu d and mu p and (b) vary with pressure. The best-fit energy distributions have mean energies ranging from 1.5 eV for mu d at 94 mbar to [right angle bracket]or=9 eV for mu p at 750 mbar. The data are also sensitive to scattering cross sections for mu d and mu p, and are consistent with current theoretical calculations for the mu d+D/sub 2/ cross sections. In the case of mu p+H/sub 2/ scattering, the experimental data suggest discrepancies with the theoretical predictions. (43 References).

R. Abela, G. Backenstoss, I. Schwanner, P. Blum, D. Gotta, L. M. Simons, and P. Zsoldos, "Measurement of the circular polarization of muonic K/sub alpha / X-rays in Se and Pd," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 71B, no. 2, pp. 290--2, 1977.

Abstract:The circular polarization P/sub c/ of muonic K alpha X-rays was measured for the elements Se and Pd. The values for Se show an unexplained strong depolarization in the j=l-1/2 states. The values found in Pd indicate a quite normal cascade depolarization. (9 References).

R. Abela, P. Blum, R. Guigas, H. Koch, and H. Poth, "Measurement of the s-wave contribution to 2p-level shifts in pionic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 282, no. 1, pp. 93--6, 1977.

Abstract:Energies and widths of pionic 3d-2p transitions of /sub 30/Zn, /sub 32/Ge, and /sub 33/As are measured with a Ge detector. The values of the 2p shifts obtained from the measurement, i.e. epsilon /sub 2p/(Zn)=7.0+or-1.4 keV, epsilon /sub 2p/(Ge)=5.5+or-0.9 keV, and epsilon /sub 2p/(As)=4.6+or-0.9 keV, show a decreasing behaviour for large Z, which is caused by an increasing s-wave contribution as predicted by theory. (7 References).

R. Abela, G. Backenstoss, D'Qliveira A. Brandao, M. Izycki, H. O. Meyer, I. Schwanner, L. Tauscher, P. Blum, W. Fetscher, D. Gotta, H. Koch, H. Poth, and LM. Simons, "Pionic X-ray transitions in /sup 3/He," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 68B, no. 5, pp. 429--32, 1977.

Abstract:Pionic /sup 3/He atoms have been produced in a gaseous target. Energies and strong absorption broadening of the 2 to 1 and the 3 to 1 transition lines have been measured. The 1s level is shifted by 44 eV by the (attractive) strong interaction, and the natural 1s level width is 42 eV. (13 References).

R. Abela, W. Kunold, M. Schneider, and LM. Simons, "Observations of the 2s-2p muonic X-ray transition in /sup 68/Zn," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 12, no. , pp. 36-7, 1979.

Abstract:The measurement was performed at the SIN mu E1 channel with a /sup 68/ZnO target of 10 g. An intrinsic germanium semiconductor diode with 80 mm/sup 2/ area and a thickness of 7 mm was used for the detection of the two components of the 2s-2p transition. An energy range from 10 to 65 keV was selected. In order to improve the sensitivity of the experiment a coincidence measurement between the signals of the Ge-diode and the 2p-1s transition at 1.595 MeV was performed. This transition was detected with a CsF crystal (5{"} diameter and 6{"} length) with an overall efficiency of 6% at 1.600 MeV. The coincidence requirement was essential to suppress the background due to mu /sup -/O and mu /sup -/C transitions and to increase the peak to background ratio. (3 References).

R. Abela, "Circular polarization of muonic X-ray radiation," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 52, no. 3, 1980.

Abstract:Summary form only given, as follows. The author reports a return to depolarisation measurement with apparatus improved in analytical capacity and efficiency. 4Ge(Li) detectors were used for detection of X-rays. The transmission polarimeter with a length of 10 cm was made from VACOFLUX (Fe, Co-alloy). Its analysis capacity amounts to (1.8+or-0.2)% at 1.33 MeV. The circular polarization of 2p-1s transitions of the following elements were measured: Se (amorphous), Se (metallic) Pd and Cd. The results are tabulated and discussed. (3 References).

R. Abela, G. Backenstoss, M. Izucki, W. Kowald, I. Schwanner, L. Tauscher, H. J. Weyer, M. Doerr, W. Fetscher, R. Guigas, D. Gotta, H. Poth, G. Schmidt, and H. Ullrich, "Isotope effects of light pionic atoms," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 413--14, 1980.

Abstract:Precision measurements with an intense pion beam to find the 1s state energy shift and line broadening for the isotopes /sup 16/O, /sup 18/O, and /sup 3/He. Significant differences were found for the isotope pairs /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He and /sup 16/O-/sup 18/O by reducing for helium the detector resolution from 310 to 190 eV and improving the statistics by 50% and for oxygen the energy resolution to one-half of the previous value. Also, for oxygen, the line-to-background ratio could be improved by a factor of 3 and the statistics were increased by a factor of 2.5. (4 References).

R. Abela, W. Kunold, R. Metzner, and LM. Simons, "Measurement of anisotropy of emission direction of muonic X-ray radiation with reference to beam direction," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 419--20, 1980.

Abstract:One of the basic assumptions in the computation of depolarization, which relates to the basic state of muon atoms, is the complete loss of directional memory of muons with reference to beam direction before the formation of the atoms (Mann and Rose, Phys. Rev., vol.121, p.239, 1961). The authors refer to this and other notions and measured data in previously published works by Leon and Seki, Vogel, Lum et al. and Korenman. They report that their measurements have produced results contrary to the popular hypotheses about Coulomb capture and the formation of muonic atoms. (5 References).

R. Abela, W. Kunold, R. Metzner, L. M. Simons, and H. Pilkuhn, "Measurement of anisotropy of muonic X-ray radiation with a one-dimensional platinum (KCP)-crystal," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 52, no. 3, 1980.

Abstract:Summary form only given, as follows. An anisotropy has been found in the intensity distribution of muonic X-ray radiation in the 2p/sub 3/2/ to 1s/sub 1/2/-transition with a platinum (KCP)-monocrystal as target. With the standardization condition that no anisotropy occurs in the placement of crystal axis perpendicular to the direction of radiation, the resulting anisotropy beta for a setting of the axis parallel to the beam amounts to -(8.6+or-2.2).10/sup -2/. (0 References).

R. Abela, W. Kunold, L. M. Simons, and M. Schneider, "Search for a dynamical E0 excitation in the muonic /sup 68/Zn atom," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 94B, no. 3, pp. 331--4, 1980.

Abstract:Using a coincidence technique, the 2s-2p transition in muonic /sup 68/Zn has been observed. The measured energies were compared with theory and no evidence for a dynamical E0 excitation was found indicating a value for the E0 matrix element much smaller than predicted. (7 References).

R. Abela, G. Backenstoss, W. Kunold, L. M. Simons, and R. Metzner, "Measurements of the polarization of the 2p and 1s states in muonic atoms and the helicity of the muon in pion decay," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A395, no. 2, pp. 413--34, 1983.

Abstract:The authors have measured the polarization of the 2p and 1s states in muonic selenium (amorphous and metallic modifications), cadmium, palladium and iodine, in order to study the depolarization of muons in the cascading process and to measure the helicity of the mu /sup -/. In the cases of cadmium, palladium and amorphous selenium good agreement between the measurements and cascade calculations is found. There is an unexpected depolarization of the 2p/sub 1/2/ state in metallic selenium. The helicity of the muon after the pion decay was measured to h/sub mu /=+0.99+or-0.16. (29 References).

R. Abela, P. Blum, D. Gotta, W. Kunold, K. Meissner, M. Schneider, and LM. Simons, "First experimental experience with a cyclotron trap," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 16, no. , pp. 65-7, 1984.

Abstract:The study of the formation of muonic atoms in low-Z gaseous materials requires a high negative muon stop density in dilute gases such as Ne or B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ (diborane). In order to improve the available negative muon stop densities a new device (cyclotron-trap) was developed which makes use of the focusing properties of a suitably shaped magnetic field to concentrate charged particles in the center of the trap. The field is provided by a superconducting split coil magnet which produces a field strength of about 4 Tesla in the central region. A stop density of 2*10/sup 4/ mu /sup -/ at 100 mu A has been achieved. The stop distribution was measured by the detection of the nitrogen and oxygen X-rays of air from the central region of the trap. (0 References).

R. Abela, F. Foroughi, C. Petitjean, D. Renker, and E. Steiner, "Muon beams in the 90`s," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 459--65, 1991.

Abstract:The present upgrading of accelerators and beam facilities at PSI will greatly improve the offered muon beams. In particular, the new beam pi E5 will increase the maximum available fluxes substantially. Plans to build a new low energy muon facility to produce slow muons ([left angle bracket]or approximately=30 keV) at appreciable intensities are discussed. (12 References).

R. Abela, K. Bodek, P. Boeni, F. Foroughi, L. Grenacs, L. Jarczyk, S. Kistryn, J. Lang, R. Mueller, S. Navert, O. Navilliat-Cuncic, A. Proykova, J. Smyrski, J. Sromicki, E. Stephan, A. Strzalkowski, J. Zejma, and W. Zipper, "Optimization study for a measurement of polarization observables in mu /sup -/-capture on nuclei," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 223--4, 1995.

Abstract:The experiment is aimed at a precise determination of the induced pseudoscalar form factor F/sub P/ in mu /sup -/-capture on /sup 16/O nuclei via a measurement of the polarization observables P/sub av/, P/sub L/ and T/sup 0//sub 2/. The method uses the beta -decay asymmetry as an analyzer of the spin orientation of the produced /sup 16/N nuclei. Several tests were performed in order to find optimal conditions for measurement with stack targets, sensitive to the recoil direction of the /sup 16/N nuclei. In addition the possibility of measuring P/sub av/ using of a water-based target has been investigated. (4 References).

D. I. Abramov and VV. Gusev, "The Coulomb two-centre problem near the boundary of the continuous spectrum," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2445--57, 1992.

Abstract:The wavefunctions of ZeZ system states close to the boundary of the continuous spectrum, the low-energy scattering phaseshifts and the energies of the Rydberg states have been studied. Their expressions in terms of the wavefunction of the zero energy state, its phaseshift Phi and normalization constant N have been obtained. The dependencies of Phi and N on the intercentre distance R have been plotted using numerical data and asymptotic formulae for R[right angle bracket][right angle bracket]1 and R[left angle bracket][left angle bracket]1 have been obtained. (14 References).

D. I. Abramov, V. V. Gusev, S. V. Klimenko, L. I. Ponomarev, W. Krueger, and W. Renz, "The quantum Coulomb three-body problem - Visualization of simulation results and numerical methods," in *Proceedings Visualization '93*, (G. M. Nielson and D. Bergeron, eds.), (Los Alamitos, CA, USA), pp. 378-81, 1993.

Abstract:Some years ago it was established that the muon catalyzed fusion phenomenon could be used for the production of energy. This fact has been causing a rebirth of interest in the universal methods of solving the quantum Coulomb three-body problem. The adiabatic hyperspherical (AHS) approach considered in this joint project has definite advantages in comparison with other methods. The case study proposed focuses on the study of the structure and behavior of the wave function of bound states of a quantum three-body system as well as of the basis functions of the AHS approach. Adapted scientific visualization tools such as surface rendering, volume ray tracing and texturing will be used. Visualization allows to discover interesting features in the behavior of the basis functions and to analyze the convergence of the AHS-expansion for the wave functions. (7 References).

D. I. Abramov, L. N. Bogdanova, V. V. Gusev, and LI. Ponomarev, "The local characteristics of the bound states of muonic molecules," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 301-6, 1996.

Abstract:The sticking probabilities omega /sup Jv/, G- and gamma -factors for all bound states of mesic molecules HH mu , HD mu , HT mu , DD mu , DT mu , and TT mu with J=0 and v=0, 1 have been calculated in the adiabatic hyperspherical approach (AHSA). (6 References).

D. I. Abramov, V. V. Gusev, and LI. Ponomarev, "Reduced adiabatic hyperspherical basis in the Coulomb three-body bound state problem," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 375-80, 1996.

Abstract:A new version of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach (AHSA) is suggested which has significant advantages for the calculation of three-body states with total angular momentum J[right angle bracket]0. The binding energies of all bound states of mesic molecules with normal parity are calculated by the suggested method. Comparison with results of variational calculations and the fast convergence of the method confirm its high efficiency. (13 References).

D. I. Abramov, V. V. Gusev, and LI. Ponomarev, "Relationship between the adiabatic hyperspherical and the Born-Oppenheimer approach to the Coulomb three-body problem," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 1259--70, 1997.

Abstract:"The relationship between the adiabatic hyperspherical (AHS) and the standard adiabatic (Born-Oppenheimer) approach to the Coulomb three-body problem in which the three charges satisfy the conditions Z/sub 1/[right angle bracket]0, Z/sub 2/[right angle bracket]0, and Z/sub 3/[left angle bracket]0 is studied. It is shown that, in the limit M to infinity

D. I. Abramov, L. N. Bogdanova, V. V. Gusev, and LI. Ponomarev, "Local characteristics of the bound states of muonic molecules," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 520--33, 1998.

Abstract:The sticking probabilities omega /sub 2/ and G, rho , and gamma factors for all bound states of muonic molecules pp mu , pd mu , p/ mu , dd mu , dt mu , and tt mu with total angular momentum J=0 are calculated in the adiabatic hyperspherical approach and are compared with the results of previous calculations. It is shown that the relative precision of about 10/sup -3/ of the calculated values is achieved already with 15 adiabatic hyperspherical basis functions. (43 References).

D. I. Abramov, V. V. Gusev, and LI. Ponomarev, "Elastic scattering, muon transfer, bound states and resonances in the three-body mesic molecular systems in the reduced adiabatic hyperspherical approach," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, no. 1-4, pp. 127--32, 1999.

Abstract:The uniform method of numerical investigation of bound states and scattering processes 2 to 2 (including resonance states) in the Coulomb three-body systems is developed. It is based on the adiabatic hyperspherical approach and includes the numerical realization and applications to the three-body mesic atomic systems. The results of calculations of bound states of these systems (including the local characteristics of the wave functions) and the scattering processes 2 to 2 (including the characteristics of the resonance states) are presented. (9 References).

D. I. Abramov and VV. Gusev, "Calculation of resonant states of the (d mu /sup 3/He)/sub J=0/ ion in the adiabatic hyperspherical approach," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 891--903, 2000.

Abstract:The resonant state of the Coulomb three-body system d+( mu /sup 3/He) (J=0) below the ( mu d)/sub 1s/+/sup 3/He threshold is investigated using the adiabatic hyperspherical (AHS) approach. The effective numerical method for the scattering problem in the AHS basis is developed. This allows one to study in detail the energy dependence of the three-body wavefunction, its local characteristics (G- and gamma -factors) and the phase shift delta in the resonance range. The resonance position E/sub 0/=70.82 eV and the width Gamma =3.8*10/sup -4/ eV are obtained as the parameters of the Breit-Wigner formula which reproduces the numerical results for the regularized normalization constant N/sup 2/(E). The numerically calculated G-factor depends strongly on E within the resonance width. Its E dependence is reproduced with high accuracy by a three-parameter formula. In contrast to the G-factor, the numerically obtained gamma -factors do not depend on E noticeably in the resonance range. (24 References).

D. I. Abramov, V. V. Gusev, and LI. Ponomarev, "Adiabatic hyperspherical approach to the problems of muon catalyzed fusion," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 271--4, 2001.

Abstract:"The adiabatic hyperspherical approach (AHSA) is applied for the numerical investigation of the scattering processes and resonances in Coulomb three-body mesic atomic systems. The results of the calculations of elastic and inelastic cross sections in low-energy collisions a mu + b (a

D. I. Abramov, V. V. Gusev, and LI. Ponomarev, "Adiabatic hyperspherical approach to describing low-energy mesic-atom scattering," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1442--50, 2001.

Abstract:"The adiabatic hyperspherical approach developed previously is used to describe the asymmetric mesic-atom scattering a mu +b to a mu +b, a+b mu (a

D. I. Abramov and VV. Gusev, "Calculation of resonant states of muonic molecular ions p mu He, d mu He, t mu He in the adiabatic hyperspherical approach," * Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A689, no. 1-2, 2001.

Abstract:The resonant states of muonic molecular ions x mu /sup 3,4/He (x=p,d,t) are important for the theory of nuclear collisions at ultra low energies. The positions and the widths of these resonances, as well as G- and gamma -factors, are calculated in the adiabatic hyperspherical approach (AHSA) for total angular momentum J=0,1. This approach was used previously for bound states and scattering in the Coulomb three-body systems. The numerical method developed for resonances is based on the reduction of the hyperradial scattering problem to the boundary-value problem on the finite interval with the boundary conditions of R-matrix type. (16 References).

D. I. Abramov, V. V. Gusev, and LI. Ponomarev, "Low energy scattering processes in the Coulomb three-body systems," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A684, no. , pp. 675-7, 2001.

Abstract:For the description of the low energy collisions in the Coulomb three-body problem (two positively charged particles and one negatively charged) the effective method is developed. It is applied for the calculations of the cross sections of elastic and inelastic collision processes in the systems d mu p, t mu p and t mu d. (8 References).

D. I. Abramov, V. V. Gusev, and LI. Ponomarev, "Spin-flip and elastic processes in slow collisions of mesic atoms," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 275--80, 2001.

Abstract:"The reduced adiabatic hyperspherical (RAHS) basis suggested previously is used for the calculation of elastic and spin-flip cross sections in the processes (a mu )/sub F/ + a to (a mu )/sub F'/ + a

A. G. Abrashkevich, I. V. Puzynin, YuS Smirnov, and SI. Vinitsky, "A generalized adiabatic approach to exotic three-body systems," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 381-9, 1996.

Abstract:A generalized adiabatic approach providing the asymptotic separation of the fast and slow variables for the three-body muonic scattering problem is considered. A uniform classification scheme of the different adiabatic bases for some typical three-body Coulomb systems is discussed. The estimations of the cross section of the elastic scattering process (Tp)/sub n=1/+d to (tp)/sub n=1/+d are presented. (19 References).

N. N. Achasov, V. V. Gubin, and VI. Shevchenko, "Production of scalar KK molecules in phi radiative decays," *International Journal of Modern Physics A*, vol. 12, no. 28, pp. 5019--37, 1997.

Abstract:The potentialities of the production of the scalar KK molecules in the phi radiative decays are considered beyond the narrow resonance width approximation. It is shown that BR( phi to gamma f/sub 0/(a/sub 0/) to gamma pi pi ( pi eta )) approximately=(1/2)*10/sup -5/, BR( phi to gamma (f/sub 0/+a/sub 0/) to gamma K/sup +/K/sup -/)[left angle bracket]or approximately=10/sup -6/ and BR( phi to gamma (f/sub 0/+a/sub 0/) to gamma K/sub S/K/sub S/)[left angle bracket]5.10/sup -8/. The mass spectra in the pi pi , pi eta , K/sup +/K/sup -/ channels are calculated. The imaginary part of the amplitude phi to gamma f/sub 0/(a/sub 0/) is calculated analytically. It is obtained by the phase of the scalar resonance production amplitude that causes the interference patterns in the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to gamma pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ in the phi meson mass region. (17 References).

P. Ackerbauer, J. Bistirlich, H. Bossy, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, K. M. Crowe, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, M. Jeitler, M. Justice, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Naegele, W. Neumann, C. Petitjean, H. Plendl, A. Scrinzi, R. H. Sherman, W. Schott, J. Werner, and J. Zmeskal, "New results in muon catalyzed fusion," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 20, no. , pp. NL43-5, 1988.

Abstract:The authors discuss briefly their new experimental setup for the study of muon catalyzed fusion and present initial experimental results. For the experiment a new cryogenic target was developed capable of operating D-T mixtures between 10 K and 50 K in gaseons, liquid and solid phases. A counter system used for the measurement of multiple emissions of the 14 MeV fusion neutrons, muonic X-rays and electrons uses BGO and NaI detectors. Preliminary results involving tritium concentration and DT cycles rates are presented, the most striking feature being the effects of non-equilibration in the molecular composition and of nonlinear density dependence. The density dependence of normalized cycle rates is also presented. Results at densities [left angle bracket]0.25 are pronounced. Also shown are the effects of non-equilibration. (9 References).

P. Ackerbauer, D. V. Balin, V. N. Baturin, P. Baumann, H. Bossy, W. H. Breunlich, T. Case, K. M. Crowe, H. Daniel, M. Fuchs, S. Fussy, YuS Grigoriev, F. J. Hartmann, A. I. Ilyin, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, R. Lipowski, K. Lou, E. M. Maev, J. Marton, C. Petitjean, G. E. Petrov, A. Scrinzi, G. G. Semenchuk, R. H. Sherman, A. A. Vorobyov, J. Werner, P. Wojciechowski, and J. Zmeskal, "Direct measurement of final sticking omega /sub s/ in muon catalyzed dt fusion," *Psi Nuclear & Particle Physics Newsletter*, no. , pp. 70-2, 1990.

Abstract:The authors report first results of a new experiment, aiming at a direct measurement of the mu alpha -sticking probability omega /sub s/ after the muon catalyzed fusion reaction, d mu t to alpha + mu +n, d mu t to mu alpha +n (+17.5 MeV). The factor omega /sub s/ is considered to determine the ultimate limit of energy output in muon catalysis. (3 References).

P. Ackerbauer, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, M. Fuchs, S. Fussy, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Nagele, A. Scrinzi, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, H. Plendl, W. Schott, C. Petitjean, J. Bistirlich, H. Bossy, M. Justice, K. M. Crowe, R. H. Sherman, and W. Neumann, "Investigation of mu CF processes by detection of fusion neutrons: methods of analysis for time spectra," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 431--6, 1991.

Abstract:A good deal of the experimental knowledge about the kinetics of mu CF processes originates from the observation of the fusion neutrons. Analyzing the time distributions of these neutrons has proved to be a very efficient tool for determining relevant physical parameters. For a correct interpretation, it is indispensable to obtain clean neutron spectra free of background events (e.g. Michel electrons and their bremsstrahlung, neutron from nuclear capture of muons stopping in the target walls and accidental background). To achieve this, special analysis methods were developed and tested for possible systematic problems. Several different methods are explained and discussed. (18 References).

P. Ackerbauer, J. Werner, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Nagele, A. Scrinzi, J. Zmeskal, J. Bistirlich, K. M. Crowe, C. Petitjean, R. H. Sherman, P. Baumann, H. Bossy, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, W. Schott, Egidy T. von, and W. Neumann, "The kinetics of muon-catalyzed dt fusion," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 357--72, 1993.

Abstract:A main source of information about the muon-catalyzed fusion cycle in D-T mixtures are the cycling rates lambda /sub c/, which are characteristic for the kinetic equilibrium of states attained rapidly in dense targets. The measurement, analysis and interpretation of these rates will be discussed, concentrating on the extensive set of rates observed at PSI over the last decade in gaseous, liquid and solid targets. (35 References).

P. Ackerbauer, W. H. Breunlich, M. Fuchs, S. Fussy, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, B. Lauss, J. Marton, W. Prymas, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, K. Lou, C. Petitjean, P. Baumann, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, W. Schott, Egidy T. von, P. Wojciechowski, D. Chatellard, J-P Egfer, E. Jeannet, T. Case, K. M. Crowe, R. H. Sherman, and V. Markushin, "Survey of experimental results on mu CF including hyperfine effects," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 243--58, 1993.

Abstract:Complementary to the investigations of the most efficient dt cycle, also the other muon-induced fusion cycles in mixtures of hydrogen isotopes have been studied. The results of these dedicated experiments provide rich information about muon-induced few-body reactions and contribute significantly to a better overall understanding of mu CF. A summary of the recent progress will be presented. Special emphasis will be put on two characteristic examples, namely a new experimental approach to study the muonic cascade in H-D mixtures and the systematic study of hyperfine effects in muon-induced reactions. (48 References).

P. Ackerbauer, M. Jeitler, J. Werner, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, S. Fussy, J. Marton, A. Scrinzi, J. Zmeskal, J. Bistirlich, K. M. Crowe, P. Kammel, J. Kurck, C. Petitjean, R. H. Sherman, H. Bossy, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, W. Neumann, and G. Schmidt, "Experimental results on muon-catalyzed dt fusion," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 67-80, 1996.

Abstract:A comprehensive experimental study of the kinetics of muon-catalyzed dt fusion has been conducted at PSI, based on the measurement of the 14 MeV neutrons from the fusion process. The target conditions included densities from 1-150% of the atomic density of liquid hydrogen, relative tritium concentrations of 2-95%, and temperatures of 13-300 K. Information about the dt cycle has been obtained from the measured neutron time distributions by different methods: Monte Carlo simulations primarily aimed at investigating epithermal effects in molecular formation and the determination and interpretation of cycling rates describing the steady state regime. (29 References).

P. Ackerbauer and others, "Study of dµd and p$'mu$d fusion in D$_2$ and H/D mixtures," *PSI Annual Report*, vol. Annexe I, 1996.

P. Ackerbauer, D. V. Balin, V. M. Baturin, G. A. Beer, W. H. Breunlich, T. Case, K. Crowe, H. Daniel, J. Deutsch, J. Govaerts, YuS Grigoriev, F. J. Hartmann, P. Kammel, R. King, B. Lauss, E. M. Maev, V. E. Markushin, J. Marton, M. Muehlbauer, C. Petitjean, T. Petitjean, G. E. Petrov, R. Prieels, W. Prymas, W. Schott, G. G. Semenchuk, YuV Smirenin, A. A. Vorobyov, N. I. Voropaev, and P. Wojciechowski, "A precision measurement of nuclear muon capture on /sup 3/He," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 417, no. 3-4, pp. 224--32, 1998.

Abstract:The muon capture rate in the reaction mu /sup -/+/sup 3/He to nu /sub mu /+/sup 3/H has been measured at PSI using a modular high pressure ionization chamber. The rate corresponding to statistical hyperfine population of the mu /sup 3/He atom is (1496.0+or-4.0) s/sup -1/. This result confirms the PCAC prediction for the pseudoscalar form factors of the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H system and the nucleon. (21 References).

P. Ackerbauer, J. Werner, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, S. Fussy, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, J. Marton, A. Scrinzi, J. Zmeskal, J. Bistirlich, K. M. Crowe, J. Kurck, C. Petitjean, R. H. Sherman, H. Bossy, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, W. Neumann, G. Schmidt, and MP. Faifman, "Experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed dt fusion at cryogenic temperatures," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A652, no. 4, pp. 311--38, 1999.

Abstract:An experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) in gaseous, liquid and solid mixtures of deuterium and tritium was performed. The target conditions included the range of densities of 0.03[left angle bracket]or approximately= phi [left angle bracket]or approximately=1.5, tritium concentrations of 2%[left angle bracket]or approximately=c/sub t/[left angle bracket]or approximately=90% and temperatures of 13[left angle bracket]or approximately=T[left angle bracket]or approximately=40K. The study was based on the analysis of observed cycling rates extracted from the measured time distributions of the fusion neutrons. For the first time, the density dependence of the rates lambda /sub (dt mu )d//sup 0/ for the dt mu molecule formation in collisions of t mu atoms in the lower (F=0) hyperfine state with D/sub 2/ molecules was determined experimentally. Evidence for the proposed effects of below-threshold resonances on molecular formation was found. Measurements at low temperatures in mixtures of different molecular compositions revealed a clear predominance of the lambda /sub (dt mu )d//sup 0/ formation rate. The probability q/sub 1s/ for d mu atoms to reach the ground state was determined as a function of density and tritium concentration. (66 References).

J. Ackermann and J. Shertzer, "Finite-element calculations for the three-body Coulomb problem with two equal masses," *Phys. Rev. A*, vol. 54, pp. 365-371, 1996.

Abstract:An accurate numerical finite-element method (FEM) solution of the three-body Coulomb problem with two equal masses is presented. The application of the FEM to systems with mass ratios ranging from 1836 to 1/1836 yields upper bounds for energy eigenvalues to a precision in the range of 10(-11)-10(- 9) a.u. Expectation values for different operators are computed and discussed.

J. Ackermann, "Global and local properties of the S states of the dt mu molecular ion: A finite-element study," *Physical Review A*, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 4201--3, 1998.

Abstract:An accurate finite-element method (FEM) is applied to solve the three-dimensional Schrodinger equation for the S states of the dt mu molecular ion. Using an adaptive refinement of the grid and higher-order polynomials the energy eigenvalues are obtained with a relative precision better than 10/sup -11/. The deviation from the virial theorem, the two-body cusp ratios, and the expectation values [left angle bracket]1/r[right angle bracket],[left angle bracket]r[right angle bracket],[left angle bracket]r/sup 2/[right angle bracket],[left angle bracket] delta (r)[right angle bracket] for the three interparticle distances are computed and discussed. The FEM values turn out to be comparable to results obtained with sophisticated global basis sets. Special local refinement techniques are applied to study the expectation values for the Dirac delta functions. New benchmark values for these local properties are presented. . (35 References).

H. Adachi and T. Mukoyama, "Electronic structures of muonic atoms and molecules," *Journal de Physique, Colloque*, vol. 48, no. C-9vol1, pp. 733-6, 1987.

Abstract:Electronic structures of muonic atoms and molecules have been calculated for various muonic states. The system of the muon and electrons is treated self-consistently. The Hartree-Fock-Slater method is used for atoms and the discrete-variational X alpha method is applied for molecules. The obtained energy eigenvalues and charge distributions of electrons are compared with those of atoms and molecules with Z=1, where Z is the atomic number. (3 References).

M. Adam, G. Bardin, B. Coadou, J. Duclos, A. Godin, P. Leconte, A. Magnon, J. Martino, M. Maurier, A. Mougeot, and D. Roux, "An ultra-pure, deuterium-free liquid hydrogen target," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods*, vol. 177, no. 2-3, pp. 305--8, 1980.

Abstract:In order to measure the muon capture rate by the proton, a 7.7 l target of ultra-pure hydrogen was built in Saclay. The target is filled with deuterium-free hydrogen (protium). The required level of Z[left angle bracket]1 impurities is 10/sup -8/. This is obtained by properly evacuating the target during one week and running the protium through a hot silver-palladium cell. (4 References).

J. Jr Adam and E. Truhlik, "Axial meson exchange current effects in deuterium in the current algebra approximation," *Czechoslovak Journal of Physics*, vol. B33, no. 5, pp. 558--67, 1983.

Abstract:The axial meson exchange current effects are studied in reactions of muon capture in deuterium and deuterium disintegration by the reactor antineutrinos. The exchange current operator is constructed using the weak production amplitude of the pion in the current algebra approximation. The results are compared with the hard pion method. (14 References).

J. Jr Adam, E. Truhlik, S. Ciechanowicz, and K-M. Schmitt, "Muon capture in deuterium and the meson exchange current effect," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A507, no. 3-4, pp. 675--97, 1990.

Abstract:The one-meson exchange current effect in the reaction mu /sup -/+d to 2n+ nu /sub mu / is calculated by using the weak axial current operator which satisfies the nuclear continuity equation up to the order 1/M/sup 2/ (M is the nucleon mass). In the vector part of the weak nuclear interaction the vector-isovector pion exchange currents are also included. Their contribution is found to be non-negligible. The nuclear wave functions are generated from the Paris, Reid soft-core and Bonn potential models. The authors' result is compatible with the previous one, obtained with only the static axial exchange currents included. (58 References).

A. Adamczak, V. S. Melezhik, and LI. Menshikov, "Electron screening in low energy scattering of muonic hydrogen on hydrogen atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules & Clusters*, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 153--60, 1986.

Abstract:Electron screening corrections to the cross sections for low energy scattering of muonic hydrogen on hydrogen atoms are calculated. It is shown that the presence of the electron influences considerably the elastic cross sections at collision energies below 1 eV. This influence is relatively small for the spin-flip and isotopic exchange processes. (17 References).

A. Adamczak and VS. Melezhik, "Low energy scattering of muonic hydrogen on hydrogen molecules," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 181--4, 1986.

Abstract:The influence of electron screening and the formation of muonic molecules on low energy scattering of muonic hydrogen on molecules of hydrogen isotopes is estimated. Cross sections for these processes at collision energies epsilon [right angle bracket]or approximately=0.04 eV are calculated. (14 References).

A. Adamczak and VS. Melezhik, "Influence of electron-screening and molecular binding on cross sections for scattering on muonic hydrogen," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 2, no. 1-4, pp. 131--6, 1988.

Abstract:The effects of electron screening in the cross sections for the scattering of muonic hydrogen on hydrogen atoms and molecules are considered. The cross sections for muonic hydrogen scattering on nuclei of hydrogen isotopes are used as input. The influence of molecular binding on molecular cross sections in the range of collision energies 0-0.25 eV is discussed. The results for molecules consisting of various isotopes of hydrogen are presented. (14 References).

A. Adamczak and VS. Melezhik, "Atlas of cross sections for scattering. II. p mu +H/sub 2/, d mu +D/sub 2/ and t mu +T/sub 2/," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 303--39, 1989.

Abstract:For pt.I see ibid., vol.4, p.31 (1989). The tables and figures of low energy elastic and spin-flip cross sections for the scattering processes p mu +H/sub 2/, d mu +D/sub 2/ and t mu +T/sub 2/ are presented. The respective nuclear cross sections of the processes p mu +p, d mu +d and t mu +t, obtained in the framework of the adiabatic method, have been used as input data. The muonic hydrogen interaction with the nuclei of the molecules is described in terms of the spin-dependent pseudopotentials. Molecular binding, electron screening and spin effects are taken into account. (11 References).

A. Adamczak, "Spin correlations and rovibrational transitions in muonic hydrogen scattering on hydrogen molecules," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 31--47, 1989.

Abstract:The method of calculation of the cross sections for scattering of muonic hydrogen on gaseous hydrogen which takes into account the electron screening, spin correlations and rovibrational transitions is presented. Numerical results are given for d mu scattering on ortho- and para-deuterium molecules within the collision energy range 0-0.5 eV. For energies above roughly 0.5 eV the electronic and molecular effects are negligible and the calculated cross sections coincide practically with the respective doubled cross sections for d mu scattering on deuterium nucleus. The formulae derived are expected to be applicable to liquid hydrogen at collision energies above the energy 0.007 eV which corresponds to the Debye temperature for hydrogen. (14 References).

A. Adamczak and VS. Melezhik, "Cross sections of processes p mu +H/sub 2/, d mu +D/sub 2/ and t mu +T/sub 2/," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 65--72, 1990.

Abstract:The low energy elastic and spin-flip cross sections for scattering of muonic hydrogen atoms on symmetric hydrogen molecules are presented. The calculations are based on previous results for the respective nuclear cross sections: p mu +p, d mu +d and t mu +t. The spin-dependent pseudopotentials and the first Born approximation have been used in order to estimate the molecular and spin effects. The electron screening corrections to the molecular cross sections are taken into account. (20 References).

A. Adamczak, V. I. Korobov, and VS. Melezhik, "Atlas of cross sections for muonic hydrogen scattering on hydrogen molecules. IV," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 309--65, 1992.

Abstract:The tables and figures of low energy elastic total cross sections for the scattering of muonic hydrogen on hydrogen molecules are presented. Different combinations of three hydrogen isotopes are considered. The results for the symmetric case, where all the nuclei are identical, have been published in the second part of the atlas. The respective nuclear cross sections, obtained in the framework of the adiabatic method, are used as input data. The muonic hydrogen interaction with the nuclei of hydrogen molecules is described in terms of the Fermi pseudo-potential method. Molecular binding and electron screening effects are taken into account. (15 References).

A. Adamczak, C. Chiccoli, V. I. Korobov, V. S. Melezhik, P. Pasini, L. I. Ponomarev, and J. Wozniak, "Muon transfer rates in hydrogen isotope mesic atom collisions," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 285, no. 4, pp. 319--24, 1992.

Abstract:The results of multi-level adiabatic calculations for the muon transfer rates in mesic atom ground states are presented for all hydrogen isotopes. The influence of the molecular structure and electron shell of hydrogen molecules on the processes has been taken into consideration. A comparison with previous theoretical data and experiments is reported. (26 References).

A. Adamczak, "Differential cross sections for muonic hydrogen scattering on hydrogen molecules," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 91--8, 1993.

Abstract:The results of first calculations of the differential cross sections for muonic hydrogen scattering on hydrogen molecules are presented. They are functions of the initial and final kinetic energy of the system and the scattering angle. These calculations are based on the respective set of cross sections for muonic hydrogen scattering on hydrogen nuclei, obtained within the framework of the adiabatic method. The Fermi pseudopotential method is used to estimate the molecular binding effects. The influence of electrons on the cross sections under consideration is described in terms of the effective screening potential. Rotational and vibrational transitions are taken into account. The calculated molecular differential cross sections show a strong angular dependence. This effect is very significant for the electronic contributions to the cross sections, e.g. for collision energies above approximately 0.1 eV only the cross sections of small scattering angles are influenced considerably by the screening. Since these differential cross sections give detailed information about the final energies and complicated angular distributions of the scattered muonic atoms they are the proper basis for calculations concerning the deceleration of muonic hydrogen atoms in molecular hydrogen targets and for Monte Carlo simulations of different experiments in muonic physics. (24 References).

A. Adamczak, V. I. Korobov, and VS. Melezhik, "Spin-flip cross sections in muonic hydrogen scattering on hydrogen molecules," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 96, no. 3-4, pp. 277--87, 1995.

Abstract:The results of calculations of the total cross sections of spin-flip processes in low energy muonic hydrogen scattering on hydrogen molecules are presented. These calculations are based on the respective set of cross sections for muonic hydrogen scattering on hydrogen nuclei, obtained within the framework of the multichannel adiabatic method. All combinations of the three hydrogen isotopes are considered. Molecular binding effects are described in terms of the Fermi pseudopotential method. Electron screening effects are calculated in the distorted wave Born approximation. Rotational and vibrational transitions of the molecules, due to collisions with muonic hydrogen atoms, are taken into account. The molecular and electron screening corrections do not exceed a few tens per cent for lowest collision energies. (19 References).

A. Adamczak, M. P. Faifman, L. I. Ponomarev, V. I. Korobov, V. S. Melezhik, R. T. Siegel, and J. Wozniak, "Atlas of cross sections for scattering of muonic hydrogen atoms on hydrogen isotope molecules," *Atomic Data & Nuclear Data Tables*, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 255--344, 1996.

Abstract:The total cross sections of the elastic, spin-flip, and charge-exchange processes for the scattering of muonic hydrogen isotope atoms (p mu , d mu , t mu ) in the ground state on hydrogen isotope molecules (H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/, HD, HT, DT) are calculated. The scattering cross sections of muonic hydrogen isotope atoms on hydrogen isotope nuclei obtained earlier in the multichannel adiabatic approach are used in the calculations. Molecular effects (electron screening, rotational and vibrational excitations of target molecules, etc.) are taken into account. The spin effects of the target molecules and of the incident muonic atoms are included. The cross sections are averaged over the Boltzmann distribution of the molecule rotational states and the Maxwellian distribution of the target molecule kinetic energies for temperatures 30, 100, 300, and 1000 K. The cross sections are given for kinetic energies of the incident muonic atoms ranging from 0.001 to 100 eV in the laboratory frame. (45 References).

A. Adamczak, "Thermalization of muonic hydrogen in hydrogen targets," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 113-24, 1996.

Abstract:The thermalization of H mu atoms in protium and D mu atoms in deuterium is considered. Monte Carlo calculations are performed for gaseous (300 K) and solid (3 K) protium and deuterium targets. Complete sets of the total and differential cross sections for the scattering of H mu on protium targets and D mu on deuterium targets are used as an input to the Monte Carlo simulations. At 300 K, muonic atom scattering from single molecules of H/sub 2/ and D/sub 2/ is considered. In the case of solid hydrogen the correlation effects from all molecules of the sample are taken into account. In particular, the Bragg and phonon scattering cross sections are calculated. The spin states and average energy of the muonic atoms are shown as functions of time. It is shown that at energies below about 0.01 eV the solidstate effects influence strongly the calculated cross sections, and therefore the deceleration processes in the solids are much slower than in the gaseous targets. It is shown that the neutron spectrum due to DD mu formation and subsequent DD fusion is significantly affected by slow D mu thermalization in solid deuterium. (33 References).

A. Adamczak, "Cross Sections Data File", 1997.

A. Adamczak, "Deceleration of muonic hydrogen atoms in solid hydrogens," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, no. 1-4, pp. 23--33, 1999.

Abstract:Results of recent calculations of cross-sections for muonic hydrogen atom scattering in solid hydrogen isotope targets are presented. The coherent parts of these cross-sections, namely, the elastic Bragg scattering and phonon coherent scattering, are calculated accurately for the first time. A fine structure of Bragg peaks is obtained in the case of Bravais FCC structure of hydrogen targets frozen rapidly at 3 K. The one-phonon coherent cross-section is estimated using the Debye approximation. The calculated differential cross-sections are used for Monte Carlo simulations of muonic atom diffusion and slowing down in solid hydrogens. Also is calculated the energy-dependent rate of resonant dd mu molecule formation in 3 K solid deuterium quantum crystal, using the Debye model and van Hove's formalism of the response function. This rate is very different from that obtained for the 3 K gas model. The influence of d mu atom slowing down on the average dd mu formation rate is considered. It is shown that very slow d mu deceleration below 10 meV is important for explanation of experimental results. (27 References).

A. Adamczak, "Muonic molecule formation in condensed deuterium," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 343--50, 2001.

Abstract:Resonant formation of the muonic molecule dd mu in d mu atom scattering in condensed deuterium is considered. In particular, dd mu formation in D/sub 2/ solid targets containing different ortho-D/sub 2/ concentration is discussed, and the respective time spectra of the dd fusion products are shown. The results of the first calculation of the resonant dd mu formation rate in liquid deuterium are presented. At large momentum transfers the dd mu formation rate takes the Doppler form, similar to that obtained for a dilute gas target. A condition of validity of this approximation is also discussed. (23 References).

A. Adamczak and MP. Faifman, "Resonant dd mu formation in condensed deuterium," *Physical Review A*, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 052705/1-14, 2001.

Abstract:The rate of dd mu muonic-molecule resonant formation in d mu atom collisions with a condensed deuterium target is expressed in terms of a single-particle response function. In particular, dd mu formation in solid deuterium at low pressures is considered. Numerical calculations of the rate in the case of fcc polycrystalline deuterium at 3 K have been performed using the isotropic Debye model of a solid. It is shown that the energy-dependent dd mu formation rates in the solid differ strongly from those obtained for D/sub 2/ gaseous targets, even at high d mu kinetic energies. Monte Carlo neutron spectra from dd fusion in dd mu molecules have been obtained for solid targets with different concentrations of orthodeuterium and paradeuterium. The recent experimental results performed in low-pressure solid targets (statistical mixture of ortho-D/sub 2/ and para-D/sub 2/) are explained by the presence of strong recoil-less resonance peaks in the vicinity of 2 meV and very slow deceleration of d mu atoms below 10 meV. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental spectra is achieved when a broadening of D/sub 2/ rotational and vibrational levels in solid deuterium is taken into account. It has been shown that resonant dd mu formation with simultaneous phonon creation in the solid gives only about 10% contribution to the fusion neutron yield. The neutron time spectra calculated for pure ortho-D/sub 2/ and para-D/sub 2/ targets are very similar. A practically constant value of the mean dd mu formation rate, observed for different experimental conditions, is ascribed to the fact that all the recent measurements have been performed at temperatures T[left angle bracket]or approximately=19 K, much lower than the target Debye temperature Theta /sub D/ approximately=110 K. In result, the formation rate, obtained in the limit T/ Theta /sub D/[left angle bracket][left angle bracket]1, depends weakly on the temperature. (44 References).

A. Adamczak, D. Bakalov, K. Bakalova, E. Polacco, and C. Rizzo, "On the use of a H-2-O-2 gas target in muonic hydrogen atom hyperfine splitting experiments," *Hyperfine Interact.*, vol. 136, pp. 1-7, 2001.

Abstract:We propose a substantial improvement of the experimental method for the measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the ground state of muonic hydrogen described in earlier papers [1,2]. By further developing the idea to use the diffusion of the muon hydrogen atoms as a signature of laser-induced hyperfine transitions, we suggest a technique based on the energy dependence of the rate of muon transfer to oxygen in the thermal region, and demonstrate its efficiency and significant practical advantages.

A. Adamczak, D. Bakalov, K. Bakalova, E. Polacco, and C. Rizzo, "On the use of a H/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gas target in muonic hydrogen atom hyperfine splitting experiments," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 136, no. 1-2, pp. 1--7, 2001.

Abstract:We propose a substantial improvement of the experimental method for the measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the ground state of muonic hydrogen. By further developing the idea to use the diffusion of the muon hydrogen atoms as a signature of laser-induced hyperfine transitions, we suggest a technique based on the energy dependence of the rate of muon transfer to oxygen in the thermal region, and demonstrate its efficiency and significant practical advantages. (11 References).

M. N. Adamov and AV. Filinskii, "Application of modified adiabatic approximation to pp mu , dd mu , and tt mu mesomolecules," *Optika i Spektroskopiya*, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 351--4, 1982.

Abstract:It is shown that the application to homonuclear mesomolecules of the modified adiabatic approximation (MAA) with the coefficient of adiabaticity independent of the slow subsystem coordinates yields results that are considerably more accurate than those obtained when the ordinary adiabatic approximation (OAA) is used. One can, therefore, attempt to use the MAA for calculation by expanding the desired wave function on the basis of modified two-center functions. (11 References).

M. N. Adamov and AV. Filinskii, "Adiabatic coefficients and condition at the particle collision point," *Optika i Spektroskopiya*, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1116--18, 1983.

Abstract:In the adiabatic approximation, the motions of the molecules are separated, and a foundation is laid for a theory of molecular spectra. When the electron is replaced by a muon, however, this approximation becomes too crude. To take the deviations from an adiabatic situation into account in the modified adiabatic approximation requires carrying out a laborious variational procedure. The authors propose a calculation method which avoids that procedure. (6 References).

M. N. Adamov, YuN Demkov, and AV. Filinskii, "Variational calculation of the ground state energy of three-particle systems on the exponential basis," *Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta, Fizika i Khimiya, *, vol. 4, no. , pp. 73-6, 1983.

Abstract:The ground state energy of three-particle mesomolecules and exotic atoms is calculated on the purely exponential basis. The results obtained are lower than the results of much more accurate variational calculations. (11 References).

M. N. Adamov and AV. Filinski, "Half-integer powers of parametric coordinates in three-particle variational wave functions," *Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta, Fizika i Khimiya, *, vol. 3, no. , pp. 68-70, 1984.

Abstract:A new trial function for three-particle systems with Coulomb interaction is suggested. The calculated energies of ground- and first excited S-states of molecules and positronium ion are more accurate, than the results of the best variational treatments. (6 References).

B. Addison-Jones, P. W. Percival, J-C Brodovitch, Ji Feng, D. Sharma, and S. Wlodek, "Detection of an alpha -Muonium-substituted methyl radical," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 87, no. 1-4, pp. 847--51, 1994.

Abstract:Reported here is the first observation of an alpha -Muonium-substituted methyl radical. The key to the success of this experiment was the use of a more stable precursor, trimethylsilyldiazomethane, in lieu of the prototypical diazomethane, The radical, .CHMuSi(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/ was observed by TF- mu SR, with A/sub mu /=187.6(2) MHz. This result is compared to literature values for the proton analogue and the isotope effect is discussed. (9 References).

B. Addison-Jones, P. W. Percival, J. C. Brodovitch, and F. Ji, "Temperature dependence of the muon and proton hyperfine constants of an alpha -muonium-substituted methyl radical," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 106, no. 1-4, pp. 143--9, 1997.

Abstract:Muon hyperfine constants A/sub mu / have been measured by transverse field mu SR for (CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiCHMu in hexane from 167 K to 332 K. In addition, avoided level-crossing resonance was used to determine alpha -proton coupling constants A/sub p/ over a similar range of temperatures. The two hyperfine constants can be described by a common temperature dependence, d|A/sub i/|/dT=1.4*10/sup -3/ MHz K/sup -1/, where A/sub i/ represents A/sub p/ or the reduced muon constant A/sub mu /'=0.3141 A/sub mu /. There is a small isotope effect (A/sub mu /' is 2.2% larger than A/sub p/) consistent with zero-point motion in the anharmonic C-H bond stretch. The common temperature dependence is tentatively attributed to a coupled deviation of the C-H and C-Mu bonds out of the nodal plane of the p orbital containing the unpaired electron. (12 References).

E. G. Adelberger and others, *Nuclear Instruments and Methods*, vol. 179, 1981.

S. L. Adler, R. F. Dashen, and SB. Treiman, "Comments on proposed explanations for the muonic-atom X-ray discrepancy," *Physical Review D*, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 3728--35, 1974.

Abstract:Shows that if the apparent muonic-atom X-ray discrepancy is due to a nonperturbative decrease in the vacuum polarization spectral function, then the vertex coupling of a time-like photon to an electron-positron pair must be reduced, thus lowering the pi /sup o/ Dalitz decay and leading to observable effects in e/sup +/e/sup -/ to e/sup +/e/sup -/ and e/sup +/e/sup -/ to mu /sup +or-/ mu /sup -or+/ processes. The other explanation, involving the existence of a weakly coupled light scalar isoscalar boson phi is shown to be inconsistent with the electron-neutron and electron-deuteron data for M/sub phi /[left angle bracket]or approximately=0.6 MeV. Discusses the role of isotope effects and pionic-atom experiments in determining the structure of the additional repulsive potential implied by the discrepancy. (26 References).

SL. Adler, "Some simple vacuum-polarization phenomenology: e/sup +/e/sup -/ to hadrons; the muonic-atom X-ray discrepancy and g/sub mu /-2," *Physical Review D*, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 3714--28, 1974.

Abstract:Uses dispersion relations to connect the timelike and spacelike regions of the renormalized hadronic polarization tensor and its derivative. Shows that sigma (e/sup +/e/sup -/ to hadrons), flat between t=25 and t=81 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, disagrees with the precocious asymptotic scaling in the colour triplet model for hadrons. Studies two explanations for the observed muonic-atom X-ray discrepancy; shows that the reduction of the asymptotic electronic vacuum polarization together with the monotonic rise of its spectral function leads to a decrease of the muon-magnetic-moment anomaly, while the existence of a weakly coupled scalar boson implies a very small increase. Both explanations predict a reduction of order 0.027 eV in the 2p/sub 1/2/-2s/sub 1/2/ transition energy in (/sup 4/He/sub 1/ mu )/sup +/. (36 References).

B. P. Ad'yasevich and others, "Study of the Reactions $^2$H $( \vecd , p )^3$ and $^2$H $( \vecd , n )^3$He with a polarized deuteron beam. Extrapolation of the Cross Sections to the Low--Energy region," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 33, pp. 1167--1172, 1981.

E. I. Afanasieva, I. V. Balabin, and VE. Markushin, "Software for solving the problem of kinetics of muon catalysed fusion," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 477--80, 1991.

Abstract:The software GENKIN, developed for treating kinetics problems within a Markov chain approach, includes graphical interfaces for editing the system graph and analysis of the results, and a new code for the solution of the system of ordinary differential equations. Experimental data analysis by means of least chi-squared fitting is possible. (4 References).

L. G. Afanasyev, A. S. Chvyrov, O. E. Gorchakov, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Karpukhin, A. V. Kolomyichenko, V. I. Komarov, V. V. Kruglov, A. V. Kuptsov, L. L. Nemenov, M. V. Nikitin, ZhP Pustylnik, A. V. Kulikov, S. V. Trusov, V. V. Yazkov, G. G. Mkrtchyan, and AP. Kurov, "Observation of atoms consisting of pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ mesons," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 308, no. 1-2, pp. 200--6, 1993.

Abstract:In the experiment 272+or-49 atoms consisting of pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ mesons were observed. The atoms were produced in a Ta target by 70 GeV protons and pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ mesons were detected from the atom break-up in the same target. (12 References).

L. G. Afanasyev, A. S. Chvyrov, O. E. Gorchakov, V. V. Karpukhin, A. V. Kolomyichenko, V. I. Komarov, V. V. Kruglov, A. V. Kuptsov, L. L. Nemenov, M. V. Nikitin, ZhP Pustylnika, A. V. Kulikov, S. V. Trusov, and VV. Yazkov, "Experimental estimation of the lifetime of atoms formed by mesons," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 338, no. 4, pp. 478--82, 1994.

Abstract:Based on observation (L.G. Afanasyev et al., Phys. Lett. B 308 (1993) 200) of 272+or-49 atoms formed by pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ an estimation of the atom lifetime in the ground (1S) state is obtained: tau /sub 1/=(2.9/sub -2.1//sup + infinity /).10/sup -15/ s or tau 1[right angle bracket]0.6.10/sup -15/ s at 90% confidence level. Atoms were produced in inclusive pTa interactions at 70 GeV. (18 References).

I. Ahmad and SK. Singh, "The ( alpha -d) cluster model of /sup 6/Li and muon capture," *Pramana-Journal of Physics*, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 249--54, 1982.

Abstract:The ( alpha -d) cluster model with parameters determined from electron scattering and pion photoproduction processes is used to calculate the muon capture rate in /sup 6/Li. The result is found to be better than the results calculated in other models and is in agreement with the experimental data. (39 References).

S. Ahmad, O. Hausser, J. A. MacDonald, B. H. Olaniyi, A. Olin, G. A. Beer, G. R. Mason, and SN. Kaplan, "Muon-induced fission in /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U," *Canadian Journal of Physics*, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 665--70, 1986.

Abstract:Muon-induced prompt and delayed fission yields in /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U have been measured. A coincidence with the muonic uranium K/sub a/ X-rays was used to identify the muon stop in the target. The experimental absolute fission yields per muon stop were 0.142+or-0.023 for /sup 235/U and 0.068+or-0.013 for /sup 238/U. The disappearance rate of muons from the 1s state of muonic uranium has also been measured in the fission mode. Muon-induced fission lifetimes were 71.6+or-0.6 ns for /sup 235/U and 77.2+or-0.4 ns for /sup 238/U. No evidence for a short-lifetime fission-isomer component was found. Comparison of lifetime results with previously measured values in the electron, gamma, and neutron decay modes indicated that the systematic discrepancies could be explained by muon capture on fission fragments produced from prompt fission. (33 References).

S. Ahmad, G. Azuelos, M. Blecher, D. Bryman, R. A. Burnham, ETH Clifford, P. Depommier, M. S. Dixit, K. Gotow, C. K. Hargrove, M. Hasinoff, J. A. Macdonald, H. Mes, T. Numao, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, J. Spuller, and J. Summhammer, "Searches for muon-electron and muon-positron conversion in titanium," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 970--3, 1987.

Abstract:Searches have been performed by neutrinoless muon-electron conversion and muon-positron conversion using a time projection chamber. An upper limit on the branching ratio for the coherent reaction R( mu /sup -/+Ti to e/sup -/+Ti)[left angle bracket]4.6*10/sup -12/ (90% confidence level (CL)) relative to ordinary muon capture was obtained. For the process mu /sup -/+Ti to e/sup +/+Ca no events were observed for positron momenta p[right angle bracket]96 MeV/c leading to an upper limit on the partial branching ratio relative to ordinary muon capture Gamma /sub p[right angle bracket]96/( mu /sup -/+Ti to e/sup +/+Ca)/ Gamma ( mu /sup -/+Ti to capture)[left angle bracket]9*10/sup -12/ (90% CL). With the assumption of a giant-resonance-excitation model the integrated limit would be [left angle bracket]1.7*10/sup -10/ (90% CL). (18 References).

S. Ahmad, G. A. Beer, B. H. Olaniyi, A. Olin, S. N. Kaplan, A. Mireshghi, J. A. Macdonald, and O. Hausser, "Search for the shape-isomeric gamma decay in muonic uranium," *Canadian Journal of Physics*, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 753--5, 1987.

Abstract:A search for the gamma decay of nuclear shape isomers excited by the atomic cascade of a negative muon has been undertaken in /sup 236/U and /sup 238/U. No candidate gammas have been found with yields greater than 0.2% per stopping muon. Muon capture lifetimes in /sup 235/U, /sup 236/U, and /sup 238/U are also reported. (19 References).

S. Ahmad, G. Azuelos, M. Blecher, D. A. Bryman, R. A. Burnham, ETH Clifford, P. Depommier, M. S. Dixit, K. Gotow, C. K. Hargrove, M. Hasinoff, M. Leitch, J. A. Macdonald, H. Mes, I. Navon, T. Numao, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, P. Schlatter, J. Spuller, and J. Summhammer, "Search for muon-electron and muon-positron conversion," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, *, pp. 836-41, 1988.

Abstract:Limits on the lepton flavor violating reactions mu /sup -/+Z to e/sup -/+Z and mu /sup -/+Z to e/sup +/+(Z-2), muon-electron and muon-positron conversion, have been obtained. Upper limits (90% CL) for the branching ratios compared to ordinary muon capture are: R/sub -/(Ti)[left angle bracket]4.6*10/sup -12/, R/sub +/(Ti)[left angle bracket]1.7*10/sup -10/ and R/sub -/(Pb)[left angle bracket]4.9*10/sup -10/. (3 References).

S. Ahmad, G. Azuelos, M. Blecher, D. A. Bryman, R. A. Burnham, ETH Clifford, P. Depommier, M. S. Dixit, K. Gotow, C. K. Hargrove, M. Hasinoff, M. Leitch, J. A. Macdonald, H. Mes, I. Navon, T. Numao, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, P. Schlatter, J. Spuller, and J. Summhammer, "Search for muon-electron and muon-positron conversion," *Physical Review D*, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 2102--20, 1988.

Abstract:Limits on the lepton-flavor-violating reactions mu /sup -/+Z to e/sup -/+Z and mu /sup -/+Z to e/sup +/+(Z-2), muon-electron and muon-positron conversion, have been obtained from a search performed at TRIUMF using a time-projection chamber. Upper limits (90% CL) for the branching ratios compared to ordinary muon capture for a titanium target are R/sub -/(Ti)= Gamma ( mu /sup -/Ti to e/sup -/Ti)/ Gamma ( mu /sup -/Ti capture)[left angle bracket]4.6*10/sup -12/ and R/sub +/(Ti)= Gamma ( mu /sup -/Ti to e/sup +/Ca*)/ Gamma ( mu /sup -/Ti capture)[left angle bracket]1.7*10/sup -10/. A smaller data set obtained using a lead target yielded R/sub -/(Pb)[left angle bracket]4.9*10/sup -10/. The implications of these results for extensions of the standard model which allow lepton-flavor violation are discussed. (63 References).

G. Aissing and HJ. Monkhorst, "Relativistic corrections to binding energies of muonic molecules," *Physical Review A*, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 3789--94, 1990.

Abstract:"First-order perturbation theory has been applied to calculate the relativistic corrections to the binding energies and the hyperfine splittings of muonic hydrogen molecular ions xy mu (x

G. Aissing, H. J. Monkhorst, and YuV. Petrov, "Simple analytical expressions for mesomolecular matrix elements," *Physical Review A*, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 6894--6, 1990.

Abstract:The numerical values of dipole matrix elements related to the formation of dt mu mesomolecules obtained using a simple asymptotic wave function are compared to more precise ones calculated from a nearly exact wave function. The agreement is acceptable, which suggests that quantities involved in mesomolecular processes may now be estimated using simple analytical formulas. (6 References).

F. Ajzenberg--Selove, "Energy levels of light nuclei A=5--10," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 490, pp. 1--225, 1988.

Y. Akaishi, M. Kamimura, and H. Narumi, "Muonic three-body problem and muon-catalyzed fusion," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atomic Nuclei)*, vol. 328, no. 1, pp. 115--17, 1987.

Abstract:Recently, the muonic three-body system dt mu has aroused considerable attention in relation to the realization of muon-catalyzed fusion. This bound system must be solved for up to 6 digits in energy to establish the muon catalyzed fusion process. The authors applied the ATMS method and the coupled-channel method to the Coulomb three-body system and obtained detailed information on the energy levels and wave functions of the bound states. Further they investigated the effect of the nuclear interaction on the fusion rate in bound states and developed a formalism to calculate the muon sticking to /sup 4/He. They report the results obtained in collaborations. (11 References).

Y. Akaishi, "Muonic three-body problem and muon-catalyzed fusion," in *Report of the Joint Seminar on Heavy-Ion Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Chemistry in the Energy Region of Tandem Accelerators (III) (JAERI-M 88-100)*, (Y. Sugiyama, A. Iwamoto, and S. Baba, eds.), (Ibaraki, Japan), pp. 61--2, Japan Atomic Energy Res. Inst., 1988.

Abstract:"The fusion rate in dt mu is proportional to the probability that d and t comes closer to the range of the nuclear interaction passing through the Coulomb barrier. The d-t nuclear interaction has a near-threshold nuclear resonance, which strongly couples with the dt mu molecular states, and makes the probability about 200 times larger than that of Coulomb interaction only. The fusion rate from the (J=0

EKh. Akhmedov, "On the suppression of the induced pseudoscalar formfactor during radiative and nonradiative muon capture by atomic nuclei," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 144--18, 1981.

Abstract:It is shown that in a nuclear material, the induced pseudoscalar formfactor must be suppressed in comparison to the vacuum value, and that this may be observed in experiments on radiative mu -capture by medium and heavy nuclei. (15 References).

EKh Akhmedov, T. V. Tetereva, and RA. Eramzhyan, "Influence of renormalization of weak nucleon form factors on radiative muon capture by nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 67--77, 1985.

Abstract:The effects of meson exchange currents are taken into account for the first time consistently in radiative muon capture (RMC) by complex nuclei. Photon spectra and ratios of the photon spectra and the RMC rate to the rate of ordinary muon capture (OMC) by the nucleus /sup 40/Ca are calculated. It is shown that the most reliable information on the renormalization of the induced pseudoscalar form factor in nuclei can be obtained in the study of partial transitions in RMC. (27 References).

V. R. Akylas and P. Vogel, "Muonic atomic cascade program," *Computer Physics Communications*, vol. 15, no. 3-4, pp. 291--302, 1978.

Abstract:Using the multipole radiative and Auger transition rates and an initial distribution of angular momentum of the negative muon, the population of the final states and the intensities of the resulting muonic X-rays are calculated in a systematic way and a catalogue of X-ray intensities is printed. (12 References).

D. Alba, H. Crater, and L. Lusanna, "The semiclassical relativistic Darwin potential for spinning particles in the rest-frame instant form: Two-body bound states with spin 1/2 constituents," *Int. J. Mod. Phys. A*, vol. 16, pp. 3365-3477, 2001.

Abstract:We extend previous results on the extraction of the Darwin potential to all orders in c(-2) from the radiation gauge Lienard-Wiechert solution for the system of N positives energy scalar particles plus the electromagnetic field in the Wigner- covariant rest-frame instant form of dynamics to the case of IV positive-energy spinning particles. This is done in the semiclassical approximation of using Grassmann-valued electric charges for regularizing the Coulomb self-energies and extracting the unique semiclassical action-at-a,distance interaction hidden in any Green function used for the LienardWiechert solution. By describing semiclassically also the spin of the particles with Grassmann variables, by means of a semiclassical Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation applied the the Dirac-like constraints of the manifestly Lorentz covariant spinning particles, we determine the coupling of positive- energy spinning particles to the electric field in the semiclassical approximation. Then we follow the same procedure developed for scalar particles and, in the sector where there is no in-radiation, we determine the effective semiclassical interparticle potential. Besides the relativistic Darwin term there are spinorbit and spin-spin terms in the potential. Quantization of the lowest order (in c(-2)) part of the closed form of the effective Hamiltonian in the case N = 2 reproduces exactly the standard result of the reduction of the Bethe- Salpeter equation for the bound states of two spin 1/2 constituents of arbitrary mass (hydrogen atom, positronium, muonium).

M. Alberg, E. M. Henley, and L. Wilets, "Kaonic atoms and nuclear density distributions," *Comments on Nuclear & Particle Physics*, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1--5, 1972.

Abstract:Kaon capture normally occurs through the exothermic reaction K/sup -/+N to Y+ pi . Whereas pion absorption is in first approximation proportional to p/sup 2/ and is weak in the nuclear periphery, kaon absorption is proportional to the density and is relatively strong in the periphery. Since kaonic orbits are primarily circular, absorption is expected to occur in the fringe by grazing orbits. Implications for the study of neutron and proton distributions are discussed. (11 References).

M. Alberg, E. M. Henley, and L. Wilets, "K/sup -/-nucleus optical potential," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 255--7, 1973.

Abstract:A nonlocal, energy-dependent, K/sup -/-nucleus optical potential is derived by means of the independent pair approximation and a t-matrix method. Strong coupling of the K/sup -/-proton pair to the Y/sub 0/* is taken into account. The effects of nonlocality and off-energy-shell behavior of the t matrix are found to be appreciable. Approximately equivalent local potentials are defined; they all differ significantly from the shape of the nuclear density in the surface region. Shifts and widths of levels in several light kaonic atoms are calculated and found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment. (6 References).

M. Alberg, E. M. Henley, and L. Wilets, "Theory of kaonic atoms," *Annals of Physics*, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 43--87, 1976.

Abstract:A nonlocal energy-dependent self-consistent kaon-nucleus optical potential is derived for kaonic atoms. Energy level shifts and widths are calculated for several light nuclei, and the results are compared with experiment. The sensitivity of the results to changes in parameters of the nuclear matter distribution is studied. Nonlocality and off-energy-shell effects are examined. (43 References).

W. M. Alberico, M. Ericson, and A. Molinari, "The role of two particle-two hole excitations in the spin-isospin nuclear response," *Annals of Physics*, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 356--95, 1984.

Abstract:The authors investigate the role of the 2p-2h states in the spin-isospin nuclear response function. This is done in the frame of a microscopic approach which includes the meson exchange currents and in nucleon-nucleon correlations. They first test the theory on the transverse response in the inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering, where they achieve a satisfactory agreement with the data for values of the momentum transfer ranging from 1 to 2 fm/sup -1/. They next explore the p-wave pion-nucleus absorptive optical potential. They find that a strong ( approximately 3) Lorentz-Lorenz-Ericson-Ericson quenching factor is needed to reproduce in the framework the phenomenological optical potential deduced from pi -mesic atom data. They also examine the real photon absorption cross section accounting rather satisfactorily for its behaviour, in particular for the Pauli blocking at small frequencies. Finally, they elucidate the conditions for the existence of a connection between the magnetic photon absorption and the p-wave pion absorption in nuclei. (26 References).

S. Albeverio, F. Gesztesy, R. Hoegh-Krohn, and L. Streit, "Charged particles with short range interactions," *Annales de L'Institut Henri Poincare, Section a (Physique Theorique)*, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 263-93, 1983.

Abstract:Schrodinger Hamiltonians for charged particles with an additional force of very short range studied by scaling techniques and with a view towards low energy parameters. The authors present results for the zero range limit. In particular they give the leading terms for the S-matrix as the range parameter becomes small. As applications they compare the scattering lengths of charged particles and of their neutral counterparts and discuss the level shifts of mesic atoms. (47 References).

S. Albeverio and R. Hoegh-Krohn, "Schrodinger operators with point interactions and short range expansions," *Physica A*, vol. 124A, no. 1-3, pp. 11--27, 1984.

Abstract:Gives a survey of recent results concerning Schrodinger operators with point interactions in R/sup 3/. In the case where the point interactions are located at a discrete set of points the authors discuss results about the resolvent, the spectrum, the resonances and the scattering quantities. They also discuss the approximation of point interactions by short range local potentials (short range or low energy expansions) and the one electron model of a 3-dimensional crystal. Moreover they discuss Schrodinger operators with Coulomb plus point interactions, with applications to the determination of scattering lengths and of level shifts in mesic atoms. Further applications to the multiple well problem, to multiparticle systems, to crystals with random impurities, to polymers and quantum fields are also briefly discussed. (53 References).

Y. Alexander, A. Gal, V. B. Mandelzweig, and E. Friedman, "Finite-range effects in pionic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A356, no. 2, pp. 307--16, 1981.

Abstract:Pionic atom data are refitted in terms of conventional pi /sup -/ nuclear optical potentials, modified to allow for finite range in the underlying p-wave pi N interaction. The authors find that level shifts and widths in light and medium-weight nuclei cannot distinguish between the various ranges tested. In heavy nuclei and for reasonable choices of neutron radii, the data tend to exclude ranges of order 0.5 fm and larger. (23 References).

S. A. Alexander, H. J. Monkhorst, and K. Szalewicz, "A comparison of muonic molecular calculations," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, no.181, 1988, pp.246-58*, pp. 246-58, 1988.

Abstract:"For the muonic molecular ions xy mu (x

S. A. Alexander and HJ. Monkhorst, "High-accuracy calculation of muonic molecules using random-tempered basis sets," *Physical Review A*, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 26--32, 1988.

Abstract:"The authors use random-tempering formulas and explicitly correlated Slater-type geminals to calculate the S and P bound-state energies of the muonic molecules xy mu , where x

S. A. Alexander and HJ. Monkhorst, "On the accuracy of muonic molecular ion calculations," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 22, no. 20, pp. L581-4, 1989.

Abstract:The binding energies of the highly diffuse td mu (11) and dd mu (11) ions can be calculated to an accuracy of 1 mu eV or better using only a moderate number of basis functions. The authors describe how such calculations should be performed. (13 References).

S. A. Alexander, P. Froelich, and HJ. Monkhorst, "Nuclear fusion rates of muonic molecular ions," *Physical Review A*, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 2854--7, 1990.

Abstract:"Using basis sets of random-tempered Slater-type geminals, the authors have calculated the nuclear fusion rates for the J=0, 1 bound states of the mesomolecular ions xy mu (x

E. B. Alexandrov and others, "Double resonance atomic magnetometers: from gas discharge to laser pumping," *Laser {P}hysics*, vol. 6, 1996.

I. A. Alimova, G. S. Anufriev, B. S. Boltenkov, N. N. Efremov, V. I. Ignatie, YuV Petrov, and NA. Yakovleva, "Hydrogen purification from helium by intermetallic compounds for the muon-catalyzed reactor," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, no. 1-4, pp. 607--11, 1988.

Abstract:In a muon-catalyzed fusion reactor the D-T mixture must be purified from the helium accumulated. The purification problem was solved by the use of intermetallic compounds. The helium content was analysed by a high resolution, high sensitivity magnetic resonance mass-spectrometer. The investigations show that the He content in the gas purified is about 10/sup -7/, the purification time being about 0.5 hour. (8 References).

W. W. M. Allison, "Calculations of energy loss and multiple scattering (ELMS) in molecular hydrogen," *J. Phys. G-Nucl. Part. Phys.*, vol. 29, pp. 1701-1703, 2003.

Abstract:To show that the principle of ionization cooling will work for muon beams we must be able to simulate energy loss and scattering in media reliably. We have three choices: we can use traditional calculations with their uncertainties; we can make measurements (MUSCAT) or, we can calculate the phenomena more carefully, looking afresh at the phenomena from first principles. In this paper we report on work following this third approach. We derive the double differential cross section for a collision with transverse momentum transfer P-t and longitudinal momentum transfer P-l from a knowledge of the UV and x-ray photoabsorption cross section of the medium, together with the known kinematics and dynamics of the scattering of point charges with screening. Distributions in energy loss and scattering may then be found by Monte Carlo techniques which take into account both correlations in scattering and energy loss, and the true effects of non-Gaussian tails in distributions of interest. Preliminary results are reported for molecular hydrogen. Further work is in progress.

A. N. Almaliev and IS. Batkin, "Two-photon decay of the 2s-state of a heavy muonic atom," *Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Fizicheskaya*, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1024--8, 1983.

M. A. Almeida, A. Lopez-Castillo, and T. J. Stuchi, "Non-integrability proof of the frozen planetary atom configuration," *J. Phys. A-Math. Gen.*, vol. 36, pp. 4805-4814, 2003.

Abstract:We give a computer-aided proof of the non-integrability of an important collinear configuration of the three-body problem in atomic physics. We consider the configuration of helium-like atoms where two electrons are on the same side of the atom. Numerical evidence shows that this configuration for helium atom has a Poincare section that is hardly distinguishable from an integrable system. We extend the model for several helium- like atoms with different values of Z and also consider the case where a heavier particle takes the place of an electron, such as the-muon.

B. Alper, A. N. Anderson, A. Bertin, V. R. Bom, M. Bruschi, J. D. Davies, G. H. Eaton, Eijk CWE van, JBA England, Haan H. de, S. E. Jones, J. Metcalf, M. A. Paciotti, M. Piccinini, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, A. Vitale, and A. Zoccoli, "Sources of error in the RAL sticking factor," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 297--302, 1990.

Abstract:The statistical uncertainty in the sticking factor, measured in low density D/sub 2/T/sub 2/ gas mixtures, is of the order of 1.5% absolute, using the data obtained at RAL up to date. Major systematic error components are caused by fluctuations of the background level. Improvements are indicated to increase the signal to background ratio, bringing within reach a sticking factor with a 15% relative error. (2 References).

G. Altarelli and L. Baulieu, "Muon number nonconserving processes in models with doubly charged leptons," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 463-6, 1977.

Abstract:The very good limit on the anomalous muon capture in copper which is R/sub Cu/[left angle bracket]1.6*10/sup -8/, gives the most restrictive constraint on muon number violation in models with doubly charged leptons. In these models muon number violation arises through the mixing of doubly charged massive leptons coupled to the electron and the muon. The mu e gamma effective vertex in these models is discussed and the muon capture ratio R/sub Cu/ as well as the bounds on mu to 3e and mu to e gamma are evaluated. (10 References).

A. Altman and Z. Fried, "Comment on mesic-atom Auger-rate calculation," *Physical Review A*, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 455--8, 1983.

Abstract:Auger rates for a mesic atom consisting of a lithium nucleus and two electrons are presented. It is shown that the results are sensitive to the screening of the initial and final state of the ejected electron by the spectator electron. These results are compared to transition rates one would obtain by following the procedure used by Burbridge and de Borde (1953), which neglect screening of one electron by the others. The authors' results show a 40% reduction in transition rates. (9 References).

L. W. Alvarez and others, "Catalysis of Nuclear Reactions by µ Mesons," *Physical Review*, vol. 105, pp. 1127--1128, 1957.

R. D. Amado, F. Lenz, and K. Yazaki, "Impulse approximation in the peripheral region," *Physical Review C-Nuclear Physics*, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1918--31, 1978.

Abstract:The authors show that the peripheral part of the elastic impulse approximation can be expressed entirely in terms of on-shell information. The impulse approximation is given in terms of an integral over the on-shell elementary amplitude. The authors find the range of energies required in that amplitude for the peripheral part and discuss the closure approximation to this integral. (8 References).

H. Ami, M. Kobayashi, H. Ohtsubo, and M. Morita, "Longitudinal polarization of /sup 12/B in muon capture reaction," *Progress of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 632--48, 1981.

Abstract:A general formula is given for the longitudinal polarization of the recoil nucleus in polarized muon capture in a spin zero nucleus. The longitudinal polarization of the recoil /sup 12/B is studied numerically in the reaction /sup 12/C+ mu /sup -/ to /sup 12/B+ nu /sub mu /. Contributions from excited states play an important role in determining the induced pseudoscalar and induced tensor form factors. Existing experimental data on the longitudinal polarization and average polarization are consistent with the assumption of time reversal invariance. (24 References).

W. B. Amian, P. Cloth, A. Djaloeis, D. Filges, D. Gotta, K. Killian, H. Machner, H. P. Morsch, D. Protic, G. Riepe, E. Roderburg, Rossen P. von, P. Turek, K. H. Warzlawik, L. Jarczyk, J. Smyrski, A. Stralkowski, A. Budzanowski, H. Dabrowski, I. Skwirczynska, H. Plendl, and J. Konijn, "Experimental investigation of low-lying states of pionic atoms," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, *, pp. 232-7, 1991.

Abstract:The authors plan to study pionic atoms in low-lying states. The pions will be produced with the help of recoil free kinematics at small energies in the laboratory. A dedicated detector will be applied allowing the measurement of the width as well as the energy shift of these states. (4 References).

MYa Amusia, MJu Kuchiev, and VL. Yakhontov, "Computation of the hyperfine structure in the ( alpha - mu /sup -/ e/sup -/)/sup 0/ atom," *Journal of Physics B (Atomic & Molecular Physics)*, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. L71-5, 1983.

Abstract:Computation of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of neutral muonic helium ( alpha - mu /sup -/ e/sup -/)/sup 0/ has been carried out. Account of two terms in the expansion of this quantity in power series of a small parameter beta approximately m/sub e//m/sub mu / approximately 1/200 results in the energy splitting value Delta v=4462.9 MHz. It is in good agreement with the experimental datum, Delta v=4464.95 (6) MHz, of Orth et al. (1980). The authors' value is also to be compared with previous theoretical results: Delta v=4462.6 MHz (Lakdawala and Mohr, 1980); Delta v=4465+or-1.0 MHz, Delta v=4478.7 MHz (Huang and Hughes, 1980); Delta v=4493.3 MHz (Borie, 1979). (6 References).

MYa Amusia and VL. Yakhontov, "Quadrupole moment in the excited 2P/sub 1/2/ state," *Journal of Physics B (Atomic & Molecular Physics)*, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. L203-5, 1984.

Abstract:Computation of the quadrupole moment values in the 2P/sub 1/2/ states of hydrogen and meso-hydrogen is carried out. It is shown that allowance for the hyperfine interaction of the electron ( mu /sup -/ meson) with the proton in the first order of perturbation theory results in giant values of the quadrupole moment of the atoms: Q/sub H/=4.0*10/sup -19/ cm/sup 2/, Q/sub M/=3.3*10/sup -21/ cm/sup 2/. (3 References).

MYa Amusia and AV. Solov'yov, "Inelastic scattering on muonic hydrogen," *Journal of Physics B (Atomic & Molecular Physics)*, vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 3663--6, 1985.

Abstract:Calculations of bremsstrahlung (BS) spectra for electron (positron) scattering on muonic hydrogen (H/sub mu /) are presented taking into account the H/sub mu / virtual excitations. (4 References).

MYa. Amusia, "The quadrupole moment of atoms with total spin j=1/2," *Comments on Atomic & Molecular Physics*, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 261--73, 1987.

Abstract:The quadrupole moment of atoms with total angular momentum of their electron shells j=1/2 is discussed. It is shown that the hyperfine interaction between electrons and nonzero nuclear spin leads to considerable values of the atomic quadrupole moment Q/sup A/ far exceeding the corresponding nuclear values. Particularly large is Q/sup A/ for an open shell electron configuration np/sub 1/2/. It is demonstrated that the quadrupole nuclear field may be strongly amplified by the np/sub 1/2/ open shell. The quadrupole moments of mesic and exotic atoms are discussed. Some observable manifestations of this characteristic are considered. (15 References).

MYa Amusia, MJu Kuchiev, and VL. Yakhontov, "High-accuracy calculation of the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of the (/sup 4/He/sup ++/- mu /sup -/e/sup -/)/sup 0/ and (/sup 3/He/sup ++/- mu /sup -/e/sup -/)/sup 0/ atoms," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, no. 1-4, pp. 351--5, 1988.

Abstract:The results of the hyperfine splitting (HFS) calculations in the ground state of the muonic helium isotopes are presented. The HFS values, is found, are in good agreement with experimental data and at present are the best theoretical values of this quantity. (15 References).

MYa Amusia, G. F. Gribakin, V. A. Kharchenko, A. V. Korol, and AV. Solov'yov, "Light particle scattering by mesic hydrogen," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 2, no. 1-4, pp. 143--8, 1988.

Abstract:The cross sections of elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons and positrons by mesic hydrogen atom (H/sub mu /) in the ground and excited state are calculated analytically. The dynamical polarization of H/sub mu / by the projectile is shown to play a dominant role in the most of the process in question. (5 References).

MYa. Amusia, "Quasi-three body problem: scattering and binding of a light particle by two heavy particles," *Comments on Atomic & Molecular Physics*, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 115--36, 1992.

Abstract:The three body problem dramatically simplifies in the case when one of the interacting particles is light, while two others are heavy. A new small parameter-the light to heavy particles mass ratio-permits one to expand all characteristics of the process into a series in this parameter, neglecting all but one or two first nonvanishing terms in the expansion. As a concrete example, the scattering of an electron from a H/sub mu / (muonic hydrogen) atom and the hyperfine structure of e mu alpha (e-an electron, alpha -particle) atom are calculated, the latter in very good agreement with experimental data. The formulae derived may be easily applied to a number of other systems. (24 References).

MYa Amus'ya, G. F. Gribakin, and AV. Korol', "Electron scattering by mesic hydrogen in the 2s state," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fizika*, vol. 11, no. 23-24, pp. 1529--33, 1985.

Abstract:The authors have shown, for the first time, that the cross section for the scattering of slow electrons ( approximately 1 eV) by the long-lived 2s excited state of H mu is orders of magnitude larger than the cross section for scattering by the ground state. This difference is attributed to the large amplitude for the dipole transition of H mu (2s) to the close-lying 2p state (E/sub 2p/-E/sub 2s/ identical to Delta approximately=0.18 eV) in the field of the incident electron. This amplitude determines the cross section for inelastic scattering accompanied by excitation, H mu (2s) to H mu (2p), and the cross section for elastic scattering, in which this excitation is virtual. (5 References).

MYa Amus'ys, MYu Kuchiev, and VL. Yakhontov, "Relativistic correction to hyperfine splitting in (/sup 3,4/He/sup ++/- mu /sup -/e/sup -/)/sup 0/ atoms," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 877--8, 1988.

Abstract:The relativistic correction delta /sub mass/ to hyperfine splitting in the ground state of the isotopes of neutral mu -helium has been calculated for the first time and it has been shown that this correction gives the best agreement at present between the theoretical values Delta nu /sub F/=4464.8 MHz (/sup 4/He), Delta nu /sub F/=4166.7 MHz (/sup 3/He) and the experimental results. The correction delta /sub mass/ appears when the two-photon exchange between an electron and a negative muon is determined by means of Feynman diagrams. (8 References).

D. F. Anagnostopoulos, M. Augsburger, G. Borchert, D. Chatellard, M. Daum, J-P Egger, D. Gotta, P. Hauser, P. Indelicato, E. Jeannet, K. Kirch, N. Nelms, OWB Schult, T. Siems, L. M. Simons, and A. Wells, "Precision determination of pion mass using X-ray CCD spectroscopy," in *SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. Proceedings of Spie - the International Society for Optical Engineering*, pp. 32-8, 1998.

Abstract:An experiment is described which aims to determine the pion mass to 1 ppm or better, from which a new determination of the upper limit of the muon neutrino mass is anticipated. The approach utilizes spectroscopy of X-ray emissions from pionic atoms formed in gaseous targets. The spectroscopy is performed with a Bragg crystal spectrometer, with an energy resolution of ~300 meV, using an array of X-ray CCDs mounted at the focus to measure the spectral line structure of the 4 keV pionic nitrogen transition. To achieve sub-ppm accuracy, an energy calibration a muonic oxygen transition is used. It is known with a precision of 0.3 ppm and almost coincides in energy with the pionic transition. (17 References).

D. F. Anagnostopoulos, S. Biri, V. Boisbourdain, M. Demeter, G. Borchert, J. P. Egger, H. Fuhrmann, D. Gotta, A. Gruber, M. Hennebach, P. Indelicato, Y. W. Liu, B. Manil, V. E. Markushin, H. Marton, N. Nelms, A. J. R. El Hassani, L. M. Simons, L. Stingelin, A. Wasser, A. Wells, and J. Zmeskal, "Highly charged ions in exotic atoms research at PSI," *Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B-Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms*, vol. 205, pp. 9-14, 2003.

Abstract:During their de-excitation, exotic atoms formed in low pressure gases reach a state of high or even complete ionization. X-rays emitted from higher n-states of electron-free atoms have well defined energies with the error originating only from the error in the mass values of the constituent particles. They served as a basis for a new determination of the pion mass as well as for a high precision measurement of the picnic hydrogen ground state shift. The response function of the Bragg spectrometer has been determined with X-rays from completely ionized pionic carbon and with a dedicated electron cyclotron resonance ion trap (ECRIT). A further extension of the ECRIT method implemented in the experiment allows a direct calibration of exotic atom transitions as well as a precise determination of the energy of fluorescence lines. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

D. F. Anagnostopoulos, D. Gotta, P. Indelicato, and LM. Simons, "Low-energy X-ray standards from hydrogenlike pionic atoms," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 91, no. 24, 2003.

Abstract:We demonstrate the first step of a complete program, which consists in establishing an x-ray energy standard scale with the use of few-body atoms, in the few keV range. Light pionic and muonic atoms as well as one and two-electron ions from electron-cyclotron ion sources are used. The transition energies are calculable from quantum-electrodynamics, meaning that only a very limited subset need be measured and compared with theory, while providing a large number of standard lines. Here we show that circular transitions in pionic neon atoms, completely stripped from their electrons, reveal spectral lines which are narrow, symmetric, and well reproducible. We use these lines for the energy determination of transition energies in complex electronic systems, like the K alpha /sub 1,2/ transitions in metallic Ti, which may serve as secondary standard. (25 References).

A. Anastassov, Y. P. Gangrsky, B. K. Kul'djanov, K. P. Marinova, B. N. Markov, and SG. Zemlyanoi, "Isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting in HfI. Changes in nuclear charge radii of stable isotopes and /sup 182/Hf," *Zeitschrift fur Physik A-Hadrons & Nuclei*, vol. 348, no. 3, pp. 177--81, 1994.

Abstract:Isotope shifts and hyperfine structures in three optical transitions of HfI are investigated. Magnetic dipole coupling constant A and electric quadrupole coupling constant B of four atomic levels for both stable odd-even isotopes /sup 177/Hf and /sup 179/Hf are determined. Nuclear charge radii changes delta (r/sup 2/) of the stable Hf isotopes and /sup 182/Hf (T/sub 1/2/=9*10/sup 6/ y) are extracted using the standard semiempirical procedure. Strong deviation from muonic atom data on delta (r/sup 2/) is observed. The course of the delta (r/sup 2/) dependence on mass number indicates changes in nuclear deformation at A=174 and influence of higher order deformations on nuclear shape in this region. (27 References).

A. Anastassov, YuP Gangrsky, K. P. Marinova, B. N. Markov, and SG. Zemlyanoi, "Optical isotope shifts and changes in nuclear charge radii of stable Ti isotopes," *Zeitschrift fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules & Clusters*, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 275--8, 1994.

Abstract:Isotope shifts and hyperfine structures in three optical transitions of TiI have been investigated by using laser induced resonance fluorescence in a collimated atomic beam. From the isotope shifts data, changes of the mean square charge radii of the stable titanium isotopes have been determined for the first time. Using a combined analysis with muonic atom data on root mean square nuclear charge radii, improved model independent (r/sup 2/)/sup 1/2 / values for the odd-even Ti isotopes have been obtained. (11 References).

H. Anderhub, F. Kottmann, H. Hofer, P. LeCoultre, D. Makowiecki, O. Pitzurra, B. Sapp, P. G. Seiler, P. Schrager, M. Walchli, and P. Wolff, "Formation of the lightest muonic atoms in low density gases," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 60B, no. 3, pp. 273--5, 1976.

Abstract:A novel technique devised to produce light muonic atoms efficiently in low pressure gases (10 to 600 torr at 300 K) has been successfully implemented in helium. Muons produced by in-flight decay of 40 MeV/c pions are trapped in a magnetic bottle filled with the low density gas. The high-yield formation of muonic atoms is demonstrated by detecting the characteristic X-rays as well as the mu -decay electrons. (0 References).

H. Anderhub, H. Hofer, F. Kottmann, P. LeCoultre, D. Makowiecki, O. Pitzurra, B. Sapp, P. G. Seiler, M. Walchli, D. Taqqu, P. Truttmann, A. Zehnder, and Ch. Tschalar, "Search for the metastable 2s state in muonic hydrogen," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 71B, no. 2, pp. 443--5, 1977.

Abstract:Results of an experiment to search for the metastable 2s state in muonic hydrogen at 150 and 600 Torr are presented. About 6% of all mu p formed go to the 2s state. Most of these ( mu p)/sub 2s/ decay in less than 100 nsec; assuming a calculated lifetime of 2 mu sec at 150 Torr (0.5 mu sec at 600 Torr) for the long-lived fraction f of all 2s states, f is found to be less than 4% (16%) with 90% confidence level. (8 References).

H. Anderhub, J. Bocklin, P. LeCoultre, F. Dittus, R. Ferreira, H. Hofer, F. Kottmann, O. Pitzurra, P. G. Seiler, D. Taqqu, M. Walchli, and Ch. Tschalar, "Formation of muonic hydrogen at extremely low gas pressure," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 12, no. , pp. 32-3, 1979.

H. Anderhub, J. Bocklin, M. Devereux, F. Dittus, Marques R. Ferreira, H. Hofer, H. Hofer, F. Kottmann, O. Pitzurra, P. G. Sieler, D. Taqqu, C. Tschalar, J. Unternahrer, and M. Walchli, "Formation of muonic hydrogen at 1/4 Torr," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 13, no. , pp. 22-3, 1980.

Abstract:Muonic hydrogen has been produced at 1, 1/2 and 1/4 Torr H/sub 2/ pressure using the magnetic bottle technique. At these very low pressures the slowing down time T of negative muons from kinetic energies around 2000 eV until atomic capture could be measured. (4 References).

H. Anderhub, J. Bocklin, M. Devereux, F. Dittus, Marques R. Ferreira, H. Hofer, H. K. Hofer, F. Kottmann, O. Pitzurra, P-G Seiler, D. Taqqu, J. Unternahrer, M. Walchli, and Ch. Tschalar, "Slowing-down of negative muons and formation of muonic hydrogen in hydrogen gas below 1 Torr," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 101B, no. 3, pp. 151--4, 1981.

Abstract:Muonic hydrogen atoms were produced at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 Torr H/sub 2/ gas pressure using the magnetic bottle technique. The energy-time correlation of the muonic K-X-rays was determined. The moderation time tau /sub m/ of the muon needed for the last stage of energy loss (from approximately=2 keV until atomic capture) was measured and is compared with predictions. (16 References).

H. Anderhub, Arb HP von, J. Bocklin, F. Dittus, R. Ferreira-Marques, H. Hofer, F. Kottmann, D. Taqqu, Ch Tschalar, and J. Unternahrer, "K-line intensities and 2S-quenching processes in muonic hydrogen at low gas pressures," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 15, no. , pp. 53-4, 1983.

Abstract:The formation of muonic hydrogen in the metastable 2S-state is essential to perform the proposed measurement of the 2S-2P energy difference in the mu p atom by laser spectroscopy. Earlier measurements proved that the mu p/sub 2S/ lifetime at 150 and 600 Torr is too short for a resonance experiment to be performed. The authors summarize the results of measurements of the muonic K-line intensity ratios and of the search for long lived 2S-states. (8 References).

H. Anderhub, Arb HP von, J. Bocklin, F. Dittus, Marques R. Ferreira, H. Hofer, F. Kottmann, D. Taqqu, and J. Unternahrer, "Measurement of the K-line intensity ratios in muonic hydrogen between 0.25 and 150 torr gas pressures," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 143B, no. 1-3, pp. 65--8, 1984.

Abstract:Precise measurements of the K X-ray energy spectrum of muonic hydrogen ( mu /sup -/p) were made at H/sub 2/ gas pressures between 0.25 and 150 torr (T=300K). The measured intensity ratios I(K/sub alpha /)/I(K/sub tot/) and I(K/sub beta /)/I(K/sub gamma delta / . /sub ./ /sub ./) are compared with the results of new cascade calculations. The pressure dependence of the relative ( mu p)/sub 2S/ population was investigated. Its value is (4.24+or-0.14)% at 10 torr and (2.21+or-0.22)% at 0.25 torr. (20 References).

O. Andersen, A. S. Jensen, A. Miranda, and GC. Oades, "Energy shifts and widths of kaonic atoms," *Physical Review C*, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. R1906-8, 1990.

Abstract:Microscopic calculations of the energy shifts and widths of kaonic atoms are carried out using a low-energy kaon-nucleon T matrix which is parametrized by a single Yukawa function. The Lambda (1405) resonance is not included explicitly but only via its influence on the T matrix at threshold. The experimental values for the shifts and widths are approximately reproduced using a range of 0.66 fm for both the real and imaginary parts of the T matrix although the use of different ranges for the two parts may result in an improvement of the fit. Medium corrections are negligibly small. (11 References).

H. L. Anderson, C. K. Hargrove, E. P. Hincks, J. D. McAndrew, R. J. McKee, and D. Kessler, "Muonic X-rays in Pb/sup 206/ and possible observation of nuclear polarization," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 221--4, 1969.

Abstract:Muonic X-rays in Pb /sup 206/ were measured with high precision and in addition two of the weak transitions involving the 2s state were identified and measured for the first time. The new constraints make it difficult to fit the data with Dirac energies calculated for a finite nucleus and corrected for radiative effects. Consistency can, however, be achieved by depressing the calculated 1s energy by 6.8*2.3 keV, an effect tentatively interpreted as due to polarization of the nucleus by the muon. (12 References).

D. K. Anderson, D. A. Jenkins, and RJ. Powers, "2p to 1s pionic transition," *Physical Review A*, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 9--16, 1969.

Abstract:In an attempt to get better agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed energies and widths of 2p to 1s pion-atomic transitions, the authors have numerically integrated the Klein-Gordon equation assuming the optical model for the strong interaction potential. The interaction is characterized by six s-wave and four p-wave parameters. Using the available data from B/sup 10/ to Mg/sup 24/, a least-squares fit of the s-wave parameters is performed. Agreement is found between the observed shifts and their predictions, and the real parts of the s-wave parameters agree well with those predicted by Ericson and Ericson. However, the predicted widths vary as much as 50% from the observed widths and very poor agreement is found between the imaginary s-wave parameters and Ericson and Ericson's predictions.

HL. Anderson, "Vacuum polarization in muonic atoms," in *Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on high-energy physics and nuclear structure*, (S. Devons, ed.), (New York, NY, USA), pp. 640-6, 1970.

Abstract:Points out that the precision in measuring muonic X-ray lines is now becoming high enough to provide a significant test of the vacuum polarization effects in muon physics not only in the lowest but also in higher orders.

AN. Anderson, "Muon catalyzed fusion data analysis," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, pp. 68-74, 1984.

Abstract:In initial investigations of muon-catalyzed fusion in high-density deuterium-tritium mixtures, the authors have demonstrated that the resonant dt mu -molecular formation rates were 3 orders of magnitude larger than muon decay rates. They also measure for the first time the alpha -sticking fraction (muon retention by the fusion alpha -product). They conclude that the alpha -sticking fraction, not the dt mu -molecular formation rate, was the principal limiting factor to muon-catalyzed fusion. They now measure effects of tt mu -fusion, permitting an important correction to the earlier determination of the alpha -sticking probability. Furthermore, new results show that the alpha -sticking fraction decreases significantly with increasing d-t gas density and tritium concentration. (0 References).

AN. Anderson, "Investigation of Q/sub 1s/," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, *, pp. 57-67, 1988.

Abstract:The probability Q/sub 1s/ of a muon reaching the ground state of a d mu atom before transferring to a triton is an important parameter in the muon-catalyzed fusion cycle. It has proved very difficult to extract from experimental data because it varies strongly with both tritium concentration C/sub t/, and density phi , and is combined with several other parameters in the steady-state neutron production (cycling) rate, lambda /sub c/. At C/sub t/=.7, tau /sub c/ is relatively insensitive to Q/sub 1s/, so that one can set reasonably good limits on tau /sub dt mu -d//sup 0/ by assuming Qos is monotonic decreasing, that is, by limiting Q/sub 1s/(.7) to the interval 0[left angle bracket]or=Q/sub 1s/(.7)[left angle bracket]or=Q/sub 1s/(.4). Applying these two limits in turn generates two equations, which can be solved to eliminate tau /sub dt mu -d//sup 0/, leaving only linear expressions relating Q/sub 1s/ tau /sub dt/ and tau /sub 10/. (5 References).

J. Anderson, M. Atac, S. Cihangir, N. Erduran, and S. Kartal, "Lifetime of cosmic ray muons," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 291-3, 2000.

Abstract:The experiment is designed to teach the techniques to measure the muon lifetime to an accuracy of 1-2%. The decay rate of cosmic ray muons is studied by detecting those muons that stop in a liquid scintillation counter and measuring the time between the signal from the stopping muon and the signal from the decay electron emitted in the muon decay. Because of lepton number conservation there are two other particles emitted in the decay: mu /sup +or-/ to e/sup +or-/ nu /sub mu / nu /sub e/. The muons are produced in the decay of pions produced by primary cosmic rays (protons and heavier nuclei) high in the atmosphere. From accelerator experiments, the charged pion lifetime is about 0.026 microseconds so that the pions decay high in the atmosphere and the fact that we see muons at sea level is dramatic proof of time dilation for relativistic particles. For simplicity, we ignore the decay rate difference between positive and negative muons and the effect of negative muon capture by the scintillator material nuclei. (0 References).

K. Andert, R. Arlt, D. Chultem, V. Cojocaru, Dz Ganzorig, V. S. Evseev, B. Hahn, H. Haupt, A. I. Kalinin, T. Krogulski, N. Nenoff, H. G. Ortlepp, S. M. Polikanov, B. M. Sabirov, and U. Schmidt, "Interactions of the negative muons with fissile elements," in *Proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Physics*, (Boer J. de and HJ. Mang, eds.), 1973.

Abstract:The X-ray spectra of the muonic transition in Pb and /sup 238/U have been measured in exactly the same geometric conditions. The X-rays have been detected by the true-coaxial Ge(Li) detector of 41 ccm volume in coincidence with the mu-capture in the target defined by the conventional method of the 1234 telescope. The inherent time resolution was 2 tau =11 nsec. (0 References).

S-I Ando and D-P. Min, "Radiative muon capture in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 417, no. 1-2, pp. 177--85, 1998.

Abstract:The radiative muon capture (RMC) on a proton is analyzed by means of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The emitted photon energy spectrum is calculated and compared with the experimental data by taking the spin sum on the muonic atom states. We find that one-loop order corrections to the tree order amplitude modify the photon spectrum by less than five percent. This calculation supports that the theory is under a quantitative control as far as the chiral perturbation expansion is concerned and indicates that the discrepancy between the pseudo-scalar coupling constant required by the RMC experiment and the one deduced from ordinary muon capture, the value of which is also supported by chiral perturbation calculations, will remain unexplained from the theoretical side. (18 References).

S. Ando and Min. Dong-Pil, "Radiative muon capture in hydrogen in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory," in *Proceeding of the APCTP-RCNP Joint International School and the 1998 YITP Workshop. Physics of Hadrons and QCD*, (H. Yabu, K. Itakura, T. Matsui, and M. Oka, eds.), pp. 287--90, 1999.

Abstract:We calculate the photon spectrum of radiative muon capture on hydrogen within heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory up to next-to-next-to leading order. We find that convergence of the chiral expansion is very rapid, and the next-to-next-to leading order correction is less than five percent. Hence the recent experimental result of radiative muon capture on hydrogen, about 1.5 times larger pseudo-scalar coupling constant than that of the PCAC prediction, cannot be explained by the higher order correction in the hadron sector. (14 References).

S. Ando, "Muon capture in CHPT," in *Proceedings from the Institute of Nuclear Theory. Chiral Dynamics Theory and Experiment III*, (A. M. Bernstein, J. L. Goity, and U-G. Meissner, eds.), pp. 392--3, 2001.

Abstract:For muon capture on a proton, we have used heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) to calculate the capture rate and neutron spin asymmetry for ordinary muon capture (OMC), and the photon spectrum and photon helicity asymmetry for radiative muon capture (RMC). Based on these results, we discuss four issues. (13 References).

S. Ando, T-S Park, K. Kubodera, and F. Myhrer, "The mu /sup -/d capture rate in effective field theory," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 533, no. 1-2, pp. 25--36, 2002.

Abstract:Muon capture on the deuteron is studied in a framework that essentially incorporates heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HB/sub chi /PT). It is found that by far the dominant contribution to mu d capture comes from a region of the final three-body phase-space in which the energy of the two neutrons is sufficiently small for HB/sub chi /PT to be applicable. The single unknown low-energy constant having been fixed from the tritium beta decay rate, our calculation contains no free parameter. Our estimate of the mu d capture rate is consistent with the existing data. The relation between gal capture and the nu d reactions, which are important for the SNO experiments, is briefly discussed. (28 References).

S. Ando, H. W. Fearing, and D. P. Min, "Polarized photons in radiative muon capture," *Phys. Rev. C*, vol. 6501, pp. art. no.-015502, 2002.

Abstract:We discuss the measurement of polarized photons arising from radiative muon capture. The spectrum of left circularly polarized photons or equivalently the circular polarization of the photons emitted in radiative muon capture on hydrogen is quite sensitive to the strength of the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant g(p). A measurement of either of these quantities, although very difficult, might be sufficient to resolve the present puzzle resulting from the disagreement between the theoretical prediction for g(p) and the results of a recent experiment. This sensitivity results from the absence of left-handed radiation from the muon line and from the fact that the leading parts of the radiation from the hadronic lines, as determined from the chiral power counting rules of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, all contain pion poles.

D. G. Andrianov, G. G. Myasishcheva, YuV Obukhov, V. S. Roganov, V. G. Firsov, and VI. Fistul', "Investigation of muonium depolarization processes in germanium single crystals," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1195--8, 1969.

Abstract:The dependence of mu /sup +/ meson polarization on temperature was studied in germanium single crystals of various degree of alloying. A precession has been observed at a frequency which corresponds to atomic muonium with a decay lifetime 0.16+or-0.07 mu sec. Possible mechanisms of interaction of muonium in media of various electron density are discussed.

D. G. Andrianov, YuV Obukhov, V. G. Firsov, and VI. Fistul', "The dimensions of the hydrogen atom in semiconducting and dielectric substances," *Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR*, vol. 201, no. 4, pp. 884--6, 1971.

Abstract:In this review paper the authors consider the modification of the properties of mesons and of lithium atoms in crystals of germanium and silicon, and suggest that hydrogen atoms and atomic muons will be modified identically. Effects on the radius of the Bohr orbit and on the energy of ultra-fine interaction between the magnetic moments of the electron and the meson are quantified, and methods of prediction are critically reviewed. Correlations, in semi-quantitative terms, are presented, between the Si-H and Ge-H bond parameters and the dimensions of the atomic muon. (15 References).

I. Angeli, "Mass number dependence of the difference (r/sub el/-r/sub mu/), a dispersion effect in electron scattering," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atomic Nuclei)*, vol. 334, no. 4, pp. 377--80, 1989.

Abstract:A systematic analysis of RMS charge radii determined by elastic electron scattering (r/sub el/) and muonic atom X-rays (r/sub mu/), respectively, shows that-on the average-the former is less than the latter. This difference is probably caused by virtual excitation and de-excitation of the nucleus: a dispersion effect. The mass number dependence of the difference is also investigated. Its absolute value decreases with increasing mass number as (r/sub el/-r/sub mu/) approximately=-12+0.03 A (am). This A-dependence is compared with the available theoretical predictions using low-q, low-Z approximations. (59 References).

I. Angeli, "Evaluation procedure for nuclear RMS charge radii," *Acta Physica Hungarica New Series-Heavy Ion Physics*, vol. 69, no. 3-4, pp. 233--47, 1991.

Abstract:Data sources are listed and an evaluation procedure is described that have been used recently to derive the best values of nuclear root-mean-square (RMS) charge radii measured by fast electron scattering and muonic atom X-rays. The evaluation procedure consists of two algorithms. The first one performs a search for discrepant data 'outliers' together with an eventual reassignment of their errors; this algorithm is active only for groups containing at least n=5 data. The second algorithm forms a weighted mean and its error for each data group; it takes into account both external and internal consistencies. An illustrative table of input data as well as a table of '1990 best values' of nuclear RMS charge radii are also included. (50 References).

I. Angeli, "Recommended values of rms charge radii," *Acta Phys. Hung. New Ser.-Heavy Ion Phys.*, vol. 8, pp. 23-39, 1998.

Abstract:Nuclear root-mean-square (rms) charge radii have been compiled, selected and evaluated using two different procedures: a refined and a simple one. Running them on the same database, the results for weighted average radii are very close to each other: 91% of the differences are within +/-1/2 error and none of them exceeds the combined error. This confirms our earlier conclusion that the results are generally more sensitive to the decision which data we include in the averaging procedure, and less sensitive to the way how the selected data are weighted to form an average. The resulting weighted averages, the "1998best-values" are presented in Table 3. It is planned that all important data and program files together with a complete bibliography, will be regularly updated and distributed on PC diskettes or on the Internet.

I. Angeli, "Comparison of the Seltzer coefficient C/sub 1/ to experimental data," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 136, no. 1-2, pp. 17--24, 2001.

Abstract:Experimental Coulomb isotope shifts delta E/sub Coul/ from K/sub alpha / transitions and radius differences delta [left angle bracket]r/sup 2/[right angle bracket]/sub e mu / measured by electron scattering and muonic atom X-rays were used to derive 'experimental' coefficients C/sub 1,exp/ for 54 isotope pairs of 18 elements from Mo to U. A chi /sup 2/-analysis shows that these experimental coefficients are - on average - 3.5% lower than the theoretical C/sub 1/ values calculated by Seltzer (1969), or more precisely: C/sub 1,exp/=0.965(+or-0.014)*C/sub 1/. The need for more accurate theoretical calculations is stressed, and consequences of this deviation are discussed. (12 References).

I. Angeli, "Barrett moments and rms charge radii," *Acta Physica Hungarica New Series-Heavy Ion Physics*, vol. 15, no. 1-2, pp. 87--102, 2002.

Abstract:An empirical relation is established between Barrett equivalent radii R/sub k, alpha / and rms charge radii [left angle bracket]r/sup 2/[right angle bracket]/sup 1/2/ based on the results of model-independent and Fermi model analyses of 2p to 1s transitions in muonic atoms. This relation follows simple Z dependence, and can be usefully applied to derive rms radii [left angle bracket]r/sup 2/[right angle bracket]/sup 1/2/ or differences delta /sup AA'/[left angle bracket]r/sup 2/[right angle bracket]/sup 1/2/ in cases where only R/sub k, alpha / data or isotope shifts delta /sup AA'/R/sub k, alpha / are published. The atomic number dependence of the Barrett parameters k(Z) and alpha (Z) is also given by empirical formulae. It is shown that the Barrett moment can be expanded in a sum of integer moments [left angle bracket]r/sup m/[right angle bracket](m[right angle bracket]or=2) using an effective exponential parameter alpha /sub eff/(Z). The moments [left angle bracket]r/sup m/[right angle bracket] and isotopic differences delta [left angle bracket]r/sup m/[right angle bracket] of the two-parameter Fermi distribution expressed in terms of the parameters c and a are given in the Appendix for m=1-10. (18 References).

F. Angelini and others, "Behaviour of microstrip gas chamber in strong magnetic field," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods A*, vol. 343, pp. 441--446, 1994.

F. Angelini and others, "A UV light photo--detector based on a microgap chamber with single electron response," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods A*, vol. 371, pp. 358--367, 1996.

R. Anigstein, B. Budick, and JW. Kast, "Neutron anomalous-moment contributions to muonic isomer shifts in /sup 207/Pb," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 44, no. 23, pp. 1484--7, 1980.

Abstract:The muonic isomer shifts of three transitions between levels of /sup 207/Pb have been measured. Evidence is found for an interaction between the anomalous magnetic moment of the neutron hole and the electric field of the 1s muon. The agreement obtained between predicted and measured values removes the necessity to postulate a more serious reaction in the proton core to changes in the state of the valence neutron than predicted by the weak coupling model. (13 References).

K. A. Aniol, D. F. Measday, M. D. Hasinoff, H. W. Roser, A. Bagheri, F. Entezami, C. Virtue, J. M. Stadlbauer, D. Horvath, M. Salomon, and BC. Robertson, "Mesic molecular effects in the capture of negative pions stopped in gaseous hydrogen isotopes," *Physical Review A*, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 2684--92, 1983.

Abstract:The influence of molecular structure on the nuclear capture probability of stopped negative pions has been observed by comparing the pi /sup 0/ gamma-ray spectrum from pi /sup -/ mesons stopped in HD gas to that from a mixture of equal amounts of H/sub 2/ plus D/sub 2/. The fraction of stopped pions that are captured by a proton in the H/sub 2/+D/sub 2/ mixture is fH/sub 2/D/sub 2/=0.417+or-0.004, while for HD it is f/sub HD/=0.338+or-0.008, independent of the gas pressure between 6 and 90 atm. The ratio, f/sub H2D2//f/sub HD/, of the fractions is 1.23+or-0.03. (34 References).

K. A. Aniol, C. Virtue, F. Entezami, D. Measday, S. E. Jones, D. Horvath, M. Salomon, J. Snith, and BC. Robertson, "A comparison of muonic molecule formation rates in HD to H/sub 2/+D/sub 2/ gases," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, pp. 187-98, 1984.

Abstract:The formation rates of muonic molecules of the hydrogen isotopes has provided a diversity of interesting experimental and theoretical results. The molecular formation rates depend upon the type of molecule, p mu d, p mu p, d mu d, d mu t, p mu t, the temperature of the gas, and the hyperfine state of the initial muonic atom. In this experiment the authors measure the influence of the host molecule HD, D/sub 2/, or H/sub 2/ on the formation rate of the d mu d or d mu p muonic molecules. (13 References).

K. A. Aniol, A. J. Noble, S. Stanislaus, C. J. Virtue, D. F. Measday, D. Horvath, S. E. Jones, B. C. Robertson, and M. Salomon, "Muon catalyzed fusion in HD and H/sub 2/+D/sub 2/ gaseous mixtures," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 2, no. 1-4, pp. 63--72, 1988.

Abstract:The authors report on the continuing program at the TRIUMF laboratory into experimental investigations of parameters of central interest in muon catalyzed fusion. The experiments have, as their first goal, a comparison of dd mu -d and dd mu -p muonic molecule formation rates. The authors present typical neutron energy deposition spectra from the liquid scintillator counters. The background in the case of pure D/sub 2/ is not significant, whereas in the case of HD the background is quite important relative to the fairly weak fusion neutron signal from HD. (5 References).

K. A. Aniol, D. J. Margaziotis, A. J. Noble, S. Stanislaus, C. J. Virtue, D. F. Measday, D. Horvath, B. C. Robertson, M. Salomon, and SE. Jones, "Progress report on muon catalyzed fusion studies in H/sub 2/+D/sub 2/ and HD gaseous targets," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings *, pp. 68-78, 1988.

Abstract:At the Gatchina Conference the authors reported results on dd mu and pd mu fusion product yields from gaseous targets of H/sub 2/+D/sub 2/ and HD. These results were so different from theoretical expectations in the case of fusion neutrons from HD and fusion gamma rays from both HD and H/sub 2/+D/sub 2/, that they felt it prudent to remeasure these processes in a new experimental arrangement. In December, 1987 they ran at TRIUMF. The authors report on that portion of the data which they have analyzed since their latest run, that is, on gamma ray yields from the muonic molecule pd mu . They compare the experimental conditions for the April 1985 (reported at Gatchina) and the December 1987 run. (9 References).

V. V. Anisimov, E. Cavalleri, F. I. Karmanov, AYu Konobeyev, L. N. Latysheva, L. I. Ponomarev, I. A. Pshenichnov, V. I. Slobodtchouk, and M. Vecchi, "mu CF based 14 MeV intense neutron source," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, no. 1-4, pp. 329--39, 1999.

Abstract:Results of a design study for an advanced scheme of a mu CF based 14 MeV intense neutron source for test material irradiation including the liquid lithium primary target and a low temperature liquid deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixture as a secondary target are presented. According to this scheme negative pions are produced inside a 150-cm-long 0.75-cm-radius lithium target. Pions and muons resulting from the pion decay in flight are collected in the backward direction and stopped in the D-T mixture. The fusion chamber has the shape of a 10-cm-radius sphere surrounded by two 0.03-cm-thickness titanium shells. Assuming 100 fusions per muon in this scheme one can produce 14-MeV neutrons with a source strength up to 10/sup 17/ n/s. A neutron flux of up to 10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2//s can be achieved in a test volume of about 2.5 1 and on the surface of about 350 cm/sup 2/. The results of the thermophysical and thermomechanical analysis show that the technological limits are not exceeded. This source has the advantage of producing the original 14 MeV fusion spectrum without tails, isotropically into a 4 pi solid angle, contrary to the d-Li stripping neutron source. (11 References).

V. V. Anisimov, E. Cavalleri, F. I. Karmanov, V. I. Slobodtchouk, L. N. Latysheva, I. A. Pshenichnov, and M. Vecchi, "A 14-MeV intense neutron source based on muon-catalyzed fusion>>MINUS. III. Thermohydraulic regime of the synthesizer," *Fusion Technology*, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 219--27, 2001.

Abstract:For pt.II see ibid., vol.39, p.209 (2001). Design calculations of thermohydraulic parameters of the secondary target of the intense neutron source (INS) based on muon-catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) (the mu CF-INS) are presented for a liquid deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixture. The synthesizer is connected to an external cooler by input and output pipelines. The optimal mixture composition, synthesizer layout, and dimensions are determined. The possibility of creating a D-T mixture flow with a quasi-uniform velocity distribution is demonstrated. Possible vortexes were found to be eliminated by installation of corresponding hydraulic resistance in the shape of a spherical shell segment. At the mu CF-INS operation with its design parameters neutron flux as high as 10/sup 14/ n/(cm/sup 2/.s), the total heat deposit in the D-T mixture due to fusion and charged-particle ionization losses its estimated at ~117 kW. However, even at such conditions, with the appropriate synthesizer geometry and mass flow rate, the mixture temperature does not exceed the boiling point in any part of the synthesizer. (14 References).

V. V. Anisimov, E. Cavalleri, F. I. Karmanov, V. I. Slobodtchouk, L. N. Latysheva, I. A. Pshenichnov, and M. Vecchi, "A 14-MeV intense neutron source based on muon-catalyzed fusion. II. Pion production target," *Fusion Technology*, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 209--18, 2001.

Abstract:For pt.I see ibid., vol.39, p.198 (2001). The possibility of using a liquid lithium primary target for the 14-MeV intense neutron source (INS) based on muon-catalyzed fusion (INS) (the mu CF-INS) is discussed. The description of the thermohydraulic and mechanical analysis that suggested the proposed geometry is presented. Particular attention is given to the thermal parameter evaluation since these quantities have a great influence on the choice of target design. According to the calculations, the lithium primary target variant can be considered for future mu CF-INS realization. (10 References).

V. V. Anisimov, V. A. Arkhangel'sky, N. S. Ganchuk, A. A. Yukhimchuk, E. Cavalleri, F. I. Karmanov, AYu Konobeyev, L. N. Latysheva, I. A. Pshenichnov, L. I. Ponomarev, and M. Vecchi, "A 14-MeV intense neutron source based on muon-catalyzed fusion. I. An advanced design," *Fusion Technology*, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 198--208, 2001.

Abstract:The results of the design study of an advanced scheme for the 14-MeV intense neutron source based on muon-catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) are presented. A pion production target (liquid lithium) and a synthesizer liquid deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixture are considered. Negative pions are produced inside a 17/7 T magnetic field by an intense (2-GeV, 12-mA) deuteron beam interacting with the 150-cm-long, 0.75-cm-radius lithium target. Muons from the pion decay are collected in the backward direction and stopped in the D-T mixture of the synthesizer. The synthesizer has the shape of a 10-cm-radius sphere surrounded by two 0.03-cm-thick titanium shells. At 100 mu CF events/muon, it can produce up to 10/sup 17/ n/s of 14-MeV neutrons. A quasi-isotropic neutron flux up to 10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2/.s/sup -1/ can be achieved in the test volume of ~2.5 l with an irradiated surface of ~350 cm/sup 2/. The thermophysical and thermomechanical analyses show that the technological limits are not exceeded. (19 References).

A. N. Antonov, V. A. Nikolaev, IZh Petkov, and PE. Hodgson, "The nucleon momentum distributions of /sup 39/K, /sup 40/Ca and /sup 48/Ca," *Bulgarian Journal of Physics*, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 590--600, 1983.

Abstract:The proton momentum distributions of /sup 39/K, /sup 40/Ca and /sup 48/Ca are calculated from model-independent charge distributions obtained from analyses of electron elastic scattering and muonic atoms, and also from charge distributions calculated from the single-particle potential method in the framework of the flucton model. The sensitivities of the momentum distribution to different regions of the charge distribution are determined. The analysis is extended to the neutron distributions using the single-particle potential method, and the differences between the proton and neutron momentum distributions are examined. The resulting momentum distribution in the case of /sup 40/Ca is used for analysing the quasielastic electron scattering. (9 References).

G. S. Anufriev and B. A. Mamyrin, "Control of helium isotope concentration in deuterium--tritium mixture of mesocatalytical reactor," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, pp. 613--618, 1988.

V. Aquilanti, S. Cavalli, G. Grossi, and A. Lagana, "Isotope effects in hydrogen and muonium exchange processes," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 18, no. 1-4, pp. 739--42, 1984.

Abstract:Muonium and hydrogen exchange in collinear I+MuI, I+HI, H+MuH and H+H/sub 2/ reactions are studied by semiclassical techniques within the hyperspherical formalism. Bound states in IMuI, as an example of bond formation on repulsive surfaces, are also considered.

V. Aquilanti, S. Cavalli, G. Grossi, and A. Lagana, "Nonadiabatic effects in the hyperspherical description of elementary chemical reactions," *Theochem-Journal of Molecular Structure*, vol. 11, no. , pp. 95-9, 1984.

Abstract:The nonadiabatic coupling matrix P, which appears in the hyperspherical formalism, has been calculated as a function of the hyperradius for the collinear chemical reactions I+MuI, I+HI, H+MuH, H+H/sub 2/, H+FH and D+FD on model potential energy surfaces. It is found that nonadiabatic effects are localized along potential ridges, and increase with the ridge steepness and with the skewing angle of the reaction. A semiclassical procedure for the treatment of nonadiabatic effects on resonances is outlined. (9 References).

J. Arafune, "Muonic heavy-atom spectrum and nuclear size effect on vacuum polarization," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 560--2, 1974.

Abstract:The discrepancy between experimental valves and theoretical predictions as exemplified by high precision measurements of muonic X-rays, is discussed in terms of a correction to the higher order vacuum polarisation due to the finite nuclear size. The author reports a 5 eV increase in the discrepancy for the 5g/sub 9/2/-4f/sub 7/2/ transition in /sup 208/Pb. (10 References).

de Saavedra F. Arias, E. Buendia, F. J. Galvez, and A. Sarsa, "Precise variational calculation of some S-states of Coulomb three-body systems with two identical particles," *European Physical Journal D*, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 181--90, 1998.

Abstract:A generalized Hylleraas basis set with two nonlinear parameters is used to study three-body systems with two equal masses interacting via Coulomb forces within the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Accurate variational bounds for the ground state of some of these systems are obtained improving the rate of convergence of the calculation with respect to an usual Hylleraas basis set. A study of the interparticle densities is also carried out. (38 References).

de Saavedra F. Arias, E. Buendia, F. J. Galvez, and A. Sarsa, "Variational calculation of some S-states of Coulomb three-body systems," *European Physical Journal D*, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 201--6, 2001.

Abstract:A generalized Hylleraas-type basis set with three nonlinear parameters is proposed to study three-body systems interacting via Coulomb forces within the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. This basis set improves the rate of convergence with respect to previous ones, specially for non-symmetric systems and excited states of two electron atoms. Accurate binding energies and other properties for S-states of helium-like ions, muonic molecules and the positronium negative ion are reported. (38 References).

A. Arima and T. Fujita, "Magnetic hyperfine structure of muonic atoms," in *International Conference on Nuclear Structure and Spectroscopy, Part II*, (H. P. Blok and AEL. Dieperink, eds.), pp. 580-98, 1974.

Abstract:The distribution of nuclear magnetization densities is a natural extension of the problem of nuclear magnetic moments. This distribution can be deduced from 180 degrees elastic electron scattering, although it is limited to light nuclei through the Of/sub 7/2/ shell and it is difficult to separate the total magnetic cross section components. A muon in a muonic atom and electrons in a normal electronic atom produce magnetic fields which interact with nuclear current. This interaction is called magnetic hyperfine interaction. The magnetic hyperfine structure which is sensitive only to the magnetic dipole field, is more suitable for the study of the magnetic dipole (M1) distribution than electron elastic scattering, although muonic atom experiments are limited to heavy atoms. These experiments have a bright future, because the new meson factories promise to extend the experiments to lighter nuclei. The problem of magnetic hyperfine structure is therefore reviewed. (18 References).

YuA Aristov, A. V. Kravtsov, N. P. Popov, G. E. Solyakin, N. F. Truskova, and MP. Faifman, "Molecular mechanism for charge exchange of hydrogen mesoatoms on helium nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 1066--74, 1981.

Abstract:A molecular charge exchange process is considered, which imitates the direct charge exchange of hydrogen mesoatoms on helium nuclei. Energy levels and production rates are calculated for the mesomolecules /sup 3/He p mu , /sup 4/He p mu , /sup 3/He d mu , /sup 4/He d mu , /sup 3/He t mu , and/sup 4/He t mu . The rate of the molecular charge exchange mechanism is lambda /sub ex/ approximately 10/sup 8/ sec/sup -1/. (23 References).

A. P. Arkhipov, V. M. Bystritskii, V. B. Granovskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. G. Zinov, V. A. Kuts, D. G. Merkulov, V. A. Stolupin, and Don Ir. Han, "Target for operation with heavy hydrogen isotopes at pressures to 1000 atm and temperatures to 1050 K," *Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta*, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 47--50, 1989.

Abstract:The authors describe a target for muon-catalyzed fusion in a mixture of D/sub 2/+T/sub 2/ at pressures to 1000 atm and temperatures to 1050 K. The use of multilayer protective coatings on the target wall, which is made of EI 698 heat-resistant alloy, reduces deuterium flow through the target wall by a factor of [right angle bracket]10/sup 2/ at maximum pressure and temperature. (8 References).

R. Arl't, Zh Ganzorig, T. Krogul'ski, KhG Ortlepp, S. M. Polikanov, B. M. Sabirov, V. D. Fromm, U. Shmidt, G. Shnefli, and R. Engfer, "Emission of displaced X-ray electron radiation during the formation of muonic U atoms," *Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki, Pis'Ma V Redaktsiyu*, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 478-90, 1993.

Abstract:The spectrum of the 14-500 keV gamma rays emitted during the interaction of negative muons and metallic /sup 238/U is investigated in the muon channel of a synchrocyclotron. The emission of displaced X-ray electron radiation is detected and possible explanations for the phenomenon are discussed. (5 References).

EAG. Armour, "Application to mu /sup +/e/sup -/e/sup +/ and p mu /sup -/e/sup +/ of a new method for taking into account the finite nuclear mass in the determination of the absence of bound states," *Journal of Physics B (Atomic & Molecular Physics)*, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1295--302, 1983.

Abstract:A recently published new method by Armour (1982) for taking into account finite nuclear mass in the determination of the absence of bound states is applied to a system made up of muonium ( mu /sup +/e/sup -/) and a positron (e/sup +/) and also to one made up of a mesic atom (p mu /sup -/) and a positron. It is shown that neither system has a bound state below the continuum. Some aspects of the method, which have only been briefly referred to hitherto, are discussed in detail. (14 References).

EAG. Armour, "Application to mu /sup +/e/sup -/e/sup +/ and p mu /sup -/e/sup +/ of a new method for taking into account finite nuclear mass in the determination of the absence of bound states," in *Electronic and Atomic Collisions. 13th International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Int. Conference on the Phys. Electron. & Atomic Collisions.*, (J. Eichler, W. Fritsch, I. V. Hertel, N. Stolterfoht, and U. Wille, eds.), 1983.

Abstract:Two distinct hydrogen-like atoms can be formed by replacing one or other of the particles in the hydrogen atom by a muon. In the first the proton is replaced by a positive muon ( mu /sup +/) to form muonium ( mu /sup +/e/sup -/). In the second the electron is replaced by a negatively charged muon ( mu /sup -/) to form a mesic atom. The presence or absence of bound states involving an atom and a positron is very important in theoretical considerations of low energy scattering of positrons by these atoms. In particular, proof of the absence of a bound state below the continuum makes possible the calculation of a variational upper bound on the scattering length. (7 References).

EAG Armour and DM. Lewis, "De-excitation of the dt mu 'nucleus' of the muonic quasi-molecule, ((dt mu )dee), by emission of an Auger electron," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. L25-31, 1990.

Abstract:A key process in muon-catalysed fusion is the de-excitation of the dt mu 'nucleus' of the resonant muonic quasi-molecule, ((dt mu )dee), by emission of an Auger electron. The dt mu in the quasi-molecule is initially in a weakly bound excited state with J=1 and v=1. A preliminary calculation is carried out of the rate of the dominant transition to the state with J=0 and v=1. Use is made of the dipole matrix elements calculated for this transition by Bhatia et al. (1989) and Scrinzi and Szalewicz (1989) and, for the first time, full account is taken of the molecular nature of the quasi-molecule. Reasonable agreement is found with the results of earlier calculations. (27 References).

EAG Armour, D. M. Lewis, and S. Hara, "Calculations of the Auger deexcitation rate of dt mu within the muonic quasimolecule (dt mu )dee," *Physical Review A*, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 6888--93, 1992.

Abstract:A key process in muon-catalyzed fusion is the deexcitation of dt mu within the resonant muonic quasimolecule (dt mu )dee, by emission of an Auger electron. The dt mu in the quasimolecule is initially in a weakly bound excited state with J=1 and v=1. Calculations are carried out of the rate of the dominant transition to the state with J=0 and v=1. Use is made of the dipole matrix element obtained for this transition by Scrinzi and Szalewicz (Phys. Rev. A39, 2855 (1989)). Full account is taken of the molecular nature of the quasimolecule. The continuum electronic wave functions for the Auger electron for all four contributing symmetries, i.e. Sigma /sub g//sup +/, Sigma /sub u//sup +/, II/sub u/ and II/sub g/, are first obtained by a two-center Coulomb calculation and a static-exchange calculation, extended to include dipole polarization. Comparison is then made with the results of a calculation in which the Sigma /sub mu //sup +/ and II/sub u/ wave functions are obtained as in a previous paper by Armour and Lewis (J. Phys. B23, L25 (1990)) and the Sigma /sub g//sup +/ and II/sub g/ wave functions are obtained by the Kohn method. There are significant differences between the contributions from the individual symmetries, but the overall values for the deexcitation rate are all of the same order of magnitude as the results of earlier calculations. (34 References).

EAG Armour, D. M. Lewis, and S. Hara, "Calculations of the Auger deexcitation rate of the dt mu within the muonic quasi-molecule, ((dt mu ) dee)," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 173--7, 1993.

Abstract:A key process in muon catalysed fusion is the deexcitation of the dt mu within the resonant muonic quasi-molecule ((dt mu )dee), by emission of an Auger electron. The dt mu in the quasi-molecule is initially in a weakly bound excited state with J=1 and v=1. In this paper, calculations taking full account of the molecular nature of the quasi-molecule are carried out of the rate of the dominant deexcitation to the state with J=0 and v=1. (10 References).

EAG Armour and MR. Harston, "The theory of muon catalysed fusion," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 478-90, 1993.

Abstract:It has been known since about 1980 that a negatively charged muon in a deuterium-tritium mixture at room temperature can catalyse more than 100 nuclear fusion reactions. The muon first of all binds a deuteron and a triton to form a muonic molecular ion, in which the two nuclei are so close together that fusion occurs very rapidly. Thereafter, the muon is usually released and is thus free to bring about further fusion reactions like a chemical catalyst. Since 1980 muon catalysed fusion has been the subject of extensive research both by experimentalists and theoreticians. The authors describe the theory of muon catalysed fusion, highlighting recent developments and indicating where further work is necessary. This involves a fascinating mixture of atomic, molecular, nuclear and particle physics. At the end of the article they comment on the possibility of using muon catalysed fusion as an energy and neutron source. (105 References).

EAG. Armour, "Formal derivation of an expression for the cross section for resonant formation of dt mu in the muon catalysed fusion cycle," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 27, no. 23, pp. L763-70, 1994.

Abstract:A key process in the muon catalysed fusion cycle is a low energy collision of t mu with a D/sub 2/ molecule which leads, at appropriate incident energies, to the formation of a resonant complex containing dd mu or dt mu . In this letter, an outline is given of a formal derivation in which elements of Feshbach's treatment of resonances and Chan and Fraser's (1973) coupled scattering approach to positronium formation in e/sup +/H scattering in the region below the first target excitation threshold are used to obtain an expression for the p-wave cross section for resonant dt mu formation. The result is similar to the Breit-Wigner formula. Full details of the calculation will be published elsewhere. (30 References).

EAG. Armour, "Alternative approach to the derivation of an expression for the cross section for resonant-formation of dt mu in the muon-catalyzed fusion cycle," *Physical Review A*, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 1982--95, 1995.

Abstract:A key process in the muon-catalyzed fusion cycle is a low-energy collision of d mu or t mu with a D/sub 2/ molecule that leads, at appropriate incident energies, to the formation of a resonant complex containing dd mu or dt mu . In this paper, a detailed description is given of a formal calculation in which elements of Feshbach's treatment of resonances and Chan and Eraser's (1973) coupled-scattering-equations approach to positronium formation in e/sup +/H scattering in the region below the first target excitation threshold are used to obtain an expression for the cross section for resonant dt mu formation. The result is similar to the Breit-Wigner formula. The relationship of this expression to the expression used in some evaluations of this cross section is discussed. (41 References).

EAG. Armour, "Formation of dt mu in muon-catalysed fusion: a resonant rearrangement process," *Natl. Res. Council Canada. Canadian Journal of Physics*, vol. 74, no. 7-8, pp. 401--6, 1996.

Abstract:A key process in the muon-catalysed fusion cycle is a low-energy collision of a t mu atom with a DA molecule, where A is H, D, or T, which leads at appropriate incident energies, to the formation of a resonant complex containing dt mu . In this paper, methods of calculating the resonant formation rate of dt mu are discussed. A description is given of a new approach that makes use of coupled equations for the rearrangement scattering process and elements of Feshbach's theory of resonances to obtain an expression for the cross section for resonant dt mu formation. The insights gained from this approach are discussed. (41 References).

EAG. Armour, "A new theoretical approach to resonant dt mu formation," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 175-8, 1996.

Abstract:A key process in the muon-catalysed fusion cycle is a low-energy collision of T mu with a D/sub 2/ molecule which leads, at appropriate incident energies, to the formation of a resonant complex containing DT mu . In this paper the result is described of a formal derivation of the partial wave cross section for resonant DT mu formation, which makes use of elements of Feshbach's treatment of resonances. The expression obtained is similar to the Breit-Wigner formula. Full details of the calculation will be published elsewhere. (15 References).

E. A. G. Armour, "Examination of a key resonant process in the muon-catalysed fusion cycle that can be treated theoretically in the same way as a chemical reaction," *J. Chem. Soc.-Faraday Trans.*, vol. 93, pp. 1011-1015, 1997.

Abstract:The muon-catalysed fusion cycle, the sequence of processes whereby a negatively charged muon in a deuterium-tritium mixture at room temperature catalyses nuclear fusion reactions, is first described. A key process in this cycle is a low-energy collision of a t mu atom with a DA molecule, where A is D, H or T, which leads at appropriate incident energies, to the formation of a resonant complex containing dt mu A description is given of methods that have been used so far to calculate, lambda(dt mu), the resonant formation rate of dt mu. A new theoretical approach involving close-coupling equations and elements of Feshbach's theory of resonances is discussed. It is shown how close-coupling methods, such as that developed by Pack and Parker to calculate the rates of chemical reactions involving three atoms, can be applied to the calculations of lambda(dt mu).

E. A. G. Armour, J. M. Carr, and V. Zeman, "Hydrogen--antihydrogen interactions at low energies," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, pp. 63--65, 1999.

EAG Armour and V. Zeman, "A treatment of the t mu +D/sub 2/ reaction by the methods of quantum reactive scattering," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, no. 1-4, pp. 239--41, 1999.

Abstract:In this article, we describe how we are applying the methods of chemically reactive scattering to the key resonant reaction in muon catalysed fusion. Preliminary results are presented for cross-sections. (16 References).

E. A. G. Armour and V. Zeman, "A treatment of the t mu+D-2 reaction by the methods of quantum reactive scattering," *Hyperfine Interact.*, vol. 118, pp. 239-241, 1999.

Abstract:In this article, we describe how we are applying the methods of chemically reactive scattering to the key resonant reaction in muon catalysed fusion. Preliminary results are presented for cross-sections.

T. A. Armstrong and others, "Total hadronic cross section of $\gamma$--rays in hydrogen in the energy range 0.265--4.215 GeV," *Physical Review D*, vol. 5, pp. 1640--1652, 1972.

D. S. Armstrong, S. Ahmad, R. A. Burnham, T. P. Gorringe, M. D. Hasinoff, A. J. Larabee, C. E. Waltham, G. Azuelos, J. A. Macdonald, J-M Poutissou, M. Blecher, D. H. Wright, ETH Clifford, J. Summhammer, P. Depommier, R. Poutissou, H. Mes, and BC. Robertson, "Radiative muon capture on oxygen and the induced pseudoscalar coupling," *Physical Review C*, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. R1100-3, 1989.

Abstract:The photon spectrum from radiative muon capture in /sup 16/O has been measured using a time projection chamber as a large acceptance pair spectrometer. The integrated partial branching ratio for photons of E/sub gamma /[right angle bracket]57 MeV, relative to the ordinary muon capture rate, is (2.2+or-0.2)*10/sup -5/. When compared to a calculation using a phenomenological nuclear response function the data indicate a value for the induced pseudoscalar coupling in /sup 16/O of g/sub p//g/sub a/=7.3+or-0.9; however, when compared to a microscopic nuclear-model calculation the value g/sub p//g/sub a/=13.6/sub -1.9//sup +1.6/ is obtained. (21 References).

D. S. Armstrong, S. Ahmad, G. Azuelos, M. Blecher, R. A. Burnham, ETH Clifford, P. Depommier, T. P. Gorringe, M. D. Hasinoff, A. J. Larabee, J. A. Macdonald, H. Mes, T. Numao, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, B. C. Robertson, J. Summhammer, C. E. Waltham, and DH. Wright, "Radiative muon capture on carbon, oxygen and calcium," in *Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei. Proceedings of the International Symposium (WEIN-89)*, (P. Depommier, ed.), pp. 637--9, 1989.

Abstract:Radiative muon capture (RMC), mu /sup -/Z to nu (Z-1) gamma , is a weak semileptonic process which is particularly sensitive to the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g/sup /sub //p, of the weak hadronic current. Using PCAC and the Goldberger-Treiman relation, one can obtain the estimate g/sub p//g/sub a/=6.8 for the nucleon. Interest in RMC in nuclei stems from the desire to test this prediction and to search for any possible nuclear renormalization of g/sub p/. The TRIUMF time projection chamber (TPC) was used as a large solid-angle, medium-resolution pair spectrometer to detect photons from RMC. (14 References).

D. S. Armstrong, S. Ahmad, R. A. Burnham, T. P. Gorringe, M. D. Hasinoff, A. J. Larabee, C. E. Waltham, G. Azuelos, J. A. Macdonald, T. Numao, J-M Poutissou, M. Blecher, D. H. Wright, ETH Clifford, J. Summhammer, P. Depommier, R. Poutissou, H. Mes, and BC. Robertson, "Radiative muon capture on carbon, oxygen, and calcium," *Physical Review C-Nuclear Physics*, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 1425--47, 1991.

Abstract:The photon energy spectra from radiative muon capture on /sup 12/C, /sup 16/O, and /sup 40/Ca have been measured using a time projection chamber as a pair spectrometer. The branching ratio for radiative muon capture is sensitive to g/sub p/, the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant of the weak interaction. Expressed in terms of the axial-vector weak coupling constant g/sub a/, values of g/sub p//g/sub a/=5.7+or-0.8 and g/sub p//g/sub a/=7.3+or-0.9 are obtained for /sup 40/Ca and /sup 16/O, respectively with microscopic calculations, values of g/sub p//g/sub a/=4.6+or-1.8, 13.6 /sub -1.9//sup +1.6/, and 16.2 /sub -0.7//sup +1.3/ for /sup 40/Ca, /sup 16/O, and /sup 12/C, respectively, are obtained. The microscopic results are suggestive of a renormalization of the nucleonic form factors within the nucleus. (78 References).

DS. Armstrong, "Capture and transfer of pions in hydrogenous materials," in *Exotic Atoms in Condensed Matter. Proceedings of the Erice Workshop*, (G. Benedek and H. Schneuwly, eds.), pp. 175--88, 1992.

Abstract:Pionic hydrogen in a short-lived exotic hydrogen isotope in which a negative pion replaces the atomic electron. The formation and subsequent interactions of pionic hydrogen are discussed, with emphasis on the process of pion transfer. Recent results using the pion charge-exchange reaction ( pi /sup -/, pi /sup 0/) obtained at TRIUMF are reviewed. (35 References).

D. S. Armstrong, A. Serna-Angel, S. Ahmad, G. Azuelos, W. Bertl, M. Blecher, C. Q. Chen, P. Depommier, Egidy T. von, T. P. Gorringe, M. D. Hasinoff, R. S. Henderson, A. J. Larabee, J. A. Macdonald, S. C. McDonald, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, B. C. Robertson, D. G. Sample, G. N. Taylor, D. H. Wright, and NS. Zhang, "Radiative muon capture on Al, Si, Ca, Mo, Sn, and Pb," *Physical Review C-Nuclear Physics*, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 1094--107, 1992.

Abstract:The branching ratio for radiative muon capture (RMC), relative to the nonradiative process, is sensitive to g/sub p/, the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant of the weak hadronic current. The photon energy spectra with RMC on /sup 27/Al, /sup 28/Si, /sup 40/Ca, /sup nat/Mo, /sup nat/Sn, and /sup nat/Pb have been measured using a high-acceptance pair spectrometer. The measured partial branching ratios, R/sub gamma /, for photons of E/sub gamma /[right angle bracket]57 MeV are 1.43+or-0.13, 1.93+or-0.18, 2.09+or-0.19, 1.11+or-0.11, 0.98+or-0.09, and 0.60+or-0.07 respectively, in units of 10/sup -5/. The results confirm the previously observed suppression of R/sub gamma / with increasing Z for Z[right angle bracket]20. For /sup 40/Ca the present result is in good agreement with previous measurements. For the heavier nuclei, the results are compared with two recent calculations performed in the Fermi-gas model. In one case the data indicate a complete quenching of g/sub p/, but the more recent calculation does not reproduce the data for any value of g/sub p/. (50 References).

D. S. Armstrong, J. Bauer, J. Evans, T. P. Gorringe, B. L. Johnson, S. Kalvoda, R. Porter, B. Siebels, E. Gete, D. F. Measday, B. A. Moftah, and S. Stanislaus, "Muon capture in silicon 28," in *Yamada Conference XL IV. Proceedings of the IV International Symposium on Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei*, (H. Ejiri, T. Kishimoto, and T. Sato, eds.), pp. 386--9, 1995.

Abstract:A measurement has been made of the angular correlation of the neutrino with the 1229 keV gamma -ray from the de-excitation of the 2201 keV 1/sup +/ level in aluminum-28, following muon capture in silicon-28. To suppress neutron-induced background in the HPGe detector, a coincidence in a NaI array is required with the 942 keV gamma -ray in the de-excitation cascade. The lifetime of the 2201 keV level is found to be 61+or-4+or-9 fs. The correlation coefficient alpha is found to be 0.36+or-0.06 implying g/sub p//g/sub A/=0/sub -3//sup +3.5/. (14 References).

D. S. Armstrong, J. Bauer, J. Evans, T. P. Gorringe, B. L. Johnson, S. Kalvoda, R. Porter, B. Siebels, E. Gete, D. F. Measday, B. A. Moftah, and S. Stanislaus, "Muon capture by silicon 28," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 103, no. 1-4, pp. 169--74, 1996.

Abstract:A measurement has been made of the angular correlation of the neutrino with the 1229 keV gamma -ray from the de-excitation of the 2201 keV 1/sup +/ level in aluminum-28, following muon capture in silicon-28. To suppress the neutron-induced background in the HPGe detector, a coincidence in a NaI array is required with the 942 keV gamma -ray in the de-excitation cascade. The lifetime of the 2201 keV level is found to be 61+or-4+or-9 fs. The correlation coefficient alpha is found to be 0.36+or-0.06 implying g/sub P//g/sub A/=0/sub -3//sup +3.5/. (15 References).

K. P. Arnold, P. O. Egan, M. Gladisch, V. W. Hughes, W. Jacobs, H. Orth, Putlitz G. zu, J. Vetter, and W. Wahl, "Hyperfine structure of the muonic helium atom," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 13, no. , pp. 13-14, 1980.

Abstract:Muonic helium is an atom consisting of a /sup 4/He nucleus, a negative muon and an electron: alpha mu /sup -/e/sup -/. In the ground state the muon orbits the alpha -particle in a Z=2 hydrogenic 1S state with energy and radius scaled by the muon reduced mass. The ( alpha mu /sup -/)/sup +/ system is therefore a factor m/sub e//Zm/sub mu / approximately=1/400 smaller than a hydrogen atom. This ion forms a compact pseudonucleus with size midway between atomic and nuclear dimensions (e approximately 130 fm) and binds the electron in a normal atomic 1S orbit. The combined atom can be regarded as one hydrogenic system inside the other and behaves chemically like a heavy isotope (m=4.1 amu) of hydrogen. The alpha mu /sup -/e/sup -/ atom is a unique system in which to observe the interaction of a bound electron in a muonic atom including QED effects. It is also one of the very few electromagnetic three-body bound states without exchange interaction. It can serve therefore as testing ground for theoretical approaches to the solution of three-body problems. The aim of this experiment is to measure the interaction between the muon and electron spin magnetic moments in this simple muonic atom. This interaction causes a splitting Delta nu , which the authors refer to as a hyperfine structure (hfs), between the ground state singlet (F=0) and triplet (F=1) levels. Theoretically, Delta nu can be expressed as: Delta nu = Delta nu /sub F/ (1+ delta ) (1+QED). (7 References).

K. P. Arnold, M. Gladisch, V. W. Hughes, W. Jacobs, M. Krauss, M. Krauth, S. Liebke, H. J. Mundinger, H. Orth, Putlitz G. zu, J. Rosenkranz, and W. Schafer, "Neutral muonic helium(3)," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 15, no. , pp. 61-3, 1983.

Abstract:Neutral muonic helium, He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/e/sup -/, can be considered in two pieces. The (He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/)/sup +/-system is a hydrogenic ion halfway in size between an atom and a nucleus. It acts like a singly charged pseudo-nucleus to the electron surrounding it. The whole system appears like one hydrogen inside another. Neutral muonic helium can be formed in the ground state in which the coupling of the magnetic moments gives rise to a hyperfine structure (HFS). /sup 3/He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/e/sup -/ has three spin one half particles interacting without any restrictions by the Pauli exclusion principle. The level diagram of the ground state is shown. There is a large muonic HFS splitting corresponding to the He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/ ion to be in one of the two spin states with total spin quantum number G=0 and G=1. To measure the atomic HFS superimposed on the G=1 triplet state is the aim of this experiment. (8 References).

K-P Arnold, M. Gladisch, J. Hofmann, V. W. Hughes, W. Jacobs, H-J Mundinger, H. Orth, Putlitz G. zu, J. Rosenkranz, W. Schafer, W. Schwarz, and K. Woodle, "First observation of the free pionium atom in vacuum," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 20, no. , pp. NL38-40, 1988.

Abstract:Pionium is a short-lived exotic hydrogen isotope comprising a bound state of a positive pion and an electron. The authors describe its production using the beamfoil technique and the first observation of a free pionium atom in vacuum. (8 References).

K-P Arnold, M. Gladisch, J. Hofmann, V. W. Hughes, H-J Mundinger, Putlitz G. zu, H. Orth, J. Rosenkranz, M. Stickel, W. Schafer, and W. Schwarz, "Investigation of radiative transitions in the muonic helium(4) ion with sodium iodide crystals," *Psi Nuclear & Particle Physics Newsletter*, no. , pp. 65-6, 1990.

Abstract:The 2s-lifetimes of the muonic helium(4) ion ( mu /sup -/He)/sup +/ at high gas pressures is a fascinating and puzzling problem. Measurements previously carried out at CERN indicated that the lifetime of the 2s state (1.75 mu s for the free ion) is only slightly reduced by the surrounding atoms up to 50 atmospheres. This observation is in contradiction to recent experimental and theoretical results, which establish a much faster deexcitation rate of the 2s-level. The authors therefore decided to perform an experiment at 14 and 40 atm with an apparatus resembling the one used in the CERN high pressure lifetime and Lamb shift measurements. A common feature was in particular the detection of radiative muon transitions with NaI(Tl) crystals. (5 References).

S. Arole, D. S. Armstrong, T. P. Gorringe, M. D. Hasinoff, M. A. Kovash, V. Kuzmin, B. A. Moftah, R. Sedlar, T. J. Stocki, and T. Tetereva, "Muon capture on Cl-35," *Phys. Rev. C*, vol. 66, pp. art. no.-065501, 2002.

Abstract:We report measurements of gamma-ray spectra from muon capture on Cl-35. For the allowed Gamow-Teller transitions to the S35(2939,3/2(+)) state and the S-35(3421,5/2(+)) state we obtained their capture rates, hyperfine dependences, and gamma- nu correlation coefficients. The capture rates and hyperfine dependences were compared to shell model calculations using the complete 1s-0d space and the universal SD interaction. With g(p)/g(a)=6.7 and g(a)=-1.00 (or g(a)=-1.26) we found agreement of the model and the data at the 1-2 sigma level. However, we caution that the transitions are sensitive to l=2 forbidden matrix elements.

S. Arole, D. S. Armstrong, T. P. Gorringe, M. D. Hasinoff, M. A. Kovash, V. Kuzmin, B. A. Moftah, R. Sedlar, T. J. Stocki, and T. Tetereva, "Muon capture on /sup 35/Cl," *Physical Review C-Nuclear Physics*, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 65501--1--11, 2002.

Abstract:We report measurements of Gamma -ray spectra from muon capture on /sup 35/Cl. For the allowed Gamow-Teller transitions to the /sup 35/S(2939,3/2/sup +/) state and the /sup 35/S(3421,5/2/sup +/) state we obtained their capture rates, hyperfine dependences, and Gamma - nu correlation coefficients. The capture rates and hyperfine dependences were compared to shell model calculations using the complete 1s-0d space and the universal SD interaction. With g/sub p//g/sub a/=6.7 and g/sub a/=-1.00 (or g/sub a/=-1.26) we found agreement of the model and the data at the 1-2 Sigma level. However, we caution that the transitions are sensitive to l=2 forbidden matrix elements. (37 References).

S. H. Aronson, R. H. Bernstein, G. J. Bock, RD Jr Cousins, J. F. Greenhalgh, D. Hedin, M. Schwartz, T. K. Shea, G. B. Thomson, and B. Winstein, "Measurement of the rate of formation of pi-mu atoms in K/sub L//sup 0/ decay," *Physical Review D*, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 3180--98, 1986.

Abstract:Hydrogenlike atoms consisting of a pion and a muon can be formed in K/sub L//sup 0/ to pi mu nu decays. In an experiment at Fermilab, 320 pi-mu atoms were detected and simultaneously the K/sub L//sup 0/ flux was monitored by recording ordinary K/sub L//sup 0/ to pi mu nu decays. The first measurement of the branching ratio R= Gamma (K/sub L//sup 0/ to pi-mu atom+ nu )/ Gamma (K/sub L//sup 0/ to pi mu nu )=(3.90+or-0.39)*10/sup -7/ is reported, based on a subset of 155 atoms. This ratio may be sensitive to anomalous interactions between the pion and the muon. In the absence of such interactions, theory predicts R=(4.31+or-0.08)*10/sup -7/. (29 References).

D. J. Arseneau, J. J. Pan, M. Senba, M. Shelley, and DG. Fleming, "Muonium spin relaxation in carbon monoxide," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 106, no. 1-4, pp. 151--6, 1997.

Abstract:The spin relaxation of Mu was measured in mixtures of CO and Ar at pressures up to 270 atm and at various magnetic fields. The relaxation rate increased with magnetic field in the way expected for electron spin-exchange processes, though the effect declined at high pressures. We describe the results in terms of spin relaxation of Mu-formyl radicals, MuCO, which break up to give depolarized Mu at low pressures, but are increasingly stabilized at higher pressures. (9 References).

V. V. Artisyuk, S. B. Varushin, F. I. Karmanov, and VP. Maniychuck, "Spatial-energy neutron flux calculation for synthesizer of the muon-catalyzed reactor," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, no. 1-4, pp. 577--81, 1988.

Abstract:The authors discuss the energy and spatial distribution of the neutron flux at the entrance to the muon catalyzed fusion reactor blanket. The calculations are performed taking into account anisotropic scattering and inelastic reaction channels. (5 References).

V. V. Artisyuk, YuA Korovin, and VN. Sosnin, "Computation of electronuclear channel impact on the energy balance of the muon-catalyzed hybrid reactor," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 223--9, 1989.

Abstract:The muon-catalyzed fusion hybrid reactor (MCFHR) energy production and fissile fuel yield are calculated. The MCFHR energy balance is estimated to be more promising than that obtained in previous investigations. (12 References).

V. V. Artisyuk, F. I. Karmanov, L. I. Ponomarev, and M. Saito, "mu CF intense neutron source and nuclear waste incineration," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 381--5, 2001.

Abstract:It was shown in a series of papers, that a 14-MeV intense neutron source based on muon-catalyzed fusion with intensity J=10/sup 17/ n/s and flux Phi =10/sup 14/ n/s/cm/sup 2/ can be constructed on current technology base. Also it was demonstrated that 14 MeV neutrons are essential to drive the effective transmutation of problematic radionuclides. For this reason, advanced methods of neutron generation are outlined in the present paper with focus on the beam parameter estimation inherent in the KEK-JAERI project. (6 References).

E. C. Aschenauer and others, "Cascade processes and the kinetic-energy distribution of pionic hydrogen atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 51, pp. 1965--1979, 1995.

E. C. Aschenauer and VE. Markushin, "High-velocity components in exotic atoms, their origin and effects," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 97-106, 1996.

Abstract:The evolution of the kinetic energy distribution during the cascade is shown to play an important role for pionic and muonic atoms in hydrogen and deuterium. The kinetics of muon transfer in excited states is studied with a new cascade code and the results are compared with recent experimental data. (27 References).

E. C. Aschenauer and VE. Markushin, "Muonic hydrogen and deuterium in H-D mixture and muon transfer in excited states," *Zeitschrift fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules & Clusters*, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 165--72, 1997.

Abstract:The deexcitation of mu p and mu d atoms in hydrogen-deuterium mixtures has been studied with a new kinetics model that takes the energy dependence of the cascade processes into account. The X-ray yields, the populations of atomic states, and the muon transfer from hydrogen to deuterium during the cascade have been calculated as functions of density and isotope fractions. The evolution of the kinetic energy distribution during the cascade is shown to play an important role in the transfer kinetics. The atomic energy distribution in the ground state is significantly changed by the transfer. The calculated X-ray yields and the muon transfer probabilities are in fair agreement with experimental data provided the current theoretical transfer rates are reduced by a factor of about 2. (46 References).

D. Ashery, "Search for the pentaquark and H dibaryon," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 103, pp. 253--266, 1996.

K. Aslam and JR. Rook, "Two-nucleon absorption rate in K/sup -/ mesic atoms," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 159--72, 1970.

Abstract:A recent calculation by Wycech (see Abstr. A1210 of 1968) has reproduced the experimental data on the relative two-nucleon absorption rates for K/sup -/ mesic atoms of deuterium and heavy nuclei despite conclusions to the contrary from earlier calculations and qualitative arguments. In this paper the authors compare these earlier calculations and arguments with the more recent one and show where the differences arise. They conclude that even the latter calculations contain doubtful approximations but that the conclusions obtained there are correct. Thus any discrepancy between theory and experiment is not of the order of twenty as previously supposed but rather an order of magnitude less than this figure and in consequence there is no evidence for alpha-particle clusters in the nuclear surface as proposed by Wilkinson. (10 References).

G. M. Aston, J. A. Stride, U. A. Jayasooriya, and ID. Reid, "The hyperfine coupling tensors of muonated radicals in single-crystal benzophenone," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 106, no. 1-4, pp. 157--62, 1997.

Abstract:The hyperfine coupling tensors of muonated radicals in a large single crystal of benzophenone have been determined by measuring the hyperfine couplings of the radicals as the crystal was rotated about three orthogonal axes. Signals from four radicals were observed, corresponding to the four molecules per unit cell in the crystal. Due to an ambiguity in the data we are unable to discriminate between two similar hyperfine coupling tensors. Both lead to an isotropic hyperfine coupling of approximately=32 MHz, contrasting with the solution value of 42 MHz obtained earlier in diethyl ether. The anisotropic components of the tensor are relatively large, at approximately -15 MHz, -6 MHz and 21 MHz, respectively. (14 References).

M. Atarashi and H. Narumi, "On the cascade process in mesic atoms," *Progress of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1779--85, 1971.

Abstract:In response to the recent precise measurement of mesic X-ray yields, it became possible to discuss the cascade process in mesic atom more exactly in order to investigate the nuclear absorption process. It is shown for the muonic atom of /sup 12/C that the statistical distribution of the initial mesic bound states is more reasonable than the modified one earlier obtained by Eisenberg and Kessler. On the basis of this consideration, mesic cascade processes, including the strong absorption as well as the natural decay are fully analysed and typical calculations are carried out for /sup 9/Be, /sup 12/C and /sup 16/O, whose results are in good agreement with recent experimental ones.

M. Atarashi and H. Narumi, "On the reality of the inner state in the kaonic atom," *Progress of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1427--8, 1972.

Abstract:Two distinct types of eigenstates in the soluble model have recently been pointed out, where the system with imaginary square-well potential was introduced in order to explain an unexpected variation of a complex level shift in the kaonic atom. One is the outer state for which the mesic wave function is localized in the outer region of a nucleus, and the other is the inner state for which the meson is bound almost inside the nucleus and its wave function is strongly attenuated outside the nucleus. The authors discuss the reality of these states. (7 References).

M. Atarashi and H. Narumi, "On the cascade process in kaonic atoms," *Progress of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1971--3, 1974.

Abstract:The authors extend a previous analysis (see abstr. A60959 of 1971) to kaonic atoms. Absolute X-ray yields are calculated for several examples with known proton distributions and compared with experiment. Fractions of the absorption probability from several states are also shown. (5 References).

M. Atarashi, K. Hira, and H. Narumi, "On the kaon-nucleus optical potential at low energy," *Progress of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 209--19, 1978.

Abstract:An optical potential approach at low energy is attempted for the kaon-nucleus interaction. The optical potential is introduced by folding the finite range kaon-nucleon potential with the nuclear ground state wave function. The K-N potential considered is constructed to reproduce the free K-N scattering lengths. Using the optical potential the authors evaluate elastic cross sections of low energy kaon scattering by nuclei and complex level shifts of kaonic atoms. Both results obtained prove to be more consistent with experimental values than those given by the previous approach. In particular it is suggested that the real part of this potential is mainly attributed to the Yukawa type potential induced by the vector meson exchange apart from the imaginary part. (27 References).

M. Atarashi, "Damping state method and kaonic bound states," *Progress of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 589--601, 1983.

Abstract:A damping state method in the radiation field is generalized in the case of a multi-channel system with strong interactions. This approach is applied to the analysis of the K/sup -/-p system, where experimental complex level shifts of the 1s state are considerably different from the previous predictions. For the elementary interaction the author uses the nonlocal potential of a separable type, which reproduces not only measured values of the K/sup -/-N cross section but also effective properties of the resonance Y/sub 0/*(1405) and K/sup -/-N scattering length. The author's results for the complex level shift of the 1s state are consistent with the present experimental results. (18 References).

N. Auerbach and A. Klein, "Calculation of inclusive mu /sup -/-capture rates in heavy nuclei," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 114B, no. 2-3, pp. 95--8, 1982.

Abstract:The mu /sup -/-capture rates Lambda /sub mu / are calculated for nuclei with N[right angle bracket]Z using the self-consistent RPA framework. The mu /sup -/-atomic binding energy is introduced in the calculation of Lambda /sub mu / and the radial dependence of the muonic wavefunction is taken into account in the matrix elements. The recoil term Lambda '/sub mu / is evaluated directly. With the assumption that the nuclear vector, axial vector, and induced pseudo-scalar contributions are equal, good agreement with experiment is obtained. (22 References).

N. Auerbach and A. Klein, "A microscopic theory of muon capture in nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A422, no. 3, pp. 480--500, 1984.

Abstract:The muon capture rates are calculated for a series of nuclei, using the Hartree-Fock random-phase approximation, and compared with experiment. The recoil term, the building energy of the muon and finite size effects are calculated in detail. In a schematic model, the validity of the assumption M/sub V//sup 2/=M/sub A//sup 2/=M/sub P//sup 2/ is studied, and found to hold reasonably well even for nuclei as heavy as /sup 208/Pb. (44 References).

N. Auerbach, N. VanGiai, and O. K. Vorov, "Neutrino scattering from C-12 and O-16," *Phys. Rev. C*, vol. 56, pp. R2368-R2372, 1997.

Abstract:Exclusive and inclusive (nu(mu),mu(-)), (nu(e),e(-)) cross sections and mu(-) -capture rates are calculated for C-12 and O-16 using the consistent random phase approximation (RPA) and pairing model. After a pairing correction is introduced to the RPA results, the flux-averaged theoretical (nu(mu),mu(-)), (nu(e),e(-)) cross sections and mu(-) -capture rates in C-12 are in good agreement with experiment. Predictions of (nu(mu),mu(-)) and (nu(e),e(-)) cross sections in O-16 are also presented.

N. Auerbach, Giai N. Van, and OK. Vorov, "Neutrino scattering from /sup 12/C and /sup 16/O," *Physical Review C*, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. R2368-72, 1997.

Abstract:Exclusive and inclusive ( nu /sub mu /, mu /sup -/), ( nu /sub e/,e/sup -/) cross sections and mu /sup -/-capture rates are calculated for /sup 12/C and /sup 16/O using the consistent random phase approximation (RPA) and pairing model. After a pairing correction is introduced to the RPA results, the flux-averaged theoretical ( nu /sub mu /, mu /sup -/), ( nu /sub e/,e/sup -/) cross sections and mu /sup -/-capture rates in /sup 12/C are in good agreement with experiment. Predictions of ( nu /sub mu /, mu /sup -/) and ( nu /sub e/,e/sup -/) cross sections in /sup 16/O are also presented. (24 References).

N. Auerbach and BA. Brown, "Weak interaction rates involving /sup 12/C, /sup 14/N, and /sup 16/O," *Physical Review C*, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 024322/1-9, 2002.

Abstract:Muon capture and neutrino scattering cross sections in /sup 12/C, /sup 14/N, and /sup 16/O are calculated within a large shell-model basis. The effects of quenching of the isovector strength on these quantities are studied. (41 References).

M. Augsberger, G. Beer, S. Bianco, A. M. Bragadireanu, M. Bregant, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, D. Chatellard, C. Curceanu, J-P Egger, F. L. Fabbri, B. Gartner, C. Guaraldo, R. S. Hayano, M. Iliescu, T. Ishiwatari, T. M. Ito, M. Iwasaki, R. King, P. Knowles, T. Koike, B. Lauss, V. Lucherini, J. Marton, E. Milotti, F. Mulhauser, S. N. Nakamura, T. Ponta, A. C. Sanderson, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, R. Seki, D. Tomono, T. Yoneyama, E. Zavattini, and J. Zmeskal, "The DEAR experiment on DA Phi NE," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings. Quantum Electrodynamics and Physics of the Vacuum, QED 2000 Second Workshop*, pp. 217-24, 2001.

Abstract:DEAR is one of the first experiments at the new DA Phi NE phi -factory at the Laboraturi Nazionali di Frascati dell'INFN. The objective of the DEAR experiment is to perform a precision measurement of the strong interaction shifts and widths of the K-series lines in kaonic hydrogen and the first observation of the same quantities in kaonic deuterium. The aim is to obtain a precise determination of the isospin-dependent kaon-nucleon scattering lengths which will represent a breakthrough in KN low-energy phenomenology and will allow us to determine the kaon-nucleon sigma terms. The sigma, terms give a direct measurement of chiral symmetry breaking and are connected to the strangeness content of the proton. First results on background measurements with the DEAR NTP setup installed on DA Phi NE are reported. (12 References).

M. Augsburger and others, "Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, pp. 59--62, 1999.

M. Augsburger and others, "Measurement of the strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic deuterium," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 461, pp. 417--422, 1999.

M. Augsburger and others, "Measurement of the strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and probable evidence for an interference with inner bremsstrahlung," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 658, pp. 149--162, 1999.

M. Augsburger and others, "First measurements at the DA$\Phi$NE $\phi$--factory with the DEAR experimental setup," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods A*, vol. 452, pp. 306--322, 2000.

M. Augsburger, "Mesures de rayons X par détecteur CCD: application aux atomes exotiques", 2001.

M. Augsburger, P. Ackerbauer, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, D. Chatellard, J-P Egger, B. Gartner, F. J. Hartmann, O. Huot, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, P. Kammel, R. King, P. Knowles, A. Kosak, B. Lauss, J. Marton, M. Muhlbauer, F. Mulhauser, C. Petitjean, W. Prymas, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, S. Tresch, Egidy T. von, and J. Zmeskal, "Muon transfer from deuterium to helium," *Physical Review A*, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 22712--1--9, 2003.

Abstract:We report on an experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland measuring x rays from muon transfer from deuterium to helium. Both the ground-state transfer via the exotic (d mu /sup 3,4/He)/sup */ molecules and the excited-state transfer from ( mu d)/sup */ were measured. The use of charge-coupled device detectors allowed x rays from 1.5 keV to 11 keV to be detected with sufficient energy resolution to separate the transitions to different final states in both deuterium and helium. The x-ray peaks of the (d mu /sup 3/He)/sup */ and (d mu /sup 4/He)/sup */ molecules were measured with good statistics. For the D/sub 2/+/sup 3/He mixture, the peak has its maximum at E/sub d mu 3He/=6768+or-12 eV with full width at half maximum (FWHM) Gamma /sub d mu 3He/=863+or-10 eV. Furthermore, the radiative branching ratio was found to be kappa /sub d mu 3He/=0.301+or-0.061. For the D/sub 2/+/sup 4/He mixture, the maximum of the peak lies at E/sub d mu 4He/=6831+or-8 eV and the FWHM is Gamma /sub d mu 4He/=856+or-10 eV. The radiative branching ratio is kappa /sub d mu 4He/=0.636+or-0.097. The excited-state transfer is limited by the probability to reach the deuterium ground state, q/sub 1s/. This coefficient was determined for both mixtures: q/sub 1s//sup 3He/=68.9+or-2.7% and q/sub 1s//sup 4He/=90.1+or-1.5%. (18 References).

M. Augsburger, V. M. Boreiko, V. M. Bystritsky, W. Czaplinski, A. Del Rosso, C. Donche--Gay, M. Filipowicz, O. Huot, P. Knowles, F. Mulhauser, V. N. Pavlov, F. M. Pen'kov, C. Petitjean, N. P. Popov, V. G. Sandukovsky, L. A. Schaller, H. Schneuwly, V. A. Stolupin, and J. Wozniak, "Measuring $\mu d ^3$He fusion," *PSI Scientific Report 1999*, vol. Volume I, 2000.

M. Augsburger, V. M. Boreiko, V. M. Bystritsky, W. Czaplinski, A. Del Rosso, C. Donche--Gay, M. Filipowicz, O. Huot, P. Knowles, F. Mulhauser, V. N. Pavlov, F. M. Pen'kov, C. Petitjean, N. P. Popov, V. G. Sandukovsky, L. A. Schaller, H. Schneuwly, V. A. Stolupin, and J. Wozniak, "Measuring $\mu d ^3$He fusion," *PSI Scientific Report 2000*, vol. Volume I, 2001.

B. Autin, K. Bongardt, J. Pasternak, and A. Verdier, "Longitudinal capture of muons using bunch compression," *Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip.*, vol. 503, pp. 369-373, 2003.

Abstract:When a particle beam drifts in a beam line, the bunch length increases due to the spread in particle velocity. Introducing a magnetic field so that the particles of high momentum follow a trajectory longer than the one of low momentum particles can limit the bunch extension and even compress it. This property is applied to the design of the longitudinal collection of a large emittance muon beam at 44 MHz accelerating bucket. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

B. Autin, "Muon emittance and pion decay," *Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip.*, vol. 503, pp. 363-368, 2003.

Abstract:An efficient collection of muons is a crucial task for machines such as neutrino factories or muon colliders. The definition of the beam emittance and the determination of the capture efficiencies both in transverse and longitudinal spaces is made difficult by the transition from the pion to the muon beam through the decay process. An analytical approach to the problem is derived for a transport line where path length variations can be neglected. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

G. V. Avakov, L. D. Blokhintsev, R. Lago, and MV. Poletayeva, "Three-body integral equations and their application to the reactions of muon transfer," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 257-62, 1996.

Abstract:It is suggested to use the integral Faddeev equations in the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas form to calculate the muon transfer reactions relevant to muon-catalyzed fusion. Similar equations derived while neglecting the electron mass compared to the ion masses, were successfully used for the description of the electron transfer reactions in the ion-atomic collisions. The corrections due to the finiteness of the muon mass are discussed. (18 References).

YuP Averin, D. V. Balin, V. R. Bom, A. M. Demin, D. L. Demin, A. E. Drebushko, V. P. Dzhelepov, Eijk CWE van, V. V. Filchenkov, A. N. Golubkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, S. K. Grishechkin, V. G. Klevtsov, A. D. Konin, A. A. Kukolkin, S. V. Medved, A. B. Modenov, V. A. Nazarov, V. I. Pryanichnikov, VIa Rozhkov, A. I. Rudenko, S. M. Sadetsky, G. G. Semenchuk, V. T. Sidorov, YuV Smirenin, I. I. Sukhoi, V. V. Travkin, N. I. Voropaev, A. A. Yukhimchuk, V. G. Zinov, and SV. Zlatoustovskii, "First measurements of dt mu cycle characteristics in liquid H/D/T mixture," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, no. 1-4, pp. 121--5, 1999.

Abstract:Muon catalyzed fusion in a dense triple mixture of hydrogen isotopes was investigated for the first time. The experimental method is based on the registration of neutrons from dt mu fusion by a full absorption detector in 4 pi geometry. The measurements were performed in H/D/T mixture at T=21 K and phi equivalent to 1.1 LHD using four sets of isotope concentrations. The basic parameters of the dt mu cycle (neutron yield, cycling rate and total sticking) in H/D/T mixtures obtained from neutron time distributions are presented and discussed. (9 References).

Y. P. Averin, D. V. Balin, V. R. Bom, J. N. Bradbury, J. D. Davies, A. M. Demin, D. L. Demin, A. E. Drebushko, V. P. Dzhelepov, C. W. E. van Eijk, V. V. Filchenkov, A. N. Golubkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, S. K. Grishechkin, V. G. Klevtsov, A. D. Konin, A. A. Kukolkin, S. V. Medved', A. B. Modenov, V. A. Nazarov, V. V. Perevozchikov, V. I. Pryanichnikov, V. Y. Rozhkov, A. I. Rudenko, S. M. Sadetsky, G. G. Semenchuk, V. T. Sidorov, Y. V. Smirenin, I. I. Sukhoi, V. V. Travkin, N. I. Voropaev, A. A. Yukhimchuk, V. G. Zinov, and S. V. Zlatoustovskii, "Novel method for MCF study in a dense D T mixture, first experimental results," *Hyperfine Interact.*, vol. 118, pp. 111-119, 1999.

Abstract:Preliminary data are first presented for the measurements of effective parameters of MCF processes in dense D/T mixtures obtained by a novel method. Results are compared with the ones obtained by the "standard" method.

YuP Averin, V. R. Bom, A. M. Demin, D. L. Demin, A. E. Drebushko, V. P. Dzhelepov, Eijk CWE Van, V. V. Felchenkov, A. N. Golubkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, S. K. Grishechkin, V. G. Klevtsov, A. D. Konin, A. A. Kukolkin, S. V. Medved, A. B. Modenov, V. A. Nazarov, V. I. Pryanichnikov, V. I. Rozhkov, A. I. Rudenko, S. M. Sadetsky, G. G. Semenchuk, V. T. Sidorov, YuV Smirenin, I. I. Sukhoi, V. V. Travkin, N. I. Voropaev, A. A. Yukhimchuk, V. G. Zinov, and SV. Zlatoustovskii, "Experimental results on muon catalyzed dt fusion in H/D/T mixture," * Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 249--53, 2001.

Abstract:An experimental study on muon catalyzed dt fusion in a triple mixture of hydrogen isotopes (H/D/T) was carried out at the JINR phasotron. The measurements have been performed at various temperatures and densities with liquid and gaseous H/D/T mixtures. Results are presented for the main characteristics of the dt mu cycle. A reduction of the number of dt fusions is observed when hydrogen is added to the D/T mixture. This is mainly due to muon loss to the pt and pd cycles, which have a high sticking probability. We also observe an increase of the cycle rate when the temperature of the H/D/T mixture rises. This confirms the theoretical prediction. (9 References).

FA. Ayoub, "On reactions of mu /sup +/ mesons on hydrogen molecules. I," *Proceedings of the Mathematical & Physical Society of Uar, no.33, 1972, pp.49-56*, vol. 33, no. , pp. 49-56, 1972.

Abstract:The distorted wave method has been used to derive mathematically the differential cross-section for a rearrangement collision in which mu /sup +/ meson is incident on H/sub 2/ molecule and a rearrangement occurs in which mu /sup +/ is captured and an H/sup +/ is emitted, leaving a mu H molecule. The wave equations for relative motion of mu /sup +/ in the field of H/sub 2/ and of a proton in the field of mu H/sub 2/ are solved using the University College London Electronic Computer. (5 References).

FA. Ayoub, "Scattering of U/sup +/ mesons on hydrogen molecules. II," in *Proceedings of the Mathematical & Physical Society of Uar*, (Egypt), pp. 57-64, 1972.

Abstract:For pt. I see ibid., no.33, 49-56. The zero-order cross sections for the rate of the chemical reaction u/sup +/ +H/sub 2/ to uH+H/sup +/, have been calculated using the distorted-wave method. It is found that the calculated cross-sections are not far below the maximum value pi /k2, where k is the initial wave number of the relative motion. This suggests that the total cross-sections for the process is of order pi R/sub 0//sup 2/., where R/sub 0/ is the mean closest distance of approach of u/sup +/ meson to H/sub 2/ averaged over all orientations. (4 References).

G. Azuelos, S. Ahmad, D. S. Armstrong, W. Bertl, M. Blecher, A. Burnham, C-Q Chen, P. Depommier, Egidy T. von, T. P. Gorringe, M. D. Hasinoff, R. Henderson, A. J. Larabee, J. A. MacDonald, S. C. McDonald, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, B. C. Robertson, A. Serna-Angel, G. N. Taylor, C. E. Waltham, D. H. Wright, and N-S. Zhang, "Radiative muon capture on nuclei and protons," *Annales de Physique*, vol. 15colloq, no. 2, pp. 13--22, 1990.

Abstract:A brief review is made of the study of g/sub P/, the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, in radiative muon capture on light nuclei, and of motivations for a measurement on hydrogen, with particular emphasis on recent and ongoing experiments at TRIUMF. (27 References).

T. Azuma, K. Nishiyama, K. Nagamine, Y. Ito, and Y. Tabata, "Delayed formation of muon-containing species in organic liquids observed by spin resonance technique," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 32, no. 1-4, pp. 837--43, 1986.

Abstract:The resonance technique has been applied to observe diamagnetic muons and, for the first time by the resonance, Mu-substituted radicals in organic liquids under strong decoupling magnetic fields. In benzoquinone solutions in benzene the relaxation of Mu-cyclohexadienyl radicals through reaction with quinone was directly observed by the radical resonance technique. The product of this reaction was then observed by the diamagnetic muon resonance as a slow formation. Similar slow formation was observed for diamagnetic muons in neat CS/sub 2/ and for Mu-radicals in benzene and styrene. Such slow formation can never be observed by the rotation technique due to a dephasing problem, and thus the previous method is expected to provide a new source of information on slow reaction dynamics of muon containing species. (17 References).

K. Baba, "Nuclear Coulomb effects on the induced pseudoscalar interaction in the theory of muon capture by nuclei," *Progress of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 390--406, 1970.

Abstract:Variations of the strength of the induced pseudoscalar coupling C/sub P/ in muon capture by nuclei due to nuclear Coulomb effects on both pion propagator and muon wave function are calculated by assuming point nuclei with the effective charge Z/sub eff/e. Those Coulomb effects depend not only on Z/sub eff/ but also on the energy of the neutrino emitted in the process in consideration. In the low-energy region of the neutrino the Coulomb effects on both quantities are nearly cancelled out by each other, while in the high-energy region (corresponding to the case of normal muon capture) a considerable net effect remains and C/sub P/ is reduced by several percent (5 approximately 9% for Z/sub eff/=7.47 approximately 16.17, i.e. for Z=8 approximately 20) compared with its magnitude when no Coulomb effects are taken into account.

A. I. Babaev, V. S. Evseev, G. G. Myasishcheva, YuV Obukhov, V. S. Roganov, and VA. Chernogorova, "Direct observation of the hyperfine structure and depolarization of negative muons in the muonic atoms with nonzero nuclear spin," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 964--72, 1969.

Abstract:Residual polarization of negative muons is measured by means of the spin precession in the weak transversal magnetic field, for the muonic atoms with nuclei of nonzero spin, in targets LiH, Be, B/sub 4/C, N/sub 2/, P. For the mesoatoms in Li and N/sub 2/ the precession is observed on the frequency of the highest state of the hyperfine structure, as for the Be mesoatoms, it is on the frequency of the lowest state. The asymmetry coefficients for the F=I+/sup 1///sub 2/ state of the hyperfine doublets in LiH, Be and N/sub 2/ are 0.0188+or-0.0015, 0.0192+or-0.001 and 0.0134+or-0.0017, respectively. For B and P the residual polarization is near zero at such frequencies. The values of the residual polarization indicate to the absence for Li and N, the presence for B and P, of fast transitions between the hyperfine structure levels in these mesoatoms. The values of the asymmetry coefficients are explained on basis of the cascade theory of the depolarization with account of the final state of the electronic shell in the mesoatoms. (20 References).

D. Babusci, G. Giardano, and G. Matone, "New evaluation of the Baldin sum rule," *Physical Review C*, vol. 57, pp. 291--294, 1998.

R. Bacher, "Decay rates of the metastable states of one-electron atoms and of the 2S-states of muonic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 315, no. 2, pp. 1325--6, 1984.

Abstract:Recoil corrections are calculated for atomic hyperfine transitions and 2S-1S transitions. Large effects are found for muonic atoms. (8 References).

R. Bacher, D. Gotta, L. M. Simons, J. Missimer, and NC. Mukhopadhyay, "Muonic atoms with vacant electron shells," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 54, no. 19, pp. 2087--90, 1985.

Abstract:The authors show that the cascade in muonic atoms with Z[left angle bracket]20 ejects sufficient atomic electrons to ionize an isolated muonic atom completely. In gases, the rates with which electrons refill the atomic shell can be accurately deduced from measured and calculated electron transfer cross sections. Thus, they can conclude that completely ionized muonic atoms can be prepared in gases, and that they remain isolated for long enough times at attainable pressures to facilitate studies of fundamental interactions in muonic atoms. (17 References).

R. Bacher, P. Blum, K. Elsener, D. Gotta, K. Heitlinger, M. Schneider, and LM. Simons, "On the production of highly ionized antiprotonic noble gas atoms at rest," in *Fundamental Symmetries. Proceedings of the First Course of the International School of Physics with Low-Energy Antiprotons, Fundamental Low Energy*, (P. Bloch, P. Pavlopoulos, and R. Klapisch, eds.), pp. 115--19, 1987.

Abstract:The authors report the measurement of low-energy-X-rays of antiprotonic neon, argon, krypton and xenon at pressures less than 50 mbar. The experiment was performed with the 202 MeV/c beam at the LEAR M1-area using the cyclotron trap. They observed the complete ionization of the light noble gases and possibly of xenon by the electromagnetic cascade, as supposed previously for muonic atoms. The authors deduce that antiprotons are captured in very high levels, and thus confirm the earlier analyses of Schneuwly et al. (1978) and von Egidy et al. (1984) with muonic atoms. (14 References).

R. Bacher and others, "Degree of ionization in antiprotonic noble gases," *PSI Preprint 88--07*, 1988.

R. Bacher, P. Blum, D. Gotta, K. Heitlinger, J. Missimer, M. Schneider, and LM. Simons, "Highly ionized muonic noble gas atoms," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 20, no. , pp. NL41-2, 1988.

Abstract:The authors describe two experiments performed using the cyclotron trap. Firstly, they have measured the degree of ionization in muonic atoms of the noble gases Ne, Ar and Kr. Secondly, they have used muonic Ne to investigate whether electron transfer can be prevented for long enough times at attainable pressures to keep the 2s state from quenching. (5 References).

R. Bacher and others, "Measurement of Balmer and Lyman x--rays in antiprotonic hydrogen isotopes at pressure below 300 hPa," *Zeitschrift Für Physik A*, vol. 334, pp. 93--102, 1989.

R. Bacher, P. Blum, D. Gotta, K. Heitlinger, M. Schneider, J. Missimer, and LM. Simons, "Relevance of ionization and electron refilling to the observation of the M1 transition ( gamma M1:2s-1s) in light muonic atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1610--20, 1989.

Abstract:The M1 transition ( gamma M1:2s-1s) may serve as a probe to observe parity-nonconserving effects in muonic atoms with an atomic number Z[left angle bracket]or=14. These atoms can be useful probes, if they are ionized of all but the two K-shell electrons and electron refilling does not occur. The authors' experiment shows that muonic neon, argon, and krypton atoms are highly ionized by the time the muon reaches the circular (n=5) state at pressures less than 1000 h Pa. The mean K-shell occupation numbers N/sub K/ amount to 0.07[left angle bracket]or=N/sub K/[left angle bracket]or=0.68, 0.04[left angle bracket]or=N/sub K/[left angle bracket]or=0.38, and 0.76[left angle bracket]or=N/sub K/[left angle bracket]or=0.84, respectively. For muonic neon at a pressure below 500 h Pa, electron refilling does not take place during the radiative lifetime of the 2s state (200 ps). (31 References).

H. Backe, R. Engfer, E. Kankeleit, W. U. Schroder, H. K. Walter, and K. Wien, "Measurement of nuclear gamma rays and mu X rays in muonic /sup 209/Bi," in *Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on high-energy physics and nuclear structure*, (S. Devons, ed.), pp. 166-8, 1970.

Abstract:The anomalous intensity ratios observed in /sup 209/Bi have been explained by a resonance mechanism, according to which the nucleus is excited into the 15/2/sup +/ (2.74 MeV) and 9/2/sup +/ (2.56 MeV) state. Observation of nuclear gamma rays following this excitation are reported.

H. Backe, "Intensity measurements of X-ray and nuclear gamma ray transitions in some heavy muonic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 241, no. 5, pp. 435--58, 1971.

Abstract:Absolute intensities of the 5-4 muonic X-ray transition in muonic W, Os, and Bi, and relative intensities of other X-ray transitions have been measured and compared with cascade calculations. The excitation of several levels in W, Os, Ir, Tl, and Bi nuclei resulting from the muonic cascade process has been observed and absolute excitation probabilities have been determined. For the first 2/sup +/ level of /sup 188/Os and the first 3/2/sup +/-levels of /sup 203,205/Tl the excitation probabilities are larger than calculated. The results are discussed.

H. Backe, E. Kankelert, W. U. Schroder, R. Engfer, U. Jahnke, K. H. Lindenberger, R. M. Pearce, C. Petitjean, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, and HK. Walter, "Study of nuclear gamma -rays in muonic thallium," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 44, no. 5, 1971.

Abstract:Abstract only given as follows. Several nuclear gamma -rays have been observed in muonic natural thallium. The nuclear excitation is due to a mixing of two nuclear states with corresponding muonic levels. The excitation of a nuclear level at 2.63 MeV in /sup 205/ Tl produces the hitherto unexplained abnormal intensities of the 2p to 1s and 3d to 2p mu -transitions. The nuclear gamma -lines are influenced by muonic isomer shifts and magnetic hf splittings.

H. Backe, R. Engfer, U. Jahnke, E. Kankeleit, R. M. Pearce, C. Petitjean, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, W. U. Schroder, H. K. Walter, and A. Zehnder, "Study of X-rays and nuclear gamma -rays in muonic thallium," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A189, no. 3, pp. 472--512, 1972.

Abstract:Energies and intensities of muonic X-rays, nuclear gamma -rays and mu -capture gamma -rays were measured in natural muonic thallium with Ge(Li) detectors. The absolute intensities of higher mu X-rays were reproduced by a cascade calculation starting with a statistical population at n=20 including K-, L- and M-conversion. The electron screening effect was deduced from energies of higher mu X-rays. Eight prompt nuclear gamma -rays were found. This excitation explains the anomalous intensity ratios of the 2p-1s and 3d-2p fine structure components. From the nuclear gamma -rays of the first excited states were deduced: the magnetic h.f. splittings, muonic isomer shifts E2/M1 mixing ratios and the half-life in the presence of the muon in /sup 205/Tl. Evidence for a magnetic nuclear polarization was found. An isotope shift of Delta E=10.35+or-0.25 keV was measured for the 1s/sub 1/2/ state which is compared with data from optical spectroscopy. From an analysis of the time distribution of delayed gamma -rays from mu -capture, an isotopic effect of (5.4+or-2.5)% was found for the capture rates, in fair agreement with predictions from Primakoff's mu -capture formula. (111 References).

H. Backe, F. Boehm, R. Engfer, Gunten A. von, R. Link, R. Michaelsen, C. Petitjean, G. Roschert, B. Robert-Tissot, H. Schneuwly, L. Schellenberg, W. U. Schroder, J. L. Vuilleumier, H. K. Walter, and A. Zehnder, "Test of vacuum polarization and hyperfine interaction in muonic atoms," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 947--8, 1972.

Abstract:In connection with discrepancies between experimental and theoretical values for the vacuum polarization correction in the case of the 5-4 transitions in heavy and medium muonic atoms, the energies of this transition in /sup nat/Hg and /sup 203/Tl were measured at the CERN-SC muon channel. The broadening of the 2/sup +/-0/sup +/- nuclear gamma transition in muonic /sup 190/Os and /sup 192/Os was used to determine the magnetic h.f. splitting of the 2/sup +/ rotational state. The results are compared with the predictions of different models. (7 References).

H. Backe, F. Boehm, R. Engfer, E. Kankeleit, R. Link, R. Michaelsen, C. Petitjean, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, W. U. Schroder, J. L. Vuilleumier, H. K. Walter, and A. Zehnder, "Magnetization distribution of single-particle states and 2/sup +/ rotational states from muonic atoms," *Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol.34*, vol. 34, no. , pp. 586-7, 1973.

Abstract:The lowest states in muonic atoms are rather sensitive to the spatial distribution of the nuclear magnetization density, and several results were deduced from the broadening of the muonic 2p/sub 1/2/-1s/sub 1/2/ and 3d/sub 3/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transitions. By measuring low energetic transitions such as the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transition or nuclear gamma -transitions, it is possible to resolve the magnetic hyperfine splittings. The magnetic hf splitting of the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transition in mu /sup 115/In and of the 3/2/sup +/-1/2/sup +/ nuclear gamma -transitions in mu /sup 203/Tl at 279 keV, and in mu /sup 205/Tl at 204 keV, have been resolved. For the 2/sup +/-0/sup +/ nuclear gamma -transition in mu /sup 190,192/Os at 187 keV and 206 keV, respectively, the magnetic hf splitting of the 2/sup +/ rotational levels and the intensities of the hf components were determined from a nearly resolved doublet splitting. (7 References).

H. Backe, R. Engfer, E. Kankeleit, R. Link, R. Michaelsen, C. Petitjean, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, W. U. Schroder, J. L. Vuilleumier, H. K. Walter, and A. Zehnder, "Nuclear excitation and isomer shifts in muonic atoms. I. Experiment and evaluation," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A234, no. 2, pp. 469--503, 1974.

Abstract:Energies and intensities of 53 nuclear gamma -lines in muonic atoms of Sm, Gd, Eu, Tm, Yb, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Hg, Tl, and Bi have been measured with Ge(Li) detectors. By comparison with gamma -lines from radioactive sources the isomer shifts for transitions from nuclear rotational levels, quadrupole and octupole vibrational levels, and single-particle levels have been deduced. The effect limiting the accuracy of the extracted isomer shifts is the correction for the magnetic hyperfine splitting of the nuclear levels. (72 References).

H. Backe, E. Kankeleit, and HK. Walter, "Muonic isomer shifts," in *Mossbauer isomer shifts*, no. (G. K. Shenoy and FE. Wagner, eds.), pp. 833-68, 1978.

Abstract:The following topics are considered: production of muonic atoms, excitation of nuclear levels in muonic atoms; experimental techniques in the measurement of muonic isomer shifts; the evaluation of the muonic isomer shifts; and model-independent analysis of the muonic isomer shift. (40 References).

G. Backenstoss, S. Charalambus, H. Daniel, H. Koch, M. Krell, G. Poelz, H. Schmitt, and L. Tauscher, "Measurements and calculations of pionic atoms," in *Proceedings of the Arnold Summerfields contennial memorial meeeting and of the international symposium on the physics of the one-and-two-electron atoms*, (F. Bopp and H. Keainhoppen, eds.), pp. 429-78, 1969.

Abstract:Discusses recent experimental investigations of pionic atoms and compares the results with theoretical predictions.

G. Backenstoss, A. Bamberger, J. Egger, W. D. Hamilton, H. Koch, U. Lynen, H. G. Ritter, and H. Schmitt, "Measurements of the natural line width and energy shift of the k-mesonic 4f to 3d transition in sulphur," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 32B, no. 5, pp. 399--403, 1970.

Abstract:The natural line width Gamma and an energy shift Delta E due to the strong K-meson-nucleus interaction has been observed for the first time, for an X-ray transition of a K-mesonic atom. For the sulphur 4f-3d transition Gamma =(2.2+or-0.6) keV and Delta E=(-0.36+or-0.25)keV has been measured.

G. Backenstoss, S. Charalambus, H. Daniel, H. Koch, Chvd Malsburg, G. Poelz, H. Schmitt, and L. Tauscher, "Measurements of the vacuum polarization in muonic atoms," in *Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on high-energy physics and nuclear structure*, (S. Devons, ed.), pp. 675-6, 1970.

Abstract:Muonic transitions, where other corrections caused by the finite size and nuclear polarization are small compared with the vacuum polarization, provide an excellent tool for the measurement of the vacuum polarization. Results of an experiment utilising the 5g-4f and the 4f-3d transitions in Bi and natural Pb are presented and discussed.

G. Backenstoss, S. Charalambus, H. Daniel, der Malsburg Ch von, G. Poelz, H. P. Povel, H. Schmitt, and L. Tauscher, "Measurement of the vacuum polarization in muonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 31B, no. 4, pp. 233--6, 1970.

Abstract:The vacuum polarization corrections of the muonic 4f to 3d and 5g to 4f transitions in Bi and Pb have been measured. The over-all accuracy obtained for the vacuum polarization correction is 1%. Experiment and theory agree if higher order corrections are taken into account. (15 References).

G. Backenstoss, S. Charalambus, H. Daniel, U. Lynen, der Malsburg Ch van, G. Poelz, H. Povel, H. Schmitt, K. Springer, and L. Tauscher, "Nuclear gamma -rays following mu -capture," in *Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on high-energy physics and nuclear structure*, (S. Devons, ed.), pp. 160-2, 1970.

Abstract:The authors have measured the nuclear gamma -rays present in the mu -mesic spectra and assigned them to excited states of nuclei (Z-1,A-X) where X=0, 1, 2,... is the number of emitted neutrons. The gamma -ray intensities per muon capture present in the muonic spectra of Mn and Co are reported.

G. Backenstoss, T. Bunaciu, S. Charalambus, J. Egger, H. Koch, A. Bamberger, U. Lynen, H. G. Ritter, and H. Schmitt, "Observations of Sigma Hyperonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 33B, no. 3, pp. 230--2, 1970.

Abstract:Clear evidence for the observation of Sigma /sup -/ atoms is presented, based on a series of Sigma atomic X-ray lines in three target elements. X-ray energies and the number of Sigma atoms produced per stopped K/sup -/ meson agree with expectations.

G. Backenstoss, "Pionic atoms," in *Annual review of nuclear science*, no. (E. Segre, J. R. Grover, and HP. Noyes, eds.), pp. 467-508, 1970.

Abstract:The authors give a review of pionic atoms. They consider the properties of exotic atoms and consider properties which are common to all exotic atoms and which are specifically related to pi -mesonic atoms. Experimental and theoretical techniques are discussed and results derived from electromagnetic properties and from strong pion nucleons interaction. (100 References).

G. Backenstoss, "Recent experimental work on pionic X-rays," in *Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on high-energy physics and nuclear structure*, (S. Devons, ed.), pp. 469-87, 1970.

Abstract:Since with available meson intensities it is very improbable to have more than one meson Coulomb captured by one nucleus, only the relatively simple situation as it is known from hydrogen-like atoms must be considered. After Coulomb capture the mesonic atom is automatically left in a highly excited state so that its de-excitation can be observed.

G. Backenstoss and others, "Muonic X--ray measurements with a high--pressure gas target," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 36, pp. 422--424, 1971.

G. Backenstoss, S. Charalambus, H. Daniel, W. D. Hamilton, U. Lynen, Der Malsburg Ch Von, G. Poelz, and HP. Povel, "Nuclear gamma-rays following muon capture," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. a162, no. 3, pp. 541--51, 1971.

Abstract:The identification of the nuclear gamma-rays that occur when muon capture leads to excited nuclei made it possible to evaluate the distribution of excited nuclei formed after the capture process. Mono-isotopic elements were used as targets, and gamma-ray spectra were recorded using ge(li) detectors. In most cases the observed gamma-rays accounted for a high fraction of the capture process. It could be concluded that the probability of zero neutron emission after muon capture was less than 5% contrary to the findings of kaplan (1958) and the predictions of singer (1962). The chance of single neutron emission was highest, about 50% , and it dropped with increasing neutron multiplicity. The probability of forming a particular excited state in an isotope was in general about proportional to the spin, and about inversely proportional to the energy of the state. (10 References).

G. Backenstoss, A. Bamberger, I. Bergstrom, T. Bunaciu, J. Egger, R. Hagelberg, H. Koch, U. Lynen, H. Ritter, A. Schwitter, and L. Tauscher, "Particle physics aspects in hadronic atoms," *Journal de Physique I*, vol. 33, no. 8-9, 1972.

Abstract:From the study of hadronic atoms one can obtain information about the two components of the system, the nucleus and the orbiting particle and about the interaction between them. Observing transitions between highly excited states of the hadronic atoms one is outside the range of the strong interaction. Under these conditions the energies of the levels can be calculated precisely, taking into account all electromagnetic effects, particularly the vacuum polarization. Thus the value of the mass of the orbiting particle can be derived. The best values so far of the masses of the antiproton could be obtained and are presented for the K/sup -/ meson. The magnetic moment of the particle will cause a fine structure splitting indications of which may be seen. The strong electrical fields may cause a polarization of the nucleus and of the orbiting particle itself resulting in an increase of the level energies. The limits which can be set experimentally, to those effects at present, are discussed. The lower lying levels are affected by the strong interaction between the orbiting particle and the nucleus. As a consequence, the atomic cascade of the particle stops at a certain level, since nuclear capture dominates. Due to the nuclear absorption the last X-ray transition observable has a reduced intensity and the lower level is broadened. (1 Reference).

G. Backenstoss, A. Bamberger, I. Bergstrom, P. Bounin, T. Bunaciu, J. Egger, S. Hultberg, H. Koch, M. Krell, U. Lynen, H. G. Ritter, A. Schwitter, and R. Stearns, "Strong interaction shifts and widths in light kaonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 38B, no. 3, pp. 181--7, 1972.

Abstract:Energy shifts and line widths of X-ray transitions in kaonic atoms have been measured with an accuracy of about 10%. These data have been interpreted in terms of an optical potential. Whereas earlier approaches based on the free K-N scattering lengths fail to reproduce the data, a set of effective parameters consistent with all now available experiments could be derived. (20 References).

G. Backenstoss, A. Bamberger, I. Bergstrom, T. Bunaciu, J. Egger, R. Hagelberg, S. Hultberg, H. Koch, Y. Lynen, H. G. Ritter, A. Schwitter, and L. Tauscher, "K/sup -/ mass and K/sup -/ polarizability from kaonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 43B, no. 5, pp. 431--6, 1973.

Abstract:The K/sup -/ mass was determined from kaonic atomic X-rays from Au and Ba to be 493.691+or-0.040 MeV. An upper limit for the polarizability of the K/sup -/ was found to be 0.020 fm/sup 3/ at 90% confidence. (18 References).

G. Backenstoss, I. Bergstrom, J. Egger, R. Hagelberg, C. J. Herrlander, H. Koch, H. P. Povel, R. H. Price, A. Schwitter, and L. Tauscher, "Precision determination of the strong interaction shifts and widths of the 1s level in pionic /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, and /sup 9/Be," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. 66, no. , pp. 125-34, 1973.

Abstract:The strong-interaction shifts of the 1s level in pionic /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, and /sup 9/Be have been determined with an accuracy of better than 1%. The corresponding widths were determined with an accuracy of better than 6%. Significant deviations from the theory are observed as far as the absolute values as well as the systematics of the isospin dependence are concerned. (13 References).

G. Backenstoss, T. Bunaciu, J. Egger, Tv Egidy, R. Hagelberg, C. J. Herrlander, H. Koch, H. P. Povel, A. Schwitter, and L. Tauscher, "Recent results from studies on hadronic atoms," in *Proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Physics, vol. 1*, (Boer J. de and HJ. Mang, eds.), 1973.

Abstract:The study of hadronic atoms yields information about the hadronic orbiting particle and the atomic nucleus as well as about the interaction between them. However, to determine nuclear properties unambiguously the interaction should be known. This is true in a strict sense only for the electromagnetic interaction and hence for the muonic atom. However, also in hadronic atoms there either are states which are affected only by the long-range electromagnetic interaction or the strong interaction effects are sufficiently well known to study a specific nuclear problem. The authors report on some recently obtained results, for pionic, kaonic, antiprotonic and Sigma -hyperonic atoms. (0 References).

G. Backenstoss and J. Zakrzewski, "Exotic bound states of strange hadrons," *Contemporary Physics*, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 197--25, 1974.

Abstract:A negatively charged strange hadron can be bound by the electromagnetic interaction in the Coulomb field of a nucleus to form an exotic atom. De-excitation of such an atom occurs with the emission of X-rays whose energies, line widths, and intensities have been measured. Deviations from the electromagnetic level scheme are observed for lower-lying states owing to the strong interaction of a hadron with a nucleus. When the wave function of a hadron begins to overlap with the nuclear density distribution, the hadron undergoes nuclear absorption via the strong interaction. The final outcome of such a process is the formation of a Lambda hyperon which may be bound in a nucleus by the strong interaction. An exotic nucleus, or a hypernucleus, is thus formed making it possible to study the Lambda -nucleon interaction. Excited states of hypernuclei decaying via weak, electromagnetic, or strong interaction have been observed and are extensively studied. (82 References).

G. Backenstoss, J. Egger, H. Koch, H. P. Povel, A. Schwitter, and L. Tauscher, "Intensities and strong interaction attenuation of kaonic X-rays," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. B73, no. 2, pp. 189--201, 1974.

Abstract:Relative intensities of numerous kaonic X-ray transitions have been measured for the elements C, P, S, and Cl, from which level widths due to the strong K-nucleus absorption have been determined. From these and earlier published data, optical potential parameters have been derived and possible consequences on the nuclear matter distribution are discussed. (10 References).

G. Backenstoss, J. Egger, Egidy T. von, R. Hagelberg, C. J. Herrlander, H. Koch, H. P. Povel, A. Schwitter, and L. Tauscher, "Pionic and muonic X-ray transitions in liquid helium," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A232, no. 2, pp. 519--32, 1974.

Abstract:Energies and intensities of pionic and muonic X-rays in liquid /sup 4/He have been measured with a Si(Li) detector. The energy shift due to strong interaction effects of the pionic 1s level in /sup 4/He was determined to be -75.7+or-2.0 eV. The natural line width of this level is 45+or-3 eV. These values are compared with different theoretical predictions. Cascade calculations, including external Auger effect and sliding transitions have been performed to reproduce the yields of the muonic and pionic transitions. The pionic 2p level width is deduced. (50 References).

G. Backenstoss, W. Kowald, I. Schwanner, L. Tauscher, H. J. Weyer, D. Gotta, and R. Guigas, "Precision determination of the difference of the charge radii of /sup 16/O and /sup 18/O," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 95B, no. 2, pp. 212--14, 1980.

Abstract:The difference of the RMS radii of the charge distribution of the oxygen isotopes was determined by a relative measurement of the muonic K-series X-rays. It is r(/sup 18/O)-r(/sup 16/O)=(0.076+or-0.005) fm. (11 References).

G. Backenstoss, W. Kowald, I. Schwanner, H. J. Weyer, M. Dorr, D. Gotta, G. Schmidt, L. M. Simons, and H. Ullrich, "Measurement of the total and partial K-X-ray yields for the pnn- and dn-reaction channels of the pi /sup -/-absorption in /sup 3/He," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 115B, no. 6, pp. 445--9, 1982.

Abstract:The total K-X-ray yield Y/sup K/ in pionic /sup 3/He has been determined to (27+or-7)% by measuring a ratio of 3.44+or-0.29 for the simultaneously detected numbers of K-X-rays and deuterons emitted after pion absorption. Partial K-X-ray yields Y/sub d//sup K/ and Y/sub P//sup K/ corresponding to the dn- and pnn-absorption channels respectively, have been measured by detecting coincidences between K-X-rays and deuterons of protons above 20 MeV, respectively in Y/sub d//sup K/=(49+or-5)% and Y/sub p//sup K/(T/sub p/[right angle bracket]or=20 MeV)=(29+or-4)%. (8 References).

A. Badertscher, K. Borer, G. Czapek, A. Fluckiger, H. Hanni, B. Hahn, E. Hugentobler, A. Markees, U. Moser, R. P. Redwine, J. Schacher, H. Scheidiger, P. Schlatter, and G. Viertel, "Upper limit for muon-electron conversion in sulfur," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 39, no. 22, pp. 1385--87, 1977.

Abstract:The unified gauge theories of EM and weak interactions suggest that the conversion of muons into electrons in nuclei may occur at a low level. An experiment at SIN to search for the reaction mu /sup -/+S to S+e/sup -/, which uses a streamer chamber to detect the predicted 105 MeV electron, is described. The zero result gives an upper limit for the mu -e conversion to muon capture branching ratio of [left angle bracket]4*10/sup -10/. (12 References).

A. Badertscher, K. Borer, G. Czapek, A. Fluckiger, H. Hanni, B. Hahn, E. Hugentobler, A. Markees, T. Marti, U. Moser, E. Ramseyer, J. Schacher, H. Scheidiger, P. Schlatter, G. Viertel, and W. Zeller, "A search for muon-electron and muon-positron conversion in sulfur," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A377, no. 2-3, pp. 406--40, 1982.

Abstract:An experiment to search for the neutrinoless conversion of a muon into an electron or a positron in the processes mu /sup -/+/sup 32/S to e/sup -/+/sup 32/S and mu /sup -/+/sup 32/S to e/sup +/+/sup 32/Si* has been carried out at SIN. No evidence for the occurrence of these conversion processes has been found. The resulting new upper limits (under certain assumptions about coherence), relative to ordinary muon capture, are 7*10/sup -11/ (90% CL) for mu /sup -/ to e/sup -/ conversion and 9*10/sup -10/ (90% CL) for mu /sup -/ to e/sup +/ conversion. The measured momentum spectra of the electrons and positrons are compatible with the background spectra expected from bound muon decay and radiative muon capture. (59 References).

A. Badertscher, J. Bagaturia, M. Begalli, W. Bertl, C. Dohmen, W. Dzhordzhadze, J. Egger, R. Engfer, Ch Findeisen, D. Gahwiler, M. Grossmann-Handschin, K-D Groth, P. Hawelka, E. A. Hermes, W. Herold, J. Hofmann, W. Honecker, D. Kampmann, N. Khomutov, T. Kozlowski, B. Krause, N. Lordong, G. Melitauri, A. Mtchedlishvili, F. Muheim, U. Muller, C. B. Niebuhr, G. Otter, S. Playfer, H. S. Pruys, D. Renker, L. Ricken, M. Salzmann, der Schaaf A. van, R. Seeliger, O. Szavits, D. Vermeulen, H. K. Walter, and P. Wintz, "Search for mu /sup -/ to e/sup -/ conversion with SINDRUM II," *Journal of Physics G*, vol. 17, no. , pp. S47-55, 1991.

Abstract:A status report is given on an experiment started in 1987 at PSI to search for the lepton flavour violating muon to electron conversion process. The motivation for this experiment, the design and performance of the detector (SINDRUM II), and results of a first run are presented. No candidate of the process mu /sup -/Ti to e/sup -/Ti was found, and, using two independent determinations of the muon stop rate, an upper limit for the branching ratio relative to muon capture B/sub mu e/[left angle bracket]4.4.10/sup -12/ (90% C.L.) was obtained. This result confirms the current best value for the upper limit found at TRIUMF (4.6.10/sup -12/). (19 References).

A. Badertscher, W. Beer, J-F Gilot, PFA Goudsmit, H. J. Leisi, el Hassani AJ Rusi, D. Sigg, St Thomann, W. Volken, Z. G. Zhao, E. D. Bovet, D. Chatellard, J-P Egger, G. Fiorucci, E. Jeannet, E. C. Aschenauer, K. Gabathuler, J. Missimer, and LM. Simons, "Crystal diffraction of pionic hydrogen and deuterium X-rays," in *International Workshop on Pions in Nuclei*, (E. Oset, Vacas MJ Vicente, and Recio CG. Garcia, eds.), pp. 368-72, 1992.

Abstract:An experiment to measure precisely the strong interaction shift in (1S) and width Gamma (1S) of the 1S level in pionic hydrogen and deuterium is described. In a first step of the experiment, the energy of the pionic hydrogen K/sub beta / X-rays was measured with a bent crystal spectrometer equipped with CCD detectors: E=2885.98+or-0.17(stat.)+or-0.15(syst.)eV, which yields a value for the strong interaction shift in /sub 1S/=-7.12+or-0.32 eV (attractive) and for the combination of S-wave scattering lengths 1/3(2a/sub 1/+a/sub 3/)=0.086+or-0.004 m/sub pi //sup -1/. (6 References).

A. Badertscher, M. Bogdan, PFA Goudsmit, L. Knecht, H. J. Leisi, HCh Schroder, D. Sigg, Z. G. Zhao, D. Chatellard, J-P Egger, E. Jeannet, E. C. Aschenauer, K. Gabathuler, L. M. Simons, and El Hassani AJ. Rusi, "A high resolution reflecting crystal spectrometer to measure 3 keV pionic hydrogen and deuterium X-rays," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors & Associated Equipment*, vol. 335, no. 3, pp. 470--8, 1993.

Abstract:A reflecting crystal spectrometer consisting of three cylindrically bent quartz (110) crystals is described. it was designed to measure the 3 keV K/sub beta / X-rays from pionic hydrogen and deuterium. Charge coupled devices (CCDs) were used as X-ray detectors. Projecting the reflexes of all three crystals on one common focus, an instrumental energy resolution below 1 eV was obtained at an energy of 2.9 keV. (11 References).

A. Badertscher, M. Daum, R. Frosch, P. F. A. Goudsmit, W. Hajdas, M. Janousch, P. R. Kettle, V. Markushin, J. Schottmuller, and Z. G. Zhao, "Experimental determination of the kinetic energy distribution of pi(-)p atoms in liquid hydrogen," *Phys. Lett. B*, vol. 392, pp. 278-282, 1997.

Abstract:We have investigated the kinetic energy distribution of pi(-)p atoms in liquid hydrogen by measuring the Doppler broadening of neutron time-of-flight spectra from the reaction pi(-)p --> pi(0)n. The existence of ''high energy'' (>>1 eV) components, containing about half of the pi(-)p atoms, is confirmed and evidence for discrete peaks with energies up to similar or equal to 200 eV is found.

S. Baer, D. G. Fleming, J. J. Sloan, D. J. Arseneau, A. Kolbuszewski, J. Wright, M. Senba, J. J. Pan, and R. Snooks, "First spectroscopic evidence for a muonium-containing molecule: NeMu/sup */ chemiluminescence," *Journal of Chemical Physics*, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 1202--18, 1994.

Abstract:Evidence for the formation of NeMu/sup */, an isotopic analog of the Rydberg molecule NeH/sup */, has been obtained from the observation of chemiluminescent emission in the near-infrared region. This is the first spectroscopic detection of a muonium-containing molecule. NeMu/sup */ was formed by stopping a 4 MeV muon ( mu /sup +/) beam in a target vessel containing 1-6 atm of Ne and approximately 1 Torr Ar. The wavelength spectrum of the emission, from approximately 680-1000 nm, was measured using a variable-wavelength filter, with a resolution of +or-12.5 nm. Lower resolution spectra were also taken with a series of long pass filters. A complete histogram of photon events vs time was collected for each wavelength. Two strong transitions are observed, centered at 818 and 943 nm. Identification of NeMu/sup */ was made by a comparison of the experimental spectrum with a simulated spectrum based on detailed ab initio calculations, extended to higher excitation levels than had heretofore been reported. Both experimental and theoretical results are reported here. Although the mechanism by which the emitting states in NeMu/sup */ are formed remains unclear, radiolysis effects appear to play a dominant role, indicating that NeMu/sup +/ (the product of muon thermalization in Ne) undergoes charge exchange with metastable Ar/sup */ and/or is neutralized by a spur electron, both species produced during the slowing down of the high energy muon. (79 References).

S. Baer, D. J. Arseneau, D. G. Fleming, M. Senba, J. J. Pan, R. Snooks, M. Shelley, J. R. Kempton, and JJ. Sloan, "NeMu* chemiluminescence: radiolysis effects in gases," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 87, no. 1-4, pp. 985--90, 1994.

Abstract:Near-infrared chemiluminescent emission from NeMu*, the analogue of the Rydberg molecule NeH, has been observed in Ne, Ar, and Ne/Ar gas mixtures. Three temporally distinct features were observed: first, a large sharp emission peak at time zero, observed in all gases (Ne, He, N/sub 2/, Ar), is assigned to scintillation light during muon thermalization, probably caused by spur electrons. Second, a low-intensity broad region observed in all gases is attributed to e/sup +/ from muon decay. Finally, NeMu in 1-6 atm Ne with 0.1-2 torr Ar appeared as a high intensity delayed emission, whose width and intensity depended linearly on the Ar concentration. Its wavelength spectrum from 680-960 nm was measured. Although questions remain as to how NeMu* is formed, the precursor is likely Ne mu /sup +/. Possible electron donors include metastable Ar* (/sup 3/P/sub 2/ or /sup 3/P/sub 0/) and long-lived free (spur) electrons. (10 References).

P. Baeriswyl, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, M. Mallinger, B. Mischler, F. Mulhauser, C. Piller, W. Reichart, B. Riedo, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, and G. Torelli, "Muon transfer to neon," *Psi Nuclear & Particle Physics Newsletter*, no. , pp. 45-6, 1991.

Abstract:Because of its smallness and electric neutrality, the muonic hydrogen atom can easily cross electron clouds of other atoms and transfer its muon to other nuclei. mu Z atoms formed in excited states via this transfer process emit promptly characteristic muonic X-rays. Their time structure is a measure of the lifetime of the muonic hydrogen atom and allows the determination of muon transfer rates. In a measurement of muon transfer from protium to neon in a H/sub 2/+0.7%Ne gas mixture, a transfer rate was measured which was about 20 times smaller than the one observed 20 years ago. (7 References).

V. I. Bagaev, W. D. Fromm, I. N. Mikhailov, H-G Ortlepp, V. Schmidt, and G. Musiol, "Non-axiality effects in quadrupole hyperfine splitting in muonic /sup 238/U," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 67B, no. 2, pp. 169--71, 1977.

Abstract:The quadrupole hyperfine splitting in muonic atoms with nuclei having non-axial symmetry is calculated within the rigid asymmetric rotor model. The X-rays emitted in 4F-3D and 3D-2D transitions of muonic /sup 238/U were measured with high resolution and an analysis of the spectrum was performed to find the quadrupole deformation parameters beta and gamma . (4 References).

S. N. Bagaev, A. M. Belkin, A. S. Dychkov, A. S. Efimov, V. A. Zhmud, D. B. Kolker, Y. A. Matyugin, V. S. Pivtsov, S. A. Farnosov, and N. V. Fateev, "Frequency reference in the 732-nm region for precision laser spectroscopy of muonium," *Quantum Electron.*, vol. 30, pp. 641-646, 2000.

Abstract:A search is performed for a frequency reference in the 732-nm region, which is required to calibrate a laser spectrometer in experiments on precision measurements of the 1S - 2S transition frequency in muonium. The adequate reference is found in the absorption spectrum of molecular iodine vapours heated to 600 degrees C. The reference frequency is less than 1 GHz away from the required spectrometer frequency tuned to the resonance in muonium.

J. S. Baijal, J. A. Diaz, S. N. Kaplan, and R. V. Pyle, "Atomic Capture of µ Mesons in Chemical Compounds," *Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 30, pp. 711--726, 1971.

J. M. Bailey, W. E. Cleland, V. W. Hughes, R. Prepost, and K. Ziock, "Muonium. II. Observation of the muonium hyperfine-structure interval," *Physical Review A*, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 871--84, 1971.

Abstract:A full discussion is given of the microwave-spectroscopy resonance method of measuring the hyperfine-structure interval Delta nu of the ground state of muonium, including the theoretical value for Delta v, the transition frequencies, and the resonance line shape. A complete description is also given of the experimental method of measuring Delta nu at strong magnetic field. The initial experimental results gave Delta nu =4461.3+or-2.0 MHz, in good agreement with the theoretical value Delta nu =4463.282+or-0.062 MHz. The first observations of muonium chemistry are described. (74 References).

J. Bailey, D. V. Bugg, U. Gastaldi, P. Hattersley, D. R. Jeremiah, E. Klempt, K. Neubecker, E. Polacco, and J. Warren, "The pi d scattering length from K/sub alpha / X-rays," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 50B, no. 3, pp. 403--6, 1974.

Abstract:X-rays from the K/sub alpha / transition (2P to 1S) of the pi /sup -/d mesic atom have been observed. Their energy, 2592-8(+1.6,-2.0) eV, has been measured by the critical absorber technique, using the M/sub V/ absorption edge in bismuth. The strong interaction shift in the 1S state is -4.8 eV, corresponding to a scattering length a( pi d)=-0.052(+0.022, -0.017)m/sub pi //sup -1/, in agreement with recent calculations. The intensity ratio K/sub alpha //K/sub total/=0.548+or-0.015. (16 References).

J. Bailey, "Parity non-conservation in muonic helium atoms," in *Symmetries in Nuclear Structure. Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Symmetries in Nuclear Structure*, (K. Abrahams, K. Allaart, and AEL. Dieperink, eds.), pp. 285--8, 1983.

Abstract:The author describes a difficult experiment, which may succeed if several unknown factors are favourable. The reason for doing the experiment is as follows. The electroweak interaction Hamiltonian H between a lepton (electron or muon) and a nucleus is: H=NC/sub 1n/H/sub 1n/+ZC/sub 1p/H/sub 1p/+S/sub n/C/sub 2n/H/sub 2n/+S/sub p/C/sub 2p/H/sub 2p/ where C/sub 2p/=-C/sub 2n/=1.2 epsilon ; C/sub 1p/= epsilon =/sup 1///sub 2/(1-4 sin/sup 2/ theta /sub w/) approximately=0; C/sub 1n/=-/sup 1///sub 2/; theta /sub w/ is the Glashow angle, so C/sub 1n/ is much bigger than the other Cs. This Hamiltonian contains 4 constants C, and different experiments test different combinations of these 4 constants, most measurements until now having been confined to electrons. In the standard model, the same 4 constants are also valid for muons, but this should be tested. The present experiment attempts to do this by making two measurements, on the muonic atoms of the two He isotopes. It is based on a suggestion by Bernabeu et al. (1974). Muonic atoms are smaller than normal atoms by a factor m/sub mu //m/sub e/=200, so the muon is very close to the nucleus, thus enhancing weak-interaction effects (which are short-range). (0 References).

D. H. Bailey and AM. Frolov, "Universal variational expansion for high-precision bound-state calculations in three-body systems. Applications to weakly bound, adiabatic and two-shell cluster systems," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 4287--98, 2002.

Abstract:The results of high-precision variational calculations are reported for a number of bound states in various Coulomb three-body systems, including helium and helium-muonic atoms, some adiabatic systems (H/sub 2//sup +/, D/sub 2//sup +/ and DT/sup +/ ions) and muonic molecular ions pp mu , dd mu , tt mu , and dt mu . The hyperfine splittings for the double electron-excited states in the helium-muonic /sup 3/He/sup 2+/ mu /sup -/e/sup -/ and /sup 4/He/sup 2+/ mu /sup -/e/sup -/ atoms have also been determined. The results of this study are significantly more accurate than results known from earlier calculations for all considered systems and states. The approach can be used to determine the bound-state spectra in various three-body systems to arbitrary high accuracy. We also discuss a number of complications which are usually detected in high-precision bound-state calculations of few-body systems. (41 References).

S. Baird, C. T. Batty, F. M. Russell, P. Sharman, P. M. Bird, A. S. Clough, K. R. Parker, G. J. Pyle, and GTA. Squier, "Measurements on exotic atoms of helium," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A392, no. 2-3, pp. 297--310, 1983.

Abstract:Measurements of X-ray yields, energies and strong interaction effects have been made for muonic, pionic, kaonic, antiprotonic and sigma-helium atoms. The strong interaction measurements for kaons confirm the discrepancy previously reported between experiment and values calculated with an optical model. However, in contradiction to previous work there is good agreement between theory and experimental measurements of strong interaction effects in antiprotonic-helium. The first observation of X-rays from sigma-helium atoms is reported. (14 References).

D. D. Bakalov, S. I. Vinitskii, and VS. Melezhik, "Hyperfine structure of the energy levels of mu -mesic molecules of hydrogen isotopes," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 1629--40, 1980.

Abstract:The hyperfine structure of the energy levels of all stationary states with total orbital moment quantum numbers J[left angle bracket]or=1 and vibrational quantum numbers nu [left angle bracket]or=1 of mesic molecules of hydrogen isotopes is calculated with an accuracy to 10/sup -3/ eV in the first order of perturbation theory with respect to alpha /sup 2/. The solutions of the nonrelativistic problem of the bound states of a three-particle system with Coulomb interaction found in the adiabatic representation are chosen as the zero approximation. The probability amplitudes for various values of the total nuclear spin and total mu -mesic molecular spin in stationary states of the hyperfine structure are presented. The populations of the stationary states of the hyperfine structure of mu -mesic molecules produced in collisions between p mu , d mu or t mu mesic atoms in the para- or ortho-states with p, d or t nuclei are calculated. (19 References).

D. Bakalov, "Quasipotential equation for hydrogen isotopes. Muonic atoms. Ground state energy levels," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 93B, no. 3, pp. 265--8, 1980.

Abstract:The quasipotential for the electromagnetic interaction of two particles of spin /sup 1///sub 2/ or 1 with arbitrary electromagnetic interaction of two particles of spin /sup 1///sub 2/ or 1 with arbitrary electromagnetic structure is constructed in the one-photon approximation. Todorov's quasipotential equation is applied to calculate the ground state energy levels of the muonic atoms p mu , d mu and t mu with accuracy 10/sup -3/ eV. (13 References).

DD. Bakalov, "Relativistic corrections and correction for the electromagnetic structure of nuclei to the energy levels of mu -mesomolecules," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 1149--59, 1980.

Abstract:An effective three-body Hamiltonian is set up which takes into account the electromagnetic structure of the particles and relativistic effects of the order of alpha /sup 2/ which do not depend on the orientation of the particle spins. Relativistic corrections and corrections for the electromagnetic structure of the nuclei, which must be taken into account in the energy levels of the mu -mesomolecules of the hydrogen isotopes, are calculated with an accuracy to 5*10/sup -3/ eV by employing the hamiltonian and the nonrelativistic wave functions for a three-particle system with Coulomb interaction in the adiabatic representation. (16 References).

D. D. Bakalov and SI. Vinitskii, "Spin effects in the three-body problem with electromagnetic interaction. Hyperfine structure of the energy levels in the mesomolecule pp mu," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 720--33, 1980.

Abstract:An approximate operator (with accuracy up to terms of the order alpha /sup 2/) is constructed for the spin interaction in system of three spin-/sup 1///sub 2/ particles taking into account their electromagnetic structure. The result is a sum of the pair spin operators, obtained in the framework of the quasipotential approach. The hyperfine structure of levels of the mesomolecule pp mu in the ortho-state and its gamma /sub 0/ factor are calculated. The capture rate for the mu /sup -/ meson on proton in the mesomolecule pp mu is expressed in terms of the capture rates in the p mu mesoatom. (22 References).

D. D. Bakalov, M. P. Faifman, L. I. Ponomarev, and SI. Vinitsky, "mu -capture and ortho-para transitions in the muonic molecule pp mu," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A384, no. 3, pp. 302--22, 1982.

Abstract:The capture of a muon by protons at different hydrogen densities is considered. More precise values of gamma -factors for ortho- and para-states of the muonic molecule pp mu are obtained: 2 gamma /sub 0/=1009+or-0.001 and 2 gamma /sub p/=1.143+or-0.001. Relativistic effects are taken into account in the muonic molecule, and the rate of ortho-para transitions lambda /sub op/=(7.1+or-1.2)*10/sup 4/ s/sup -1/, caused by these effects, is calculated. With this value of lambda /sub op/ the mu -capture rate in liquid hydrogen is found to be Lambda /sub c/=(490+or-10) s/sup -1/ that is in agreement with the value Lambda /sub c/=460+or-20 s/sup -1/ recently measured by the Saclay-CERN-Bologna collaboration. (47 References).

D. D. Bakalov, V. S. Melezhik, and SI. Vinitsky, "Relativistic effects in mu -mesic molecules of the hydrogen isotopes," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, 1984.

Abstract:Summary form only given. The authors have calculated relativistic corrections to the energy levels of mesic molecules: fine and hyperfine splitting of energy levels, recoil corrections, shifts caused by contact interaction, the electromagnetic structure of nuclei, the mass of electromagnetic field and electron screening correction. The calculations are carried out in the adiabatic representation of the three-body problem, and the approach of the Breit potential is used. The errors do not exceed 1 meV. The corrections are approximately 100 meV for strongly bound states of mesic molecules, approximately 20-10 meV for weakly bound states J=V=1 of molecules dd mu and dt mu , and they should be taken into account in the description of the muon-catalysed fusion kinetics. (1 Reference).

D. D. Bakalov, V. S. Melezhik, L. I. Menshikov, and SI. Vinitsky, "Relativistic effects in the weakly bound states of dd mu and dt mu mesic molecules," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 161B, no. 1-3, pp. 5--8, 1985.

Abstract:The relativistic shift and the fine and hyperfine splitting of the energy levels of the weakly bound states of dd mu and dt mu mesic molecules have been calculated. These results should be taken into account in the description of the resonance type formation of dd mu and dt mu . (15 References).

DD. Bakalov, "Effects of the electromagnetic structure of nuclei in muonic molecules," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 335--45, 1988.

Abstract:The author calculates the corrections to the binding energy of the muonic molecules dd mu and dt mu related to the electromagnetic structure of the nuclei. The author shows that these effects make a significant contribution to the nonrelativistic shift and to the hyperfine splitting of levels of the muonic molecules dd mu and dt mu and that these corrections must be taken into account in calculation of the resonance production rates of these molecules. The contribution from the effects related to the electromagnetic structure of the nuclei to the relativistic shift is negligibly small. (19 References).

D. D. Bakalov, V. S. Melezhik, L. I. Men'shikov, and MP. Faifman, "Rates of deexcitation of the mesic molecule dd mu in the mesic molecular complex ((dd mu )dee)," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 61--9, 1988.

Abstract:"The deexcitation of the mesic molecule dd mu from the weakly-bound J= nu =1 rotational-vibrational state to the J=1

D. Bakalov, "Relativistic effects in mesic molecules," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, no. 1-4, pp. 321--34, 1988.

Abstract:The formalism for calculating the leading relativistic and particle electromagnetic structure effects in systems of three spin particles with electromagnetic interaction based on the directly interacting particle dynamics has been applied to high precision calculations of the corrections to the muonic molecule dd mu and dt mu loosely bound state binding energy. The hyperfine splitting and the overall shift of the Coulomb energy levels have been calculated with an accuracy about 1 meV, allowing the detailed interpretation of recent experiments on muon catalyzed fusion in hydrogen isotope mixtures. (17 References).

DD. Bakalov, "Open problems in the relativistic description of muonic molecules," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 335--9, 1991.

Abstract:The state of the art of the calculation of the binding energy epsilon /sub 11/ for the weakly bound muonic molecules dd mu and dt mu is discussed. The present accuracy of ~1 meV was reached by several authors. Ways of further improvements are outlined. (18 References).

D. Bakalov, "Short distance singularities of the relativistic two-body interaction and muon capture in hydrogen," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 170, no. 5, pp. 393--6, 1992.

Abstract:It is demonstrated that the short distance singularities of the relativistic interaction Hamiltonian of two spin particles with electromagnetic interactions have an effect on the muon-proton overlap in the ground state of p mu -atoms of the order of 1-2% that may be important for the interpretation of high-accuracy measurements of the rate of muon capture by protons in hydrogen. (14 References).

D. Bakalov, E. Milotti, C. Rizzo, A. Vacchi, and E. Zavattini, "Experimental method to measure the hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen ( mu /sup -/p)/sub 1S/," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 172, no. 4, pp. 277--80, 1993.

Abstract:The authors propose an experimental method to measure the hyperfine splitting of the energy level of the muonic hydrogen ground state ( mu /sup -/p)/sub 1S/ by inducing a laser-stimulated para-to-ortho transition. The method requires an intense low energy pulsed mu /sup -/ beam and a high power tunable pulsed laser. (17 References).

D. Bakalov, E. Milotti, C. Rizzo, A. Vacchi, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen ( mu p)/sub 1s/. An experimental method," in *Proceedings of III International Symposium on Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei (WEIN-92)*, (TsD. Vylov, ed.), pp. 656-62, 1993.

Abstract:The authors propose an experimental method for the measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the muonic hydrogen ground state energy level based on the study of laser-stimulated para-to-ortho transitions of p mu -atoms. They show that from the experimental value of the /sup 3/S/sub 1/-/sup 1/S/sub 0/ energy difference-if measured with a relative accuracy of 10/sup -4/ or better-important information on the electromagnetic structure of the proton can be obtained. In particular, the uncertainty of proton polarizability can be reduced by an order of magnitude. (11 References).

D. Bakalov, "Relativistic corrections to particle overlap in atoms and muon capture in hydrogen," in *Muonic Atoms and Molecules*, (L. A. Schaller and C. Petitjean, eds.), (CH--4010, Basel), pp. 83--88, 1993.

D. D. Bakalov, I. V. Puzynin, T. P. Puzynina, and S. I. Vinitsky, "Fine and hyperfine structure of antiprotonic helium," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101/102, pp. 487--492, 1996.

D. Bakalov, K. Bakalova, V. Korobov, H. J. Monkhorst, and I. Shimamura, "Fine and quadrupole structure of the weakly bound systems (dt mu )/sub 11/dee and (dd mu )/sub 11/dee," *Physical Review A*, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 3370--5, 1998.

Abstract:The interaction of the quadrupole electric moment of the muonic molecules with the Coulomb field of the embedding D/sub 2/ molecule gives rise to corrections to the energy levels that depend on the spin and significantly modify the muonic molecule fine structure. We present the first-order calculation of the fine and hyperfine structure of the energy levels of the weakly bound states (dt mu )/sub 11/ and (dd mu )/sub 11/ that accounts for the quadrupole finite-size corrections as well. The reported results are of interest for the upcoming high-precision measurement of the energy levels and the formation rate of the muonic molecules dt mu and dd mu . (11 References).

D. Bakalov, K. Bakalova, V. Korobov, and H. J. Monkhorst, "Quadrupole splitting of the weakly bound system [(dt mu)- (11)dee]," *Pol. J. Chem.*, vol. 72, pp. 1343-1352, 1998.

Abstract:The energy levels of the molecular complex [(dt mu)(11)dee] are close to the sum of the energies of the (dt mu)(11) and D-2 molecules; the small difference of a few meV, referred to as "finite size correction", is an effect of the Coulomb interaction with the spatially distributed electrical charge in the compound nucleus of the complex. The quadrupole terms in the multipole expansion of the latter are shown to interfere with the spin interactions and to modify the hyperfine structure of the levels of the complex in a way that may affect the resonant formation rate of (dt mu)(11).

D. Bakalov and VI. Korobov, "Muonic molecules: beyond the Coulomb model," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 265--70, 2001.

Abstract:We report the latest numerical results for the binding energy of the weakly bound states of the muonic molecules (dd mu )/sub 11/ and (dtA)/sub 11/ obtained with account of the leading QED, relativistic and nuclear structure effects, as well as of the interactions within the molecular complexes. The uncertainty of the theoretical value of the binding energy of (dd mu )/sub 11/ does not exceed 0.1 meV. (12 References).

OK. Baker, "Molecular effects in nuclear scattering: hyperfine quenching in d mu +D/sub 2/ collisions," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 223-5, 1988.

Abstract:A better understanding of hyperfine effects in d mu scattering from molecules of hydrogen isotopes will be helpful in untangling the intricacies of the muon catalyzed fusion process. The author presents calculations of hyperfine quenching cross sections and rates for d mu +D/sub 2/ scattering in the absence of ((dd mu )d2e) mesomolecular formation. (6 References).

J. M. Baker, I. Z. Machi, S. H. Connell, K. Bharuth-Ram, J. E. Butler, S. F. J. Cox, C. G. Fischer, T. Jestadt, P. Murphy, R. W. N. Nilen, and J. P. F. Sellschop, "Longitudinal field muon spin relaxation (LF-mu SR) measurements and evidence for a new muonium defect site in type Ia diamond," *Hyperfine Interact.*, vol. 121, pp. 579-583, 1999.

Abstract:A new configuration for muonium, with hyperfine interaction parameters of less than axial symmetry, in nitrogen rich diamond is identified in Longitudinal Field Muon Spin Relaxation (LF-mu SR) measurements. The TF-mu SR measurements on the same sample show that almost the entire strength of the new configuration is accounted for by a "missing fraction", typically seen in nitrogen rich type Ia diamond. The "missing fraction" is therefore the result of a T2 relaxation. This is consistent with muon trapping at or in some nitrogen related defect(s) followed by electron capture at random times.

P. Bakule, Y. Matsuda, Y. Miyake, P. Strasser, K. Shimomura, S. Makimura, and K. Nagamine, "Slow muon experiment by laser resonant ionization method at RIKEN-RAL muon facility," *Spectroc. Acta Pt. B-Atom. Spectr.*, vol. 58, pp. 1019-1030, 2003.

Abstract:We report first results of the slow muon generation from pulsed surface muon beam using a method of resonant laser ionization of muonium. The muonium is produced from the union beam by electron capture near the surface of thin tungsten foil heated to 2100 K. The ionization is resonantly enhanced by using a vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation resonant with 2P state of muonium (lambda(1S-2P) = 122.09 nm). A pulsed beam at 355 nm is used for an efficient ionization from the 2P state. The VUV beam with pulse duration of 4 ns and with bandwidth of over 100 GHz to match the Doppler broadening of muonium (200 GHz) is generated by resonant third-order sum-difference frequency conversion (omega(VUV) = 2omega(R) - omega(T)) in krypton gas phase-matched with argon buffer gas. The omega(R) beam has been tuned to the two-photon resonance of 4p(5)5p[1/2,0] state in krypton to enhance the conversion process. Yield of the VUV radiation has been investigated for different energies and confocal parameters of the incident beams. The whole apparatus, including a beamline for transport and detection of ionized particles, has been tested by ionizing residual hydrogen atoms at an ultra-high vacuum level of 1.1 X 10(-9) hPa with efficiency better than 10(-3). The yield of slow muons obtained during the first beamtime, was 0.03 mu(+)/s. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

M. P. Balandin, V. M. Grebenyuk, V. G. Zinov, T. Kozlovski, and AD. Konin, "Energy spectra and asymmetry of charged particles from negative muon capture by nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 582--9, 1978.

Abstract:The energy spectra of mass separated single charged particles at the capture of negative muons by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and sulphur nuclei are measured. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the assumption of the pre-equilibrium decay of the collective states described by the hydrodynamical model. The asymmetry of emission of charged particles is measured in sulphur and magnesium. (10 References).

V. V. Balashov, R. A. Eramzhyan, N. M. Kabchnik, G. Ya Korenman, and VL. Korotkih, "Resonance mechanism of muon capture by complex nuclei," in *Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on high-energy physics and nuclear structure*, (S. Devons, ed.), pp. 174-6, 1970.

V. V. Balashov, G. Y. Korenman, and RA. Eramzhyan, "Coincidence experiments in the studies of mu -capture and radiative pi /sup -/ capture by nuclei," *Fizika Elementarnykh Chastits i Atomnogo Yadra*, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 585--617, 1973.

Abstract:After a discussion of the appropriate Hamiltonian, mesic atom reaction and transitions to bound states are considered. The conditions for emission of fast neutrons, gamma n correlations and excitation of giant resonances are discussed. (45 References).

V. V. Balashov, V. K. Dolinov, GYa Korenman, S. V. Leonoya, L. V. Moskalenko, and VP. Popov, "Muon-atom and muon-molecule collisions in hydrogen and helium isotope mixture," in *Electronic and Atomic Collisions. XV ICPEAC Brighton '87. Abstracts of Contributed Papers. Fifteenth International Conference*, (J. Geddes, H. B. Gilbody, A. E. Kingston, C. J. Latimer, and HRJ. Walters, eds.), 1987.

Abstract:The authors present the results of theoretical studying the ionization and Coulomb capture cross sections for slow-muon interactions with hydrogen and helium atoms and molecules, as well and the kinetic characteristics of these processes in H+He mixtures. In the semiclassical approximation the muon collisions with H and He atoms are described by the equations of two-body muon-atom channel-to-three-body channels coupling. To obtain the effective potential matrix, the adiabatic and diabatic bases are used for mu /sup -/-H and mu /sup -/-He systems, respectively. The inelastic mu /sup -/-H cross sections obtained in this way are in good agreement with the exact solution for the classical three-body problem. The authors illustrate the calculations of the muon capture cross sections by the He atom which were made using a multiparametric He ground-state wave function and the Hartree-Fock wave function. The calculations within a diabatic state model are shown as well. It should be noted that the exponential decrease in the authors' cross sections is more rapid and starts at lower energies. (4 References).

V. V. Balashov, V. K. Dolinov, GYa Korenman, S. V. Leonova, I. V. Moskalenko, and VP. Popov, "Slowing-down and Coulomb capture of negative muons in the hydrogen-helium isotope mixtures," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 2, no. 1-4, pp. 105--15, 1988.

Abstract:The authors report the results of the theoretical study of ionization and Coulomb capture in collisions of slow negative muons with atoms of H, He and molecules of hydrogen isotopes. The cross sections and the kinetic characteristics of these processes in the mixture of molecules of hydrogen isotopes and helium atoms are calculated. (18 References).

V. V. Balashov, V. K. Dolinov, and VA. Shakirov, "Mechanisms populating the 2P/sub 0/ and 2P/sub +or-1/ states of the muonic ion He/sub mu //sup +/ in muon-catalyzed D-D and D-T fusion," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 409--17, 1989.

Abstract:The effects of angular momentum alignment have been taken into account in the slowing down kinetics and X-ray radiation of the He/sub mu //sup +/-ion. (15 References).

V. V. Balashov, V. K. Dolinov, D. A. Konovalov, and VA. Shakirov, "Angular-momentum alignment effects in the stopping of the muonic helium ion in the process of muon catalytic fusion," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 110--17, 1990.

Abstract:The authors consider the occurrence of angular-momentum alignment of the 2P state of the muonic helium ion formed in the reaction dt mu to He/sub mu //sup +/+n and its time dependence during the stopping of the He/sub mu //sup +/ ion in liquid hydrogen. They calculate the angular correlation function of the neutron and X-ray photon emitted in the transition 2P to 1S, the Doppler profile of the K/sub alpha / line, and the correction to the effective sticking coefficient of the muon to an alpha particle obtained by the X-ray method. (20 References).

D. V. Balin and others, "Experimental investigation of the muon catalyzed dd--fusion," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 141, pp. 173--176, 1984.

D. V. Balin, A. A. Vorob'ev, AnA Vorob'ev, YuK Zalite, E. M. Maev, V. I. Medvedev, G. G. Semenchuk, and YuV. Smirenin, "Muon catalysis of dd nuclear fusion in the pressure range 51.6-93.0 atm," *Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki, Pis'Ma V Redaktsiyu*, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 318-20, 1984.

Abstract:The rate of production of dd mu molecules at deuterium pressures of 51.6, 70.4, 79.6, 91.6 and 93.0 atm has been measured at a temperature of 293K. The ratio of the yields of the dd fusion reactions and the effective muon attachment coefficient are determined. (11 References).

D. B. Balin, A. A. Vorob'ev, AnA Vorob'ev, YuK Zalite, A. A. Markov, V. I. Medvedev, E. M. Maev, G. G. Semenchuk, and YuV. Smirenin, "Charge exchange of mesonic deuterium atoms with /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He," *Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki, Pis'Ma V Redaktsiyu*, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 236-9, 1985.

Abstract:The charge-exchange rate of mesonic deuterium atoms with /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He nuclei is measured: lambda /sub d/(/sup 3/He)=(1.27+or-0.11)*10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/ and lambda /sub d/(/sup 4/He)=(3.68+or-0.18)*10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/. The results obtained confirm the validity of the molecular charge-exchange mechanism. (9 References).

D. V. Balin and others, "The experimental investigation of muon catalyzed $dd$-- and $dt$--fusion processes," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 1, pp. 127--135, 1987.

D. V. Balin, V. A. Volchenkov, A. A. Vorob'ev, AnA Vorob'ev, A. I. lI'in, V. K. Kapyshev, E. M. Maev, M. P. Malek, V. P. Maleev, A. A. Markov, V. I. Medvedev, G. E. Petrov, L. B. Petrov, L. A. Rivkis, G. A. Ryabov, G. G. Semenchuk, and YuV. Smirenin, "Measurement of the rate of charge exchange of muonic atoms of deuterium in tritium," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1543--8, 1987.

Abstract:An ionization chamber recording charged products of dt and dd fusion has been used to measure the rate of charge exchange of muonic atoms of deuterium in tritium from the ground state of the d mu atoms. This rate, referred to the density of liquid hydrogen, is lambda /sub dt//sup 0/=(2.8+or-0.2).10/sup 8/ sec/sup -1/. In addition an upper limit Y[left angle bracket]or=3% has been obtained for the relative probability of charge exchange from excited states of the d mu atom under the following conditions of the experiment: pressure of gas mixture 84.3 atm, tritium content 1.24%, and temperature 296 K. (8 References).

D. V. Balin and others, "Analysis of $dt$--µCF data," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 2, pp. 163--172, 1988.

D. V. Balin, YuS Grigoriev, A. I. Ilyin, S. M. Kozlov, E. L. Lobachev, E. M. Maev, A. A. Markov, V. I. Medvedev, G. D. Mituhlaeva, G. E. Petrov, L. B. Petrov, V. I. Poromov, G. G. Semenchuk, YuV Smirenin, V. A. Trofimov, A. A. Vasilyev, A. A. Vorobyov, and AnA. Vorobyov, "Investigation of temperature dependence of the muon catalyzed fusion in deuterium," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 2, no. 1-4, pp. 241--5, 1988.

Abstract:A new experimental setup has been constructed at LNPI with a high pressure ionization chamber as a sensitive target operating at variable temperatures. It makes possible absolute measurements of the fusion rates in the temperature range of 40 to 400 K with the temperature fixed with precision of +or-0.3 K. In the first run, the temperature dependence of lambda /sub dd mu / was measured in the range 52 to 293 K. (5 References).

D. V. Balin, V. N. Baturin, YuA Chestnov, A. I. Ilyin, P. A. Kapinos, E. M. Maev, G. E. Petrov, L. B. Petrov, G. G. Semenchuk, YuA Smirenin, A. A. Vorobyov, AnA Vorobyov, and NI. Voropaev, "Investigation of the temperature dependence of muon catalyzed fusion parameters in deuterium," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 163--77, 1990.

Abstract:A high precision study of muon catalyzed dd fusion was performed in the temperature range 52-293 K using a deuterium-filled high pressure ionization chamber as a detector of stopped muons and fusion products. The dd mu molecule formation rate lambda /sub dd mu / (T) is determined. The precision in absolute measurements of lambda /sub dd mu / is about 5% in each temperature point. The temperature was controlled within +or-0.2 K. Comparison of the measured lambda /sub dd mu /(T) with the mu CF theory allows accurate determination of the energy epsilon /sub 11/ of the loosely bound state in the dd mu molecule and the fusion rate lambda /sub f/. The yields ratio R=Y(/sup 3/He+n)/Y(/sup 3/H+p) was temperature dependent, decreasing from R=1.4 at room temperature to R=1.0 at T[left angle bracket]or=70 K that reflects, presumably, variation in the contributions of the P- and S-waves in the dd fusion process. The spin-flip rate in the d mu atoms lambda /sub 21/ was determined at T[left angle bracket]160 K: lambda /sub 21/=(37.3+or-1.5)*10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/, in agreement with previous measurements but in disagreement with the current mu CF theory. The experiment was carried out in the muon beam of the Gatchina synchrocyclotron. (20 References).

D. V. Balin, V. N. Baturin, YuA Chestnov, YuS Grigoriev, V. S. Dubogray, A. I. Ilyin, E. M. Maev, G. E. Petrov, L. B. Petrov, G. G. Semenchuk, YuA Smirenin, A. A. Vorobyov, and NI. Voropeav, "Method for direct measurement of muon sticking probability in dt mu catalysis," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 481--5, 1991.

Abstract:The authors describe an experimental method for direct measurement of the muon sticking probability in dt mu catalysis based on the use of a multianode ionization chamber filled with an H/D/T gas mixture at 180 atm pressure. The difference in recombination of the ionization produced by (/sup 4/He)/sup 2+/ and (/sup 4/He mu )/sup +/ ions allows the separation of /sup 4/He mu and /sup 4/He signals. The experimental setup has been tested in muon beams at LNPI and at PSI. (6 References).

D. V. Balin, YuS Grigoriev, A. I. Ilyin, L. G. Kudin, E. M. Maev, A. A. Markov, V. I. Medvedev, E. M. Orischin, G. E. Petrov, L. B. Petrov, V. I. Poromov, G. L. Sokolov, G. G. Semenchuk, YuV Smirenin, N. A. Timofeev, A. A. Vorobyov, AnA Vorobyov, and YuK. Zalite, "Experimental method for investigation of muon catalyzed dd fusion," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 7, no. 1-2, pp. 1--36, 1992.

Abstract:The authors describe a new experimental method which allows one to study muon catalyzed dd fusion. Also, it gives a possibility to measure the muon exchange rate in the reaction d mu +Z to Z mu +d. The main element of the experimental set-up is a deuterium filled ionization chamber. Special attention is paid to the data analysis performed to determine the molecule formation rate lambda /sub dd mu //sup 0/, the muon effective sticking probability, w(dd,/sup 3/He), the ratio of the yields R=Y(d+d to /sup 3/He+n)/Y(d+d to t+p), and the muon transfer rates to helium isotopes lambda /sup 0/(d,/sup 3/He) and lambda /sup 0/(d,/sup 4/He). (11 References).

D. V. Balin, V. N. Baturin, AYu Chestnov, E. M. Maev, G. E. Petrov, L. B. Petrov, G. G. Semenchuk, YuV Smirenin, A. A. Vorobyov, N. I. Voropaev, W. Czaplinski, M. Filipowicz, A. Gula, and E. Gula, "Search for nuclear fusion reaction in the /sup 3/He mu d system," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 301--8, 1992.

Abstract:An attempt is made to observe muon catalysis of the fusion reaction d+/sup 3/He to /sup 4/He+p in the /sup 3/He mu d system. A high pressure ( approximately=100 atm) ionization chamber filled with deuterium-/sup 3/He mixture at room temperature was exposed to the negative muon beam of the Gatchina synchrocyclotron to detect alpha +p signals. The analysis of the obtained charged particle energy spectra shows no evidence for this reaction at the level of lambda /sub f/[right angle bracket]7*10/sup 7/s/sup -1/, where lambda /sub f/ is the fusion rate averaged over the angular momentum states of the /sup 3/He mu d system. (21 References).

D. V. Balin, V. N. Baturin, YuS Grigoriev, E. M. Maev, G. E. Petrov, G. G. Semenchuk, A. A. Vorobyov, N. I. Voropaev, C. Petitjean, K. Lou, P. Ackerbauer, W. N. Breunlich, M. Fuchs, S. Fussy, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, J. Marton, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, H. Bossy, T. Case, K. M. Crowe, P. Baumann, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, P. Hofmann, R. Huber, R. Lipowsky, and P. Wojciechowsky, "Experimental results on muon catalyzed fusion kinetics in triple mixture of hydrogen isotopes," in *Proceedings of III International Symposium on Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei (WEIN-92)*, (TsD. Vylov, ed.), pp. 647-51, 1993.

Abstract:The kinetics of muonic processes in equilibrated triple mixture of hydrogen isotopes was analyzed and several parameters were extracted from th experimental data that was obtained at PSI accelerator with the LNPI ionization chamber. The parameters evaluated are: muon exchange rate lambda /sub dt/, muonic molecule formation rates lambda /sub pd mu /, lambda /sub dt mu / on HD molecules, the probability of muonic atom (t mu ) thermalization. (12 References).

D. V. Balin, V. N. Baturin, YuA Chestnov, YuS Grigoriev, E. M. Maev, G. E. Petrov, L. B. Petrov, G. G. Semenchuk, YuV Smirenin, A. A. Vorobyov, N. I. Voropaev, W. Czaplinski, M. Filipowicz, A. Gula, and E. Gula, "Investigation of fast muon transfer in D/sub 2/+/sup 3/He mixture," in *Proceedings of III International Symposium on Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei (WEIN-92)*, (TsD. Vylov, ed.), pp. 652-5, 1993.

Abstract:The ionization chamber filled with deuterium/He-3 mixture at approximately 100 atm pressure was exposed to a muon beam at LNPI synchrocyclotron. The experimental data was analyzed and the rates of slow (molecular) and (direct) exchanges of muons from d mu to He-3 atom were evaluated. (8 References).

D. V. Balin and others, "Muonic atom formation, muon transfer and nuclear fusion in a D$_2$ + $^3$He gas mixture," in *Muonic Atoms and Molecules*, (L. A. Schaller and C. Petitjean, eds.), (CH--4010, Basel), pp. 25--33, 1993.

D. V. Balin, V. N. Baturin, Y. S. Grigoriev, E. M. Maev, G. E. Petrov, G. G. Semenchuk, Y. V. Smirenin, A. A. Vorobyov, N. I. Voropaev, J. Deutsch, J. Govaerts, R. Prieels, P. Ackerbauer, W. H. Breunlich, P. Kammel, B. Lauss, J. Marton, W. Prymas, J. Egger, C. Petitjean, T. Petitjean, Den Brandt B. Van, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, M. Muhlbauer, W. Schott, Egidy T. Von, P. Wojciechowski, T. Case, K. M. Crowe, V. E. Markushin, and GA. Beer, "Precision measurement of nuclear muon capture by /sup 3/He," in *15th European Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics, Few-Body Systems Supplementum*, pp. 248-53, 1995.

Abstract:We report preliminary results of the experiment performed in 1993 at PSI with the goal to determine the absolute rate of the nuclear muon capture reaction: /sup 3/He( mu (-), nu /sub mu /). (5 References).

D. V. Balin and others, "Search for muon catalyzed $d^3$He--fusion," *Gatchina Preprint 2221 NP--7*, 1998.

D. V. Balin, YuP Averin, V. R. Bom, J. N. Bradbury, J. D. Davies, A. M. Demin, D. L. Demin, A. E. Drebushko, V. P. Dzhelepov, Eijk CWE van, V. V. Filchenkov, A. N. Golubkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, S. K. Grishechkin, V. G. Klevtsov, A. D. Konin, A. A. Kukolkin, S. V. Medved, A. B. Modenov, V. A. Nazarov, V. V. Perevozchikov, V. I. Pryanichnikov, VYa Rozhkov, A. I. Rudenko, S. M. Sadetsky, G. G. Semenchuk, V. T. Sidorov, YuV Smirenin, I. I. Sukhoi, V. V. Travkin, N. I. Voropaev, A. A. Yukhimchuk, V. G. Zinov, and SV. Zlatoustovskii, "Novel method for MCF study in a dense D/T mixture, first experimental results," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, no. 1-4, pp. 111--19, 1999.

Abstract:Preliminary data are first presented for the measurements of effective parameters of MCF processes in dense D/T mixtures obtained by a novel method. Results are compared with the ones obtained by the {"}standard{"} method. (18 References).

J. Banas, M. Ciechanowski, M. Duli/nski, A. Kreft, J. Molenda, K. Morstin, A. Stok/losa, and J. Wozniak, "Geophysical Aspects of Cold Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter," *Nuclear Geophysics*, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 321--2, 1989.

I. M. Band, M. A. Listengarten, and LA. Sliv, "Internal conversion of gamma rays on mu-mesons," *Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki, Pis'Ma V Redaktsiyu*, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 488-91, 1975.

Abstract:Internal conversion coefficients are determined for gamma rays on mu-mesons, for a range of values of the atomic number, energy and transition multipolarity. It is shown that an allowance for the dimensions of a nucleus is essential in calculations; the conversion of muons provides an important vehicle for determining the excitation of fission fragments. The internal conversion coefficients of different multipoles differ to such an extent, that measurements of the muon conversion coefficient can provide data about spin and parity of high-lying levels of nuclei, removed from the stable region. (7 References).

H. Bando, T. Yamazaki, and J. Zofka, "Formation of deeply bound pi /sup -/ states from hypernuclear decay," *Physical Review C*, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 875--80, 1989.

Abstract:The formation probabilities of deeply bound states of pi /sup -/ from hypernuclear weak decay are calculated. The best candidate for detecting narrow 1s and 2p pi /sup -/ bound states is /sup 208/Pb, where the signature, a sharp peak in a proton spectrum, attains a strength, which may be within the future experimental reach. (12 References).

S. Banerjee, "A simple algorithm for obtaining bound state wave functions by solving the Dirac equations," *Hadronic Journal*, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 653--67, 2001.

Abstract:A simple and unusual algorithm based on Krell and Ericson's (1968) scheme for pi mesic atoms, is presented for obtaining bound state energies and single particle wave functions of nuclei which can incorporate spin dependence. These energies and wavefunctions are obtained from a solution of Dirac's relativistic wave equations. This algorithm is efficient, as computation is performed at lattice points only. A single procedure yields both bound state energies and wavefunctions, and therefore, the method is simple and fast. The scheme can also be used to obtain continuum wave functions that describe particles ejected from a nucleus in medium energy nuclear reactions. Results for bound state energies and wave functions of /sup 16/O are discussed. (3 References).

A. V. Bannikov, B. Levay, V. I. Petrukhin, V. A. Vasilyev, L. M. Kochenda, A. A. Markov, V. I. Medvedev, G. L. Sokolov, I. I. Strakovsky, and D. Horvath, "Studies on the atomic capture of stopped negative pions in binary mixtures of /sup 3/He with other gases," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A403, no. 3, pp. 515--24, 1983.

Abstract:Systematic experimental study has been carried out on the atomic capture of negative pions by /sup 3/He in binary gas mixtures of /sup 3/He+Z, where Z is Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/ and SF/sub 6/. The results are analysed in the framework of a phenomenological model. It is shown that there is no pion transfer from the /sup 3/He pi /sup -/ mesic atoms to the heavier Z-atoms. The probabilities of pion capture in the various atoms of the mixtures are found to be proportional to the atomic concentrations, thereby excluding the possibility of a concentration dependence in the atomic capture ratio A(Z//sup 3/He). In contradiction to previous assumptions the probability of pion capture into an atomic orbit is not proportional to the stopping power of the components of the mixture. The atomic capture ratio of pions in a /sup 3/He+/sup 4/He mixture is A(/sup 4/He//sup 3/He)=0.75+or-0.13, which might be the indication of an isotopic effect. The branching ratio for the charge-exchange reaction at rest ( pi /sup -/+/sup 3/He to pi /sup 0/+/sup 3/H) is found to be 0.128+or-0.012. (13 References).

A. L. Barabanov, YuV Gaponov, B. V. Danilin, and NB. Shul'gina, "Muon capture by oriented nuclei: new possibilities for studying induced pseudoscalar interaction," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 1940--7, 1996.

Abstract:Angular distribution of neutrinos (recoil nuclei) in muon capture for an allowed Gamow-Teller transition is considered by taking account of hyperfine effects. This angular distribution is shown to include a correlation of the form P/sub 2/(cos theta ), where theta is the angle between the neutrino momentum and the axis specifying the orientation of the initial mesic atom. This correlation, which arises only if the initial mesic atom is aligned, proves highly sensitive to the form factor g/sub p/ of induced pseudoscalar interaction. (15 References).

AL. Barabanov, "T-noninvariant effect in muon capture by /sup 6/Li with decay to a continuum," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 10--15, 1997.

Abstract:The T-noninvariant transverse polarization of neutrons is considered for muon capture by a /sup 6/Li nucleus with decay into a quasistationary 2/sup +/ state of the three-particle alpha +n+n continuum. This polarization is orthogonal to the plane spanned by the polarization axis of the initial mesic atom and the neutron momentum. The situation in which neutrons that are emitted in the plane orthogonal to the axis of the mesic-atom polarization and which have oppositely directed momenta equal in magnitude are selected is analyzed. The wave function of the final state is constructed by using the method of hyperspherical harmonics. In the approximation of the allowed Gamow-Teller transition 1/sup +/ to 2/sup +/, this neutron polarization is expressed in terms of the T-noninvariant relative phase of reduced matrix elements for transitions from the /sup 6/Li ground state to various final-state configurations. (18 References).

AL. Barabanov, "New possibilities of studying induced pseudoscalar interaction and T invariance in muon capture by polarized and aligned nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 1282--5, 1998.

Abstract:The angular distribution of neutrinos (recoil nuclei) in muon capture by a nucleus with arbitrary spin J/sub i/ for an allowed Gamow-Teller transition is considered by taking into account hyperfine effects. This angular distribution is shown to include a correlation that is highly sensitive to the form factor g/sub P/ of the induced pseudoscalar interaction and arises only if the initial mesic atom is aligned. It is shown that, for the same transition, allowance must be made for the sensitivity of the nuclear model to the properly considered hyperfine dependence of the muon-capture rate to extract the g/sub p/ value. An estimate is given for the T-noninvariant transverse polarization of neutrons for muon capture by a /sup 6/Li nucleus with a decay into a quasistationary 2/sup +/ state of the three-particle alpha +n+n continuum. (15 References).

A. L. Barabanov, "Spin-orbit-like terms in semileptonic weak Hamiltonian," *Eur. Phys. J. A*, vol. 6, pp. 373-374, 1999.

Abstract:It is shown that new spin-orbit-like terms appear in the effective nonrelativistic weak Hamiltonian for nucleon provided that nuclear potential is taken into account. Arguments for their considerable enhancement! in particular, in relativistic nuclear model of Walecka are advanced.

AL. Barabanov, "Second-order corrections to correlations in muon capture," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 1262--7, 2000.

Abstract:Muon capture by a nucleus with an arbitrary spin is considered. Second-order terms in 1/M in the effective weak-interaction Hamiltonian are taken into account. New terms in the Hamiltonian associated with the nucleon-nucleus potential are found. A general expression for the angular distribution of neutrinos (recoil nuclei) is derived for polarized muons and oriented target nuclei. Second-order contributions to the amplitudes M/sub u/(k) are obtained. This allows one to calculate second-order corrections to any integral and correlation characteristics in muon capture that are expressed in terms of M/sub u/(k). (22 References).

*Nuclear physics, Advances in Vol.2*, (M. Baranger and E. Vogt, eds.), Plenum, 1969.

Abstract:Contains five review papers on the following topics:- the giant double resonance, polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, the pairing-plus-quadrupole model, nuclear potential and muonic atoms. Individual papers within model, nuclear potential and muonic atoms. Individual papers within the subject scope of this journal will appear in this or a subsequent issue.

R. Barbieri and TEO. Ericson, "Evidence against the existence of a low mass scalar boson from neutron-nucleus scattering," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 57B, no. 3, pp. 270--2, 1975.

Abstract:The existence of a weakly-coupled scalar boson, recently proposed to explain the apparent discrepancy in X-rays from muonic atoms is shown to be inconsistent with the angular distribution measurements in low energy neutron-nucleus scattering. Other negative evidence from various different physical situations is also briefly reviewed. (11 References).

R. Barbieri, "Vacuum polarisation phenomenology: the mu mesic atom X-ray discrepancy and the 2p/sub 3/2/-2s/sub 1/2/ separation in the (mu/sup 4/he)/sup +/ system," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 56b, no. 3, pp. 266--70, 1975.

Abstract:The possible existence of non-perturbative vacuum polarisation modifications and the possible existence of a weakly-coupled light scalar boson have been recently proposed to explain the apparent mu-mesic atom X-ray discrepancy. Their effects are shown to introduce in the separation of the 2p/sub 3/2/ and 2s/sub 1/2/ levels of the (mu/sup 4/he)/sup +/ system a discrepancy between recent experiment and theory-otherwise in agreement-of the same level as the original mu-mesic atom X-ray discrepancy. (9 References).

S. Barcza, "Steps toward a high precision evaluation of the hyperfine interactions in neutral muonic helium," *Zeitschrift fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules & Clusters*, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 223--33, 1992.

Abstract:The solution of the Schrodinger equation of the neutral muonic helium is sketched by an eigenfunction expansion method: the eigenfunctions of the two Coulombic centres problem (of charges Z/sub 1/=2,Z/sub 2/=-1) are used to expand the wave function. The authors Born expansion method is a generalization of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to a system in which the two centres (He, mu /sup -/) do not have a stable equilibrium distance. The adiabatic approximation is solved, upper-lower bounds on the eigenvalue are given for a number of states. The hyperfine energy corrections are calculated in general terms and are given numerically for the ground state and for the first muonically and electronically excited states in the frames of the adiabatic approximation. The author's best value fails to give the observed hyperfine splitting of the ground state by some 5*10/sup -4/ (2 MHz). (18 References).

W. A. Bardeen and EW. Torigoe, "Strong-interaction effects in K-mesonic atoms," *Physical Review C*, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1785--97, 1971.

Abstract:The process of absorption in K-mesonic atoms is studied with special emphasis on the role of the Y/sub 0/*(1405) resonance. An effective t-matrix method is developed to incorporate the effects of the resonance. Detailed calculations of the absorption process, based on an independent-particle model of the nucleus, were made for selected nuclei. The results of these calculations are compared with available X-ray and emulsion data for moderate to heavy nuclei.

W. A. Bardeen and EW. Torigoe, "The K/sup -/ nucleon interaction in K mesic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 38B, no. 3, pp. 135--9, 1972.

Abstract:A study of the K/sup -/ nucleon interaction is made as it pertains to the absorption of K/sup -/ mesons in nuclei. Effective interaction strengths are derived which yield good agreement with recent X-ray experiments that determine both the strong interaction energy shifts and widths. (14 References).

G. Bardin, J. Duclos, J. Joseph, A. Magnon, J. Martino, and E. Zavattini, "Total muon capture rate in /sup 6/Li and /sup 7/Li," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 79B, no. 1-2, pp. 52--4, 1978.

Abstract:The total muon capture rate in the /sup 6/Li and /sup 7/Li isotopes has been obtained by comparing the lifetimes of positive and negative muons in the relevant targets. The authors found lambda /sub c/(/sup 6/Li)=4680+or-120 s/sup -1/ and lambda /sub c/(/sup 7/Li)=2260+or-120 S/sup -1/. (9 References).

G. Bardin, J. Duclos, A. Magnon, J. Martino, A. Richter, E. Zavattini, A. Bertin, M. Piccinini, and A. Vitale, "Measurement of the ortho-para transition rate in the p mu p molecule and deduction of the pseudoscalar coupling constant g/sub p//sup mu /," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 104B, no. 4, pp. 320--4, 1981.

Abstract:The ortho-para transition rate in the p mu p molecule has been found experimentally to be lambda /sub OP/=(4.1+or-1.4)*10/sup 4/ s/sup -1/. The authors' recent result for the muon capture rate in liquid hydrogen can now be interpreted to extract the ortho-molecular capture rate: lambda /sub OM/=(531+or-33) s/sup -1/. A deduction of the pseudoscalar coupling constant g/sub p//sup mu / is presented: they find g/sub p//sup mu /=8.7+or-1.9. (17 References).

G. Bardin, J. Duclos, A. Magnon, J. Martino, A. Richter, E. Zavattini, A. Bertin, M. Piccinini, A. Vitale, and D. Measday, "A novel measurement of the muon capture rate in liquid hydrogen by the lifetime technique," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A352, no. 3, pp. 365--78, 1981.

Abstract:The muon nuclear capture rate by protons has been measured by comparing the lifetime tau /sub mu /-of negative muons stopped in liquid hydrogen with the lifetime tau /sub mu /+ of positive muons. The authors get tau /sub mu /-=2194.903+or-0.066 ns and tau /sub mu /+=2197.182+or-0.121 ns. Taking into account also the previous determinations of tau /sub mu /+, they present the updated determination of the muon lifetime, and correspondingly they obtain for the capture rate of muons from the p mu p molecular ions the value gamma /sub c/=460+or-20 s/sup -1/. (18 References).

G. Bardin, J. Duclos, A. Magnon, J. Martino, A. Bertin, M. Capponi, M. Piccinini, and A. Vitale, "Experimental study on the nuclear synthesis of d mu d molecular ions by means of the time distribution of the released neutrons," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 79-85, 1983.

Abstract:The differential time distribution of the neutrons released following the fusion reaction of the d mu d molecular ion has been observed, after negative muons from the Saclay ALS had been stopped in an ultrapure-liquid-deuterium target, containing two different hydrogen concentrations. The results obtained on the d mu d molecule formation rate and on the sticking probability of the muon to /sup 3/He are discussed. (15 References).

G. Bardin, J. Duclos, J. Martino, A. Bertin, M. Capponi, M. Piccinini, and A. Vitale, "A measurement of the muon capture rate in liquid deuterium by the lifetime technique," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A453, no. 4, pp. 591--604, 1986.

Abstract:The lifetime technique has been used to measure the muon capture rate in ultra pure liquid deuterium in conditions where the mu d spin state is known. The experimental method avoids the earlier difficulties due to the fusion neutrons. The following result has been obtained for the capture rate in the mu d doublet total spin state: lambda /sub c//sup D/=470+or-29 s/sup -1/. (31 References).

S. Barmo, "Analytic approximation to the wave function in pionic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 275, no. 4, pp. 353--8, 1975.

Abstract:The wave functions of pionic atoms are obtained by numerical integration of the Klein-Gordon equation with the Kisslinger-Ericson potential. They are then approximated by two analytic expressions, one inside and the other outside the nuclear radius. (7 References).

S. Barmo and H. Pilkuhn, "S-wave pion-nucleus scattering at low energies," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 60B, no. 4, pp. 324--6, 1976.

Abstract:The optical model used for the description of mesic atoms is extended according to a careful parametrization of the s-wave pion-nucleon amplitudes as functions of energy. The resulting s-wave pion-nucleus scattering at low energies is discussed. (12 References).

M. V. Barnabas, K. Venkateswaran, J. M. Stadlbauer, B. W. Ng, Z. Wu, A. Gonzalez, and DC. Walker, "Comparison of muonated free radicals formed in pure liquids with those in dilute solutions: origins of radicals," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 65, no. 1-4, pp. 945--51, 1990.

Abstract:LCR spectroscopy was used to explore the mechanism by which muonated free radicals form in unsaturated organic liquids. This was achieved by comparing the relative yields of the different radicals formed from the compound as a pure liquid with those found when it was studied as a solute in dilute aqueous micelle solutions. In the latter medium, thermalized muonium atoms are the only precursors. Two types of examples were evaluated: first, styrene and allylbenzene since they give a full range of side-chain and ring addition products; and second, methyl acrylate and acrylonitrile since the former alone shows conformational s-cis-trans isomerism. Both types of process were expected to be particularly sensitive to the nature and charge of the reactive species involved. The results suggest that neutral muonium is the dominant precursor in all these liquids, with 'hot' muonium perhaps contributing about 30% of the radicals. (8 References).

M. V. Barnabas and DC. Walker, "Thiyl radicals studied by muon level-crossing spectroscopy," *Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 9--13, 1990.

Abstract:Addition of muonium atoms to thiocarbonyl compounds is shown to result in the formation of sulfur-centered radicals (R-S) which are observed by level-crossing-resonance spectroscopy. This technique enables one to determine the proton and nitrogen hyperfine coupling constants in thiyl radicals: a task which cannot be accomplished directly be ESR. The radicals are formed here in dilute aqueous solution from muonium atoms produced by irradiation with positive muons. (12 References).

P. D. Barnes, R. A. Eisenstein, W. C. Lam, J. Miller, R. B. Sutton, M. Eckhause, J. R. Kane, R. E. Welsh, D. A. Jenkins, R. J. Powers, A. R. Kunselman, R. P. Redwine, and RE. Segel, "Measurement of kaonic X-rays from Al, Si, Ni and Cu," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A231, no. 3, pp. 477--92, 1974.

Abstract:X-rays associated with stopped negative kaons have been identified in Al, Si, Ni and Cu. Relative intensities, strong interaction energy shifts and strong interaction line broadenings are reported. The measurements are found to be in good agreement with those predicted on the basis of a simple phenomenological potential except for the Ni (5 to 4) transition width.

PD. Barnes, "Review of recent experiments in intermediate energy nuclear physics," *Journal of the Physical Society of Japan*, vol. 44, no. , pp. 783-97, 1978.

Abstract:The data generated at intermediate energy accelerator facilities have expanded rapidly over the past few years. A number of recent experiments chosen for their impact on nuclear structure questions are reviewed. Proton scattering together with pionic and muonic atom X-ray measurements are shown to be giving very precise determinations of gross nuclear properties. Pion scattering and reaction data although less precise are starting to generate a new understanding of wave functions of specific nuclear states. Specific examples where new unpublished data are now available are emphasized. In addition, other medium energy experiments that are starting to contribute to nuclear structure physics are summarized. (53 References).

T. Barnes, F. E. Close, and HJ. Lipkin, "Implications of a DK molecule at 2.32 GeV," *Physical Review D*, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 54006--1--5, 2003.

Abstract:We discuss the implications of a possible quasinuclear DK bound state at 2.32 GeV. Evidence for such a state was recently reported in D/sub s//sup +/ pi /sup 0/ by the BaBar Collaboration. We first note that a conventional quark model cs assignment is implausible, and then consider other options involving multiquark systems. An I=0 csnn baryonium assignment is one possibility. We instead favor a DK meson molecule assignment, which can account for the mass and quantum numbers of this state. The higher-mass scalar cs state expected at 2.48 GeV is predicted to have a very large DK coupling, which would encourage formation of an I=0 DK molecule. Isospin mixing is expected in hadron molecules, and a dominantly I=0 DK state with some I=1 admixture could explain both the narrow total width of the 2.32 GeV state as well as the observed decay to D/sub s//sup +/ pi /sup 0/. Additional measurements that can be used to test this and related scenarios are discussed. (27 References).

B. A. Barnett, C. Y. Chang, P. Steinberg, G. B. Yodh, H. D. Orr, J. B. Carroll, M. Eckhause, J. R. Cane, G. B. Spence, and CS. Hsieh, "Evidence of muonium formation using thin gold foils in vacuum," *Physical Review A*, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 2246--51, 1977.

Abstract:An array of 200 thin (1000 AA) gold foils in a vacuum enclosure has been exposed to a stopping mu /sup +/ beam. From the observations made of the time dependence of the mu /sup +/ decay spectra under magnetic fields of 3 to 21 G and from a comparison with earlier data for a low pressure argon gas target and a thin quartz plate target it is concluded that thermal muonium atoms were produced in the vacuum cell. The lower limit of the probability of formation is given as R=0.28+or-O.05. (10 References).

S. M. Barnett and AM. Lane, "Increase in mesomolecular formation by laser-induced resonances," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. L523-6, 1988.

Abstract:It is pointed out that the formation of mesomolecules, (t mu )+d to (dt mu ), may be enhanced by the presence of a laser which implants a 'pseudoresonance' in the continuum, (t mu )+d, Relative to the usual resonances in the collisions (t mu )+D/sub 2/, the implanted resonance dominates for laser intensities greater than about 10/sup 13/ W cm/sup -2/. (12 References).

S. Barnett and AM. Lane, "Increase in meso-molecular formation by laser-induced resonances," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 169-77, 1988.

Abstract:It is pointed out that the formation of meso-molecules, (t mu )+d to (dt mu ), may be enhanced by the presence of a laser which implants a 'pseudo-resonance' in the continuum, (t mu )+d. Relative to the usual resonances in the collisions (t mu )+D/sub 2/, the implanted resonance dominates for laser intensities [right angle bracket]or approximately=10/sup 13/ W cm/sup -2/. (10 References).

MV III. Barnhill, "Ambiguity of the 'Galilean-invariant' operator for pion absorption by nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A131, no. 1, pp. 106--12, 1969.

Abstract:The pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar pion-nucleon interaction is reduced to terms of order (1/M)/sup 3/ by a Foldy-Wouthuysen reduction, in order to derive the form of an appropriate non-relativistic Hamiltonian pion absorption by nuclei. It is pointed out that the reduction is not unique and that the various possible reductions correspond to the application of various canonical transformations to any one of the reduced Hamiltonians. The conventional 'Galilean-invariant' interaction is obtained from one of these reductions; however, the coefficient of a term that makes a significant contribution to actual calculations of pion absorption in light and medium nuclei is not well defined by the reduction procedure alone.

P. Barreau, L. Roussel, and RJ. Powers, "A muonic X-ray study of the charge distribution of /sup 147/Sm and /sup 149/Sm," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A364, no. 2-3, pp. 446--60, 1981.

Abstract:Reports the measurement of the 4f to 3d, 3d to 2p and 2p to 1s muonic atomic transitions in separated isotopes of /sup 147,149/Sm. Using these transition energies as well as the hyperfine splittings of the 2p levels, the authors have interpreted the data in terms of a deformed Fermi distribution for the nuclear charge density and obtained good fits. A model-independent analysis of the isotope shifts in terms of generalized R/sub K/ moments has been made and is in good agreement with electronic X-ray and optical isotope shifts. Spectroscopic quadrupole moments and the B(E2, /sup 7///sub 2//sup -/ to /sup 5///sub 2//sup -/) have been determined from the 2p hyperfine structure. (29 References).

RC. Barrett, "Model-independent parameters of the nuclear charge distribution from muonic-X-rays," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 33B, no. 6, pp. 388--90, 1970.

Abstract:It is shown that each muonic X-ray determines the value of a certain function averaged over the nuclear charge distribution. This function is not well represented by a single fractional power r/sup k/ as suggested by Ford and Wills (1969).

R. C. Barrett, D. A. Owen, J. Calmet, and H. Grotch, "Recoil corrections to muonic atom energy levels," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 47B, no. 4, pp. 297--9, 1973.

Abstract:The relativistic correction due to nuclear recoil is calculated for a distributed nuclear charge using the effective potential model of Grotch and Yennie. For the lowest states the results differ substantially from the well-known point nucleus values and disagree somewhat with the recent calculation of Fricke. (10 References).

RC. Barrett, "Nuclear charge distributions," *Reports on Progress in Physics*, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1--54, 1974.

Abstract:Different methods of obtaining information about nuclear charge distributions are reviewed and the nature of this information is discussed. The calculations involved in the analysis of electron scattering and electronic and muonic atom measurements are described with particular reference to the approximations made and the small corrections which must be taken into account. A number of calculations based on dynamical models of the nucleus are discussed and examples are given of the resulting densities. Results are given for selected nuclei and for certain groups of isotopes and isotones, and comparisons are made between phenomenological and theoretically derived densities. (239 References).

RC. Barrett, "The kaon-nucleus potential for kaonic atoms," in *Microscopic Optical Potentials*, (Geramb HV. Von, ed.), pp. 455-8, 1979.

Abstract:Considers only the K/sup -/ nucleus potential used in the calculation of kaonic atom energy levels. The K/sup +/ nucleus potential can be calculated in impulse approximation and the first order potential is accurate enough to investigate nuclear matter densities. The K/sup -/ nucleus interaction is much stronger and is complicated by the Lambda (1405) (or Y/sub 0//sup */) resonance which is 27 MeV below the K/sup -/p threshold and 35 MeV wide. It is desirable to calculate the K/sup -/-nucleus interaction, however, to analyse the measurements on kaonic atoms. (9 References).

RC. Barrett, "The 1S state in kaonic hydrogen," *Journal of Physics G *, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. L39-41, 1982.

Abstract:The coupled Schrodinger equations for the KN and Sigma pi systems are solved for the case of a bound state to obtain the strong-interaction shift and width in kaonic hydrogen. The Coulomb force is simulated by a separable potential which gives the exact unperturbed wavefunction. The shift is the opposite sign to that obtained in two recent experiments. (11 References).

S. Barshay, "Do muons interact anomalously with hadrons?," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 37b, no. 4, pp. 397--402, 1971.

Abstract:The author examines the possibility that the recently observed suppression of the rate for K/sub L/ to mu /sup +/ mu /sup -/ is due to the three-pion intermediate state with an anomalously large amplitude for 3 pi (J/sup P/=0/sup -/) to mu /sup +/ mu /sup -/. He does not explicitly introduce new dynamics, but merely parameterize the empirically required enhancement in the simplest phenomenological manner. The question is then raised as to whether this interaction would be presently observable in other experiments where muons are studied in the vicinity of hadrons, in particular muon-proton scattering and muonic atoms. He also raises the same question with respect to an alternative possibility, namely that an anomalously large amplitude for pi pi (J/sup P/=0/sup +/) to mu /sup +/ mu /sup -/ gives rise to K/sub S/ to mu /sup +/ mu /sup -/. The possible size and nature of effects in other experiments are thus estimated. (19 References).

S. Barshay, G. E. Brown, and M. Rho, "New interpretation of the pion-nucleus optical potential for pionic atoms," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 787--90, 1974.

Abstract:By a consideration of the P-wave interaction volumes for slow pions in free nucleon scattering and interaction with nucleons in nuclei subject to the Pauli principle, it is shown that when the free-space and in-medium volumes are empirically related they are dominated by the Delta (1236 MeV) and can be treated as an independent baryonic excitation in nuclei. (17 References).

S. G. Barsov, A. L. Getalov, V. A. Gordeev, R. F. Konoplyeva, S. P. Kruglov, V. I. Kudinov, L. A. Kuz'min, S. M. Mikirtycy'yants, E. V. Minaichev, G. G. Myasishcheva, YuV Obukhov, G. I. Savel'ev, V. G. Firsov, and GV. Shcherbakov, "Characteristic states of mu /sup +/-meson muonium in silicon in longitudinal magnetic fields," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 1461--8, 1980.

Abstract:Experimental results are presented of an investigation of the polarization of positive muons in silicon in longitudinal magnetic fields. It is shown that the meson component of the polarization is due to thermal ionization of the 'anomalous' muonium system. The data are discussed by taking into account the possible chemical binding between the muonium atoms and crystal lattice. (14 References).

D. Bartlett, S. Devons, S. L. Meyer, and J. L. Rosen, "Measurements of the rates of the decay $\pi^+ \to \pi^0 + e^+ + \nu$ and $\pi^-$ capture in LiH, CH$_2$ and CH," *Physical Review*, vol. 136, pp. 1452--1463, 1964.

A. S. Barton, P. Bogorad, G. D. Cates, H. Mabuchi, H. Middleton, N. R. Newbury, R. Holmes, J. McCracken, P. A. Souder, J. Xu, and D. Tupa, "Highly polarized muonic He produced by collisions with laser optically pumped Rb," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 758--61, 1993.

Abstract:The authors have formed highly polarized muonic helium by stopping unpolarized negative muons in a mixture of unpolarized gaseous He and laser polarized Rb vapor. The stopped muons form muonic He ions which are neutralized and polarized by collisions with Rb. Average polarizations for /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He of (26.8+or-2.3)% and (44.2+or-3.5)% were achieved, representing a tenfold increase over previous methods. Relevant cross sections were determined from the time evolution of the polarization. Highly polarized muonic He is valuable for measurements of the induced pseudoscalar coupling g/sub p/ in nuclear muon capture. (24 References).

YuA Bartusov and RA. Eramzhyan, "Charged particle emission in muon capture by atomic nuclei," *Fizika Elementarnykh Chastits i Atomnogo Yadra*, vol. 8, no. , pp. 229-54, 1977.

Abstract:Experimental data are systematized on the charged particle emission in muon capture by atomic nuclei and the possibilities of their theoretical interpretation are discussed. (39 References).

V. G. Baryshevsky and SA. Kuten, "Quadrupole moment and quadrupole relaxation of spin of muonium and mesoatoms," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 64A, no. 2, pp. 238--40, 1977.

Abstract:It is shown that muonium in the ground state has a quadrupole moment. Existence of the quadrupole moment of muonium leads to an essential influence of crystal electric fields on the precession and relaxation of its spin in a medium. (7 References).

A. G. Baryshnikov, L. D. Blokhintsev, R. Kapote, and DA. Savin, "Resonant mechanism of the reaction tt to alpha nn at very low energies," *Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Fizicheskaya*, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1962--6, 1986.

Abstract:Investigation of the reaction tt to alpha nn is of great importance for solving the problem of controllable nuclear fusion. As well as other fusion reactions, occurring in the heated mixture of hydrogen isotopes, the reaction tt to alpha nn is characterized by a large energy liberation: 1.88 MeV per nucleon. The study of this reaction takes on special significance in connection with the development of the idea of muon-catalysis of thermo-nuclear fusion. One difficulty which arises in realizing this idea is the possibility of so-called adhesion of the mu -meson to a heavy reaction product, i.e. the formation of a mu -mesoatom ( mu /sup 4/He) and hence the removal of the muon from further catalysis. The probability of such muon adhesion is basically determined by the velocity of the positively charged nucleus formed as a result of the fusion reaction. (3 References).

V. A. Bashkirov, V. V. Govorkov, YuP Dobretsov, B. A. Dolgoshein, BSh Zalikhanov, V. G. Zinov, V. G. Kirillov-Ugryumov, P. L. Nevskii, AYa Smakov, A. V. Sumarokov, and AM. Rogozhin, "Observation of a muon-nucleon Cl atom," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 302--5, 1979.

Abstract:Muon-nucleon Cl atoms formed by capture of polarized negative muons by Ar atoms in an atmosphere of gaseous Ar with Xe as impurity, were detected by measuring the precession frequency of its total moment in magnetic fields of 3 and 4.4 Oe, perpendicular to the muon spin. (6 References).

S. G. Basiladze and others, "Measurement of the rate of transfer of a muon from a pµ atom to nuclei of other elements," *Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 49, pp. 1042--1048, 1965.

B. Bassalleck and others, "The observation of charge exchange of pions captured in several nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, pp. 445--460, 1981.

IS. Batkin, "Nuclear polarization corrections to mesic atom energy levels," *Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Fizicheskaya*, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 674--9, 1972.

Abstract:Considers a problem discovered in the determination of nuclear shape and dimensions by studying mesic atom X-ray radiation. Attention is drawn to the complication arising in allowing for the variation in energy levels due to nuclear polarization and, in particular, to conflicting values for the parameters of the charge distribution in an analysis by Acker et al. Accordingly, nuclear polarization corrections are proposed for the energy of the mesic atom 1S-state, having regard to monopole, dipole and quadrupole excitations of the nucleus. Calculations are performed for spherical nuclei in the interval 70[left angle bracket]or=A[left angle bracket]or=150. (10 References).

IS. Batkin, "Vibration of an atom and nucleus in the decay of a bound mu /sup -/meson," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 454--5, 1976.

Abstract:Theoretical considerations suggest that this nuclear quantum transition effect might be experimentally observable in the cases of the heavier atoms. (5 References).

I. S. Batkin, YuG Smirnov, and TA. Churakova, "On influence of laser field on the probability of mu capture in light nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 34--5, 1977.

Abstract:It is shown that action of resonance laser radiation enables one to change the population of super-fine structure sublevels in mesoatoms, thus changing the mu -capture probability. (6 References).

I. S. Batkin, YuG Smirnov, and TA. Churakova, "Mesic atoms of light nuclei in the field of resonance electromagnetic radiation," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 387--93, 1977.

Abstract:The effect of resonance electromagnetic radiation on the characteristics of light mesic atoms, (/sup 1/H, /sup 2/H, /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He and /sup 6/Li) is considered. The conditions for leveling out of the hyperfine structure sublevels are studied in the case of linearly polarized radiation. The dependence of the critical external field (at which saturation occurs) on the collision and Doppler level widths is calculated. The degree of circular muon polarization due to interaction between the mesic atom and circularly polarized resonance radiation is determined. It is noted that the strongest polarization is that of the muon in the hydrogen mesic atom isotopes. The effect of resonance electromagnetic radiation on the rate of nuclear synthesis in the molecule is also considered. It is shown that the result of such an effect is that the synthesis yield may change by 20%. (15 References).

I. S. Batkin and YuV. Ivankov, "Dynamic and static polarizability of the deuteron," *Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Fizicheskaya*, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 747--53, 1978.

Abstract:The aim was to investigate the polarization properties of the simplest nuclear system, namely, the deuteron. The probabilities of a Rayleigh scattering, two-photon disintegration, and the two-photon dissociation of the deuteron are discussed. Moreover, the adiabatic approximation is used to calculate the polarization corrections to the energy levels of the electronic and the muonic atoms. The Hulthen and the Woods-Saxon potentials are used to calculate the wave functions and the Green function for the deuteron. (15 References).

IS. Batkin, "Excitation of nucleus caused by decay of bound muon/sup -/," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1449--53, 1978.

Abstract:Excitation probabilities related to the decay of the bound mu /sup -/ meson are calculated. The low-lying nuclear excitations are studied. Therefore, the nuclear oscillations are assumed to be 'adiabatic' as compared to the rate of variation of the electromagnetic interaction between the muon and the nucleus. It is shown that the low-lying monopole and magnetodipole oscillations are excited when the meson decays. Particular calculations are carried out for a number of deformed nuclei. The 0/sup +/ excitations have been described using Davydov-Chaban model. The results have shown that in the nuclei under consideration the excitation probability normalized to a decay event is approximately within 10/sup -3/ and 10/sup -2/. The angular correlation is found between the directions of the electron emitted in the decay and the gamma quantum which is a result of discharge of the magnetodipole nuclear excitation. (9 References).

IS. Batkin, "Fragmentation of nucleus caused by decay of bound muon," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1462--5, 1979.

Abstract:The high excitations of a nucleus caused by bound muon decay are studied theoretically. The source of these excitations comes not only from the prompt variation of the meson Coulomb field but also from the nuclear 'recoil'. It is shown that the probability of the deuteron disintegration as a result of the muon decay of 0.4*10/sup -5/ per a decay act. In heavy nuclei the recoil effect results with a probability of about 0.2 A/sup -4/3/ in excitation of the giant dipole resonance which de-excites mainly by emission of nucleons. (5 References).

IS. Batkin, "Atomic capture of negative mesons from high-energy states of the continuous spectrum," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 321--6, 1980.

Abstract:The relative probability of formation of a mesoatom by means of energy transfer to the nuclear excitation is calculated. Such a process is an inverse to the inner conversion effect. The mechanisms of the stopping in the matter are considered and the total time of the slowing down to thermal energies is determined in order to obtain the relative probability. The velocity of the meson thermalization at their interaction with the solid state phonons is found. The monopole and dipole giant nuclear resonances are taken into account in calculations of the velocity of the meson atomic capture from high-energy states of the continuous spectrum. It is shown that about 7.10/sup -5/ of mesons form mesoatoms with heavy nuclei exciting the monopole giant resonance, and 6.10/sup -5/ of mesons form the mesoatoms exciting the dipole giant resonances. (15 References).

IS. Batkin, "Mesoatoms in static electromagnetic fields," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 694--9, 1980.

Abstract:The behaviour of mesoatoms of light elements (Z[left angle bracket]or=4) in a static external homogeneous electromagnetic field is investigated. It is shown that the action of the field results in a change of the photon yield at transitions from the higher states (n[right angle bracket]or=15) into 1S. This change is due to the values of the initial occupation numbers of the mesoatomic levels, to the vacuum polarization corrections, and to the life times of the excited states. A possible asymmetry in the photon angular distribution with respect to the direction of the electric field intensity vector is indicated. Perturbed angular correlations in the cascade transitions are considered. The perturbation is induced by the super-fine interaction of the meson with the nucleus. An experimental study of this effect may be used as a source of information on the values of the nuclear static electromagnetic moments, as well as on the life times of excited states of the mesoatom. (9 References).

C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, RAJ Riddle, B. L. Roberts, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, and RE. Hawkins, "Strong interaction effects in kaonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 60B, no. 4, pp. 355--7, 1976.

Abstract:X-rays produced by kaons stopping in targets of S, Co, Ni, Ag and Cd have been observed. The shifts and widths of the last observed mesic X-ray due to the effects of the strong interaction have been measured. In addition, the relative yield of the sulphur K/sup -/n=4 to 3 transition has been measured. (7 References).

C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, M. Blecher, RAJ Riddle, B. L. Roberts, J. D. Davies, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, and DM. Asbury, "Measurement of kaonic X-rays from Li, LiH and Be," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A282, no. 3, pp. 487--92, 1977.

Abstract:The authors have observed X-rays from kaons stopping in targets of Li, LiH and Be. The strong interaction widths, shifts and relative yield of the last observed X-ray have been measured. There is evidence for a difference in the yield of the n=3 to 2 Li X-rays in Li metal and LiH. There is no evidence in the spectra for X-rays from kaonic hydrogen formed in LiH. (16 References).

C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, M. Blecher, R. Kunselman, RAJ Riddle, B. L. Roberts, J. D. Davies, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, D. M. Asbury, and M. Leon, "E2 nuclear resonance effects in pionic and kaonic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A296, no. 3, pp. 361--72, 1978.

Abstract:The attenuation due to the E2 nuclear resonance effect has been measured in hadronic atoms using pions with /sup 111/Cd and /sup 112/Cd and for kaons with /sup 122/Sn. Energies of the relevant X-ray and gamma -ray transitions and of the X-ray cascade intensities have also been measured to give a self-consistent set of information. The results are found to be in very good agreement with theoretical calculations. (17 References).

C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, E. Friedman, S. D. Hoath, J. D. Davies, G. J. Pyle, and GTA. Squier, "Shifts and widths of 2p levels in pionic atoms," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 40, no. 14, pp. 931--4, 1978.

Abstract:A stopped meson beam from the NIMROD proton synchrotron was used in the production of an electrostatically separated 200 MeV/c proton beam. This system was used in the measurement of the 2p level widths and strong interaction shifts in the pionic atoms Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, S, Si and Zn. The parameters for an effective pion nucleon potential has also been determined. The accuracy of the results is discussed. (10 References).

C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, S. D. Hoath, P. Sharman, J. D. Davies, G. J. Pyle, and GTA. Squier, "Measurement of kaonic and pionic X-rays from liquid helium," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A326, no. 2-3, pp. 455--62, 1979.

Abstract:The strong interaction widths, shifts and relative intensities have been measured for the last observed X-ray transitions in kaonic and pionic helium. The effect of the strong interaction on the 2p level in kaonic helium was much larger than anticipated from optical-model calculations. The energy shift of the 2p level was determined to be -35+or-12 eV and the natural line width 30+or-30 eV, whereas optical-model calculations predicted a shift and width of approximately 0.1 eV and 2.0 eV, respectively. (7 References).

C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, M. Blecher, S. D. Hoath, RAJ Riddle, B. L. Roberts, J. D. Davies, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, D. M. Asbury, and AS. Clough, "Measurement of strong interaction effects in kaonic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A329, no. 3, pp. 407--28, 1979.

Abstract:X-rays produced by kaons stopping in targets of O, Mg, Al, Si, S, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Cd, In and Sn have been observed. The shifts, widths and yields of the last observed mesic X-ray due to the effects of the strong interaction have been measured. The results are compared with optical-model predictions. (27 References).

CJ. Batty, "Nuclear bound states of negatively charged hadrons?," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 87B, no. 4, pp. 324--6, 1979.

Abstract:The possibility that bound states of negatively charged kaons, antiprotons and Sigma -hyperons might exist in nuclei is investigated. It is found that whilst such states could be bound their widths are sufficiently large as to probably prevent direct observation, except perhaps in a few specialised cases. (12 References).

C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, E. Friedman, S. D. Hoath, J. D. Davies, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, D. M. Asbury, and M. Leon, "Pionic X-rays and the neutron radius of /sup 44/Ca," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 81B, no. 2, pp. 165--8, 1979.

Abstract:Differences between strong interaction level shifts and widths for 2p states in pionic atoms of /sup 44,40/Ca have been measured. Analysis in terms of an effective pion-nucleus leads to a difference in neutron rms radii of r/sub n/(44)-r/sub n/(40)=0.05+or-0.05 fm. (17 References).

C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, E. Friedman, S. D. Hoath, J. D. Davies, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, D. M. Asbury, and A. Guberman, "Srong interaction effects in pionic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A322, no. 2-3, pp. 445--60, 1979.

Abstract:Strong-interaction shifts and widths in pionic atoms of Al, Si, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Pb, Bi and U have been measured. Various forms for an effective pion-nucleus potential have been fitted to the data for 2p levels and the predictions of these potentials compared with the results for 3d and 4f levels. The predictions have also been compared with available data for 1s states. The effects on pionic atoms of strongly bound pionic states, which it has recently been suggested might exist, are discussed. (30 References).

CJ. Batty, "Exotic atoms and the kaon-nucleon interaction," in *Low and Intermediate Energy Kaon-Nucleon Physics. Proceedings of a Workshop*, (E. Ferrari and G. Violini, eds.), pp. 223--40, 1980.

Abstract:Discusses the relationship between kaonic atom studies and the kaon-nucleon interaction and found that it is a two-way dialogue. Information about the kaon-nucleon interaction, particularly in the subthreshold region is required for exotic atom studies involving nuclei. On the other hand experiments involving exotic atoms formed in hydrogen or deuterium can in principle give information about the kaon-nucleon interaction. Finally there may be some exciting prospects for gaining information about the Sigma -nucleon interaction at threshold. (36 References).

CJ. Batty, "Recent results on kaonic and sigma atoms," *Nukleonika*, vol. 25, no. 3-4, pp. 545--65, 1980.

Abstract:Reviews work on kaonic and sigma atoms with an emphasis on the experimental aspects. Measurements of the the mass of K/sup -/ and Sigma /sup -/ and of the magnetic moment of the Sigma /sup -/ are briefly discussed. Determinations of strong interaction effects in kaonic and sigma atoms are considered in detail. Results from experiments on H/sub 2/ and He and their possible interpretation are described. (47 References).

C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, RAJ Riddle, B. L. Roberts, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, D. M. Asbury, and AS. Clough, "Nuclear quadrupole deformation effects on pionic and kaonic X-rays," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A355, no. 2, pp. 383--402, 1981.

Abstract:X-rays from pionic and kaonic In, Ho and Ta and from pionic Bi have been measured in order to determine quadrupole moments from the hyperfine splitting. The strong interaction monopole shifts epsilon /sub 0/ and widths Gamma /sub 0/ have been deduced and compared with predictions of a deformed optical-model calculation. Data have been obtained for the pionic 3d levels in In, Ho, /sup 168/Er, Yb and Ta; pionic 4f levels in Ho, /sup 168/Er, Yb, Ta and Bi and kaonic 6h levels in Ho, Yb and Ta. (24 References).

CJ. Batty, "Optical-model analysis of exotic atom data. II. Antiprotonic and sigma atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A372, no. 3, pp. 433--44, 1981.

Abstract:For pt.I see ibid., vol.A372, no.3, p.418-32 (1981). Data for antiprotonic and sigma atoms are fitted using a simple optical model with a potential proportional to the nuclear density. The potential strength can be related to the free hadron-nucleon scattering length using a model due to A. Deloff (1980). A good overall representation of the data is also obtained with a black-sphere model. (15 References).

CJ. Batty, "Optical-model analysis of exotic atom data. I. Kaonic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A372, no. 3, pp. 418--32, 1981.

Abstract:Data for kaonic atoms are fitted using a simple optical model with a potential proportional to the nuclear density. Very satisfactory fits to strong interaction shift and width values are obtained but difficulties in fitting yield values indicate that the model is not completely satisfactory. The potential strength can be related to the free kaon-nucleon scattering lengths using a model due to A. Deloff (1980). A good overall representation of the data is obtained with a black-sphere model. (33 References).

CJ. Batty, "An optical model for kaonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 127B, no. 3-4, pp. 162--4, 1983.

Abstract:It is shown that a laplacian form for the optical model potential gives a significantly improved fit to the strong interaction data for kaonic atoms. (5 References).

C. J. Batty, E. Friedman, and A. Gal, "Saturation effects in pionic atoms and the pi /sup -/-nucleus optical potential," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A402, no. 3, pp. 411--28, 1983.

Abstract:The optical model for pionic atoms is used to fit measurements over a range of nuclei with a particular emphasis on the apparently anomalous behaviour of the atomic shifts and widths in Na(1s), As(2p) and Ta(3d). Several modifications of the Ericson-Ericson potential are considered and a laplacian form of potential also examined. These do not improve the fit to the anomalous results. The reliability of the experimental data is discussed. (30 References).

C. J. Batty and A. Gal, "The puzzle of kaonic hydrogen," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 102A, no. 1, pp. 255-63, 1989.

Abstract:The authors discuss the proposals by Law, Turner and Barrett (1987), and by Schnick and Landau (1987), to produce theoretically an 'attractive' strong-interaction shift for the 1s atomic K/sup -/p level while avoiding conflict with a minimum set of KN scattering and reaction data at low energy. Arguments are presented which refute the former claim and cast serious doubts on the validity of the latter. Finally, a model-dependent finite-range correction to the Dalitz-Tuan expression is offered, a correction that amounts to less than 5% modification in the value of the level shift it yields for the kaonic-hydrogen ground state, for given KN scattering lengths. (14 References).

C. J. Batty, M. Eckhause, K. P. Gall, P. P. Guss, D. W. Hertzog, J. R. Kane, A. R. Kunselman, J. P. Miller, F. O'Brien, W. C. Phillips, R. J. Powers, B. L. Roberts, R. B. Sutton, W. F. Vulcan, R. E. Welsh, R. J. Whyley, and RG. Winter, "Strong interaction effects in high-Z K/sup -/ atoms," *Physical Review C*, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 2154--8, 1989.

Abstract:A systematic experimental study of strong interaction shifts, widths, and yields from high-Z kaonic atoms is reported. Strong interaction effects for the K/sup -/(8 to 7) transition were measured in U, Pb, and W, and the K/sup -/(7 to 6) transition in W was also observed. This is the first observation of two measurably broadened and shifted kaonic transitions in a single target and thus permitted the width of the upper state to be determined directly, rather than being inferred from yield data. The results are compared with optical-model calculations. (15 References).

CJ. Batty, "Light kaonic and antiprotonic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 508, no. , pp. 89c-98, 1990.

Abstract:Recent progress in the study of light kaonic and antiprotonic atoms is reviewed. Results for p-He atoms are in good agreement with optic model calculations in contrast to the situation for K/sup -/-He atoms, the latter possibly indicating the existence of a kaon-nucleus bound state. The extensive results for p-p atoms now available are generally in accord with theoretical expectations. Early results for K/sup -/-p atoms showed significant discrepancies and there is an urgent need for further experiments. (33 References).

C. J. Batty, E. Friedman, A. Gal, and G. Kalbermann, "Finite-range effects in hadronic atoms. II. Kaonic and antiprotonic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A535, no. 3-4, pp. 548--72, 1991.

Abstract:For pt.I see ibid., vol.A503, p.632 (1989). Finite-range effects leading to a nonlocal optical-model description of strong-interaction level shifts and widths were studied for kaonic and antiprotonic atoms by using a coordinate-space code which had been introduced and successfully applied to fitting pionic atom data. Some difficulties, which are encountered when strong-interaction bound states appear near zero energy, are analyzed and discussed. By fitting to selected kaonic-atom and antiprotonic-atom data, the present analysis finds substantially larger ranges than for pionic atoms. These values are discussed within the context of several hadron-nucleon interaction models and nuclear multiple-scattering approaches. (30 References).

C. J. Batty and RE. Welsh, "Nuclear capture in the atomic cascade of kaonic, antiprotonic and sigma hyperonic exotic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A589, no. 4, pp. 601--8, 1995.

Abstract:Ratios of nuclear capture rates are shown to increase with increasing principal quantum number n for a given orbital quantum number l, in the high-n, high-l states most relevant to studies of the exotic hadronic atoms of heavy particles. This surprising behaviour, which is confirmed by optical-model calculations, is in contrast to similar capture ratios in pionic atoms at low atomic number. Plots of the relevant hydrogenic atom wave functions are shown to explain such effects. (15 References).

YuA Batusov, S. A. Bunyatov, V. A. Vartanyan, G. R. Gulkanyan, N. Kurt, V. M. Sidorov, KhM Chernev, Zhyan RA Eram, and VA. Yarba, "Study of the reaction mu /sup -/C/sup 12/ to Li/sup 8/He/sup 3/n nu," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1206--13, 1971.

Abstract:Negative muon capture by carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen nuclei with the Li/sup 8/ nucleus production was studied using photoemulsion. Relative probabilities of possible channels of reactions are measured. It is shown that the main channel is the mu /sup -/-meson capture by C/sup 12/ nucleus in reaction mu /sup -/+C/sup 12/ to Li/sup 8/+He/sup 3/+n+ nu with the relative probability within from (1.1+or-0.2).10/sup -3/ up to (1.6+or-0.2).10/sup -3/. Angular correlation analysis show that He/sup 3/ and neutron resulted from disintegration of the excited He/sup 4/* nucleus from levels 22.5+or-2 MeV. Energy spectra and angular correlations of secondary particles are compared with the calculations according to the scheme of mu /sup -/-meson capture with production of high-excited intermediate B/sup 12/* nucleus and the capture by few-nucleon Li/sup 4/ association. (11 References).

YuA Batusov, S. A. Bunyatov, L. Vizireva, G. R. Gulkanyan, F. Mirsalikhova, and VM. Sidorov, "Emission of charged particles at capture of mu /sup -/ mesons by photoemulsion nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 962--7, 1973.

Abstract:Emission probabilities and multiplicity distributions of charged particles for capture of mu /sup -/-mesons by light (C, N, O) and heavy (Ag, Br) photoemulsion nuclei are obtained. For muon capture by the light nuclei the following probabilities (per a capture event) of the charged particle emission are found: for two charged particles w/sub 2/=(4.4+or-0.7)%, for three particles w/sub 3/=(2.1+or-0.2)%, for four particles w/sub 4/= (0.7+or-0.1)%. For every nucleus C, N, O upper bounds are presented for the channel probabilities of reactions with emission of two, three and four charged particles. (12 References).

YuA Batusov, S. A. Bunyatov, L. Vizireva, G. R. Gulkanyan, F. Mirsalikhova, V. M. Sidorov, and Kh. Chernev, "Emission of the Auger electrons in muonic atoms and escape of charged particles at mu /sup -/meson capture by light (C, N, 0) and heavy (Ag, Br) nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1215--19, 1975.

Abstract:Emission probabilities for the Auger electrons with energies 20-100 keV in muonic atoms of light (C,N,0) and heavy (Ag,Br) elements are determined. The multiplicity is determined and the Auger electron spectrum is measured for the muonic heavy atoms. The relative probabilities are obtained for escape of one, two, three and four charged particles at mu /sup -/-meson capture by nuclei C, N, O and Ag, Br. The total yield of charged particles per a capture event is (7.4+or-1.4)% for the nuclei, C, N, 0 and (2.9+or-0.2)% for the nuclei Ag, Br. (8 References).

YuA Batusov, S. A. Bunyatov, L. D. Vizireva, G. R. Gulkanyan, FKh Mirsalikhova, V. M. Sidorov, KhM Chernev, and RA. Eramzhayan, "Investigation of many-particle reactions with production of /sup 8/Li at capture of stopped mu /sup -/ mesons by /sup 12/C nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1137--44, 1978.

Abstract:By means of nuclear emulsions relative probabilities are measured for possible many-particle channels of reactions induced by the mu /sup -/ meson capture in carbon nuclei with the production of /sup 8/Li. It is shown that the main channel is the reaction mu /sup -12/C to /sup 8/Li/sup 3/He n nu , which has a relative probability by at least an order of magnitude higher than all other considered mu /sup -/-capture channels. Energy spectra and angular correlations of secondary particles in the separated reaction channels are compared with calculations based on resonance mu /sup -/-meson capture and on capture by /sup 4/Li association. (10 References).

YuA Batusov, L. D. Vizireva, L. M. Markov, V. M. Sidorov, C. P. Spasov, and KhM. Cherney, "Emission of Auger electrons in pi mesic atoms and charged heavy particles following pi -meson capture by light (C, N, O) and heavy (Ag, Br) nuclei in photoemulsion," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1154--7, 1980.

Abstract:Probabilities of (20-100)-keV Auger electron emission in pi mesic atoms of light (C, N, O) and heavy (Ag, Br) elements are determined to be alpha /sup l/=(4.4+or-0.4)%, alpha /sup h/=(31+or-2)%. Relative probabilities of emission of one, two, three and four charged particles following the pi /sup -/-capture by the (C, N, O) and (Ag, Br) nuclei are obtained. The total yield of charged particles per a capture is (71.5+or-7.0)% for the (C, N, O) nuclei and (67.1+or-5.4)% for (Ag, Br). (7 References).

W. G. Bauer and H. Salecker, "Muonic atoms testing the electron propagator of quantum electrodynamics and the Higgs boson contribution," *Foundations of Physics*, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 115--32, 1983.

Abstract:The authors consider the energy states of muonic atoms which are predominantly influenced by vacuum polarization. This fact is used for testing the electron propagator of QED with a modification. The data of some well analyzed transitions in muonic He, Si, Ba, and Pb yield the limit M[right angle bracket]29 MeV for f=1. Similarly the presence of a Higgs boson would cause a shift of the energy levels which can be measured easier in muonic atoms since the coupling grows with the fermion mass. The analysis of several transitions in heavy muonic atoms shows that the mass of the Higgs boson is larger than 12.8 MeV. (26 References).

P. Baumann, H. Daniel, Egidy T. Von, S. Grunewald, F. J. Hartmann, R. Lipowsky, E. Moser, W. Schott, P. Ackerbauer, W. H. Breunlich, M. Fuchs, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Nagele, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, H. Bossy, K. Crowe, R. H. Sherman, K. Lou, and C. Petitjean, "Spin-flip processes in the t mu system observed via muon-catalyzed pt fusion," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 87--92, 1990.

Abstract:The observation of conversion muons and gamma rays from muon-catalyzed pt fusion provides a possibility to look for various atomic processes. The results of an experiment performed in 1988 at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland are reported. The yields of gamma and conversion muons change drastically with tritium concentration. Values for the pt mu molecular formation rate and the pt fusion rate are given. (8 References).

P. Baumann, H. Daniel, S. Grunewald, F. J. Hartmann, R. Lipowsky, E. Moser, W. Schott, Egidy T. von, P. Ackerbauer, W. H. Breunlich, M. Fuchs, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Nagele, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, H. Bossy, K. M. Crowe, R. H. Sherman, K. Lou, C. Petitjean, and VE. Markushin, "Muon-catalyzed pt fusion," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 70, no. 24, pp. 3720--3, 1993.

Abstract:Gamma rays and, for the first time, conversion muons of pt fusion have been measured from liquid mixtures of protium, deuterium, and tritium. The rate lambda /sub 10/ for spin flip from the triplet to the singlet state of t mu (1s) was found to be lambda /sub 10/=(1.06+or-0.13)*10/sup 3/ mu s/sup -1/, the rate for muon-catalyzed pt fusion from the (I=1) nuclear-spin state to be lambda /sub pt//sup f/(I=1)=0.067+or-0.002/sub -0.002//sup +0.005/ mu s/sup -1/, and the molecular formation rate to be lambda /sub pt//sup m/=(7.5+or-0.3/sub -0.3//sup +1.0/) mu s/sup -1/ (all rates normalized to liquid hydrogen density). (28 References).

G. Baym, G. Friedman, R. J. Hughes, and BV. Jacak, "Production of muon-meson atoms in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions," *Physical Review D*, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. R3957-9, 1993.

Abstract:Ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions should produce hydrogen-atom-like Coulomb bound states of muons and mesons. Such atoms could provide a convenient way to measure the muon momentum distribution. We estimate the production rate of pion-muon atoms expected from heavy-ion colliders. (11 References).

D. Beder, "Radiative mu -capture on protons and /sup 3/He," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A258, no. 3, pp. 447--60, 1976.

Abstract:The author presents calculations of the process mu /sup -/p to nu n gamma for coincidence measurements of both n and gamma , aimed at an improved experimental estimate of the induced pseudoscalar weak coupling (g/sub P/). The elementary particle approach used is then applied to calculations of mu /sup -3/He to nu /sup 3/H gamma . This latter work includes a discussion on how to relate intermediate-state nuclear excitations to other observable processes, so as to again permit extraction of information regarding g/sub P/. Also we discuss experimentally feasible measurements briefly for the /sup 3/He case. (14 References).

D. Beder, "The hyperfine quadrupole moment of muonium in the ground state," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A305, no. 2, pp. 411--17, 1978.

Abstract:The quadrupole moment of the ground state of the mu /sup +/e/sup -/ atom is calculated to be (3m/sub e/m/sub mu /)/sup -1/; effects in a crystal are briefly discussed. (5 References).

D. Beder, "Predicted branching ratio for pi /sup -/d to pi /sup 0/nn at rest," *Canadian Journal of Physics*, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 669--73, 1978.

Abstract:The branching ratio for rest capture pi /sup -/d to pi /sup 0/nn is calculated using the impulse approximation for pi /sup 0/nn and data for other rates. Detailed discussion is devoted to corrections to the simplest approximation, and to relevant details of the deuteron description. The result for the predicted branching ratio is (1.46+or-0.25)*10/sup -4/. (14 References).

D. Beder, "Estimates of ee production from nuclear muon capture," *Canadian Journal of Physics*, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 154--8, 1985.

Abstract:Motivated by the experimental search for mu /sup -/A to e/sup -/A, the author calculates mu p to nu nee, which provides a small background of high-energy electrons, limiting experimental sensitivity. A reasonable extrapolation to the nuclear case, for a Ti target, indicates an effective background for Ee[right angle bracket]95 MeV of approximately 2*10/sup -12/ (branching ratio to total capture rate). (13 References).

D. S. Beder and HW. Fearing, "Radiative muon capture in hydrogen and nucleon excitation," *Physical Review D*, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 3493--6, 1989.

Abstract:The authors extend their previous calculations of radiative muon capture on a nucleon and present detailed calculations of the role of the Delta (1232) using an improved Delta -nucleon- gamma vertex and for a variety of values of the induced pseudoscalar coupling g/sub p/. They also present calculations of the photon-muon spin asymmetry and examine effects of the Delta (1232) there. (11 References).

C. P. Bee, D. Conti, M. Hadri, S. Kistryn, J. Lng, O. Naviliat-Cuncic, J. Sromicki, E. Stephan, K. Bodek, J. Smyrski, A. Strzalkowski, J. Zejma, L. Grenacs, R. Abela, P. Boni, F. Foroughi, W. Zipper, and A. Proykova, "Polarimetry of /sup 16/N/sub gs/ produced in mu /sup -/-capture on /sup 16/O nuclei," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1659--76, 1997.

Abstract:A polarimetry technique based on stack targets and beta - gamma -coincidences has been applied to the /sup 16/N nuclei produced in the ground state capture of negative muons on /sup 16/O nuclei. The performance of the polarimeter and the first measurements of beta -asymmetry due to the longitudinal nuclear polarization are discussed. (20 References).

W. Beer, Boer FWN de, Chambrier G. de, M. Eckhause, A. I. Egorov, K. L. Giovanetti, PFA Goudsmit, B. Jeckelmann, K. E. Kiryanov, L. Knecht, L. N. Kondurova, L. Lapina, H. J. Leisi, V. I. Marusheko, A. F. Mezentsev, A. A. Petrunin, A. Ruetschi, A. Sergeev, A. I. Smirnov, V. M. Suvorov, and A. Vacchi, "Determination of the pion-nucleus p-wave interaction at low energy from crystal spectrometer measurements of 2p shifts and widths in light pionic atoms," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 15, no. , 1983.

Abstract:Precision measurements of the 3d-2p X-ray transitions in pionic /sup 12/C, /sup 16,18/O, /sup 24,26/Mg, /sup 28/Si, and /sup 30/Si have been carried out with the bent-crystal spectrometer pi KS at SIN. This DuMond-type spectrometer incorporates among other features a combined pi -production/X-ray target-situated in a 20 mu A, 600 MeV proton beam-a precision focal slit and a bent quartz crystal with a radius of curvature of 5 m. By appropriate selection of the quartz crystal and the slit width the instrumental resolution for each of the individual isotopes was chosen to be roughly equal to the strong width of the X-ray line. The final results of the data analysis will make it possible to determine the p-wave parameters of the pi -nucleus potential with much higher precision than has been possible so far. (0 References).

G. A. Beer, G. M. Marshall, G. R. Mason, A. Olin, Z. Gelbart, K. R. Kendall, T. Bowen, P. G. Halverson, A. E. Pifer, C. A. Fry, J. B. Warren, and AR. Kunselman, "Emission of muonium into vacuum from a silica-powder layer," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 671--4, 1986.

Abstract:Muonium atoms have been observed in vacuum after emission from a layer of finely divided silica powder. By extrapolation of the decay-positron track, both the time and position of muon decay are measured, confirming thermal emission at room temperature. The yields range up to (19+or-6)% of muons stopping in the layer, depending on its thickness. The result is used to recalculate the upper limit for conversion of muonium to antimuonium. (10 References).

W. Beer, M. Bogdan, D. Bovet, E. Bovet, D. Chatellard, J-P Egger, G. Fiorucci, K. Gabathuler, PFA Goudsmit, H. J. Leisi, El Hassani AJ Rusi, D. Sigg, L. Simons, St Thomann, and W. Volken, "Determination of the strong interaction parameters in pionic hydrogen with a crystal spectrometer," *Psi Nuclear & Particle Physics Newsletter*, no. , 1990.

Abstract:The authors report on the progress of an experiment to measure both the strong interaction shift ( epsilon ) and broadening ( Gamma ) of the 1S level in pionic hydrogen. These two quantities completely determine the two independent, isospin decomposed pi -N S-wave scattering lengths a/sub 1/ and a/sub 3/. (0 References).

W. Beer, M. Bogdan, D. Bovet, E. Bovet, D. Chatellard, J-P Egger, G. Fiorucci, K. Gabathuler, PFA Goudsmit, H. J. Leisi, Hassani AJR El, D. Sigg, L. M. Simons, S. Thomann, and W. Volken, "Determination of the strong interaction shift in pionic hydrogen with a high resolution crystal spectrometer system," *Psi Nuclear & Particle Physics Newsletter*, no. , pp. 35-6, 1991.

Abstract:The pion-nucleon strong interaction can be studied at zero energy by measuring the strong interaction shift epsilon /sub 1S/ and the strong interaction broadening Gamma /sub 1S/ of the 1S level in pionic hydrogen. The experiment was carried out at the pi E3 channel tuned to deliver 85 MeV/c pi /sup -/ with an intensity of typically 2.5*10/sup 6/ pi /sup -/ s/sup -1/. The setup is presented. It consists of a cyclotron trap, a high resolution double focussing silicon crystal spectrometer of the reflection type and position sensitive CCD X-ray detectors. Target, crystals and detectors are located on a 3 m diameter focal circle. Results are also presented. (3 References).

W. Beer, M. Bogdan, PFA Goudsmit, H. J. Leisi, El Hassani AJ Rusi, D. Sigg, St Thomann, W. Volken, D. Bovet, E. Bovet, D. Chatellard, J-P Egger, G. Fiorucci, K. Gabathuler, and LM. Simons, "Determination of the strong interactive shift in pionic hydrogen with a high resolution crystal spectrometer system," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 261, no. 1-2, pp. 16--20, 1991.

Abstract:The 3P-IS X-ray transition energy was measured in pionic hydrogen with a double focussing silicon crystal spectrometer in combination with a cyclotron trap and CCD detectors: E=2885.98+or-0.17(stat.)+or-0.15(syst.) eV. The corresponding strong interaction shift epsilon /sub 1S/=-7.12+or-0.32 eV (attractive) yields the scattering length combination (1/3)(2a/sub 1/+a/sub 3/)=0.086+or-0.004 m/sub pi //sup -1/. (16 References).

G. Beer, "Kaonic hydrogen --- past puzzles," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, pp. 3--12, 1999.

R. Beetz, Boer FWN De, K. Fransson, J. Konijn, J. K. Panman, L. Tauscher, and G. Tibell, "Determination of the effective quadrupole moment in /sup 181/Ta with pionic X-rays," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A300, no. 2, pp. 369--84, 1978.

Abstract:From the hyperfine splitting of the 5g to 4f and the 6g to 4f pionic X-rays in /sup 181/Ta, an effective quadrupole moment of Q/sub eff/=3.58+or-0.03 b was determined. The strong interaction monopole shift epsilon /sub 0/ and the width Gamma /sub 0/ of the 4f level were measured to be epsilon /sub 0/=540+or-100 eV and Gamma /sub 0/=225+or-57 eV, in good agreement with the values obtained with the standard optical potential description of the pion-nucleus interaction. Estimating the influence of the finite nuclear size, the deformation induced through the strong interaction between the pion and the finite nucleus, and the relative magnitude between the strong and the electromagnetic quadrupole coupling constants values for the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of Q=3.30+or-0.06 b, and for the intrinsic quadrupole moment of Q/sub 0/=7.06+or-0.12 b are obtained. (28 References).

R. N. Bekmirzaev and others, "Study of $\pi ^-$--meson characteristics in the interactions of 1.7 GeV/c deuterium with hydrogen and carbon nuclei," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, pp. 537--544, 1988.

A. A. Bel'kov, V. N. Pervushin, and FG. Tkebuchava, "Properties of the mesic atoms pi pi and K pi and the meson chiral interaction parameters," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 466--70, 1986.

Abstract:The effect of the meson strong interaction on the properties of the mesic atom pi pi and K pi (the lifetime, the energy levels, and the wave function) is studied. The main result of the study is the determination of a relation between the chiral Lagrangian parameters and the lifetimes of the pi pi and K pi atoms. It is shown that the experimental determination of the lifetime of the pi pi atom amounts to the direct measurement of the chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter and that the measurement of the lifetime of the K pi atom confirms the chiral symmetry of the strong interaction and allows one to choose one of the variants of the calculation of the low energy limit of QCD. (20 References).

TL. Bell, "alpha (Z alpha )/sup 2/ vacuum-polarization correction in muonic atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1480--8, 1973.

Abstract:The Laplace transform obtained by Wichmann and Kroll for the vacuum-polarization charge density of order (Z alpha )/sup 3/ induced by a point nucleus is used to determine the first few terms in the expansion of the charge density for small distances from the nucleus. The result is used to estimate the effect of the polarization charge near the nucleus on the muonic X-rays studied experimentally by Dixit et al. The effect is found to be somewhat smaller than an earlier estimate, and the discrepancy between theory and experiment is slightly reduced, but the discrepancy remains large for high-Z muonic atoms, as much as three of four standard deviations in lead and barium.

R. Bellazzini and others, "Substrate--less, spark--free micro-strip gas counter," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods A*, vol. 409, pp. 14--19, 1998.

YuM. Belousov, "Calculation of d mu -atom spin-changing reaction rate in molecular hydrogen," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 367--74, 1992.

Abstract:The rate of the spin-change reaction d mu (F=3/2)+H/sub 2/(I)=d mu (F=1/2)+H/sub 2/(I') is calculated. It is shown that this reaction can take place with simultaneous changing of the total proton spin I in the H/sub 2/-molecule. Taking into account molecular effects drastically changes the temperature dependence of the d mu -atom spin-change reaction rate. (16 References).

Yu Belousov, A. Belov, and V. Smilga, "Excited states of the molecular ion (H/sub 2/ mu )/sup +/," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 87, no. 1-4, pp. 935--40, 1994.

Abstract:The rotation-vibration spectrum of (H/sub 2/ mu )/sup +/ is computed. Radiative lifetimes of the excited states are of order 10/sup -4/ s or more. These times can be considered infinite compared to the lifetime of mu /sup +/. For the ion in a crystal the lifetimes are significantly decreased by interaction with polarized molecules of the lattice. Transition rates to the ground state are calculated for (H/sub 2/ mu )/sup +/ in a hydrogen crystal. The results make it possible to interpret the experimental data from mu SR investigations of hydrogen, deuterium and hydrogen-deuterium mixtures. (17 References).

Y. M. Belousov and V. P. Smilga, "Theory of muon spin depolarization in crystalline phases of He3," *Hyperfine Interact.*, vol. 106, pp. 63-68, 1997.

Abstract:As is obvious from the energetic point of view, positive muons must form the molecular ion (He-2 mu)(+) in condensed phases of helium. A theory of positive muon spin depolarization in crystalline phase of He-3 in this model is devised. The theory explains experimental results. It is shown that the abrupt temperature dependence of the muon spin depolarization rate at T < 2 K which is observed in experiments is explained by spinphonon interaction. This interaction mechanism arises due to a modulation of the exchange interaction between host atoms of the He-3-lattice.

A. K. Belov, YuM Belousov, and VP. Smilga, "Calculation of lifetimes of excited states of the vibrational-rotational spectrum of a free (H/sub 2/ mu )/sup +/ ion," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1052--60, 1994.

Abstract:Numerical calculation of lowest levels of the vibrational-rotational spectrum of a (H/sub 2/ mu )/sup +/ ion is performed. Radiative lifetimes of excited states of a free (H/sub 2/ mu )/sup +/ ion are obtained in the dipole approximation. (13 References).

G. E. Belovitskii, V. N. Baranov, D. A. Valishina, N. V. Maslennikova, and C. Petitjean, "Absorption of negative muons by uranium nuclei which is accompanied by charged particle emission," in *Sbornik Kratkie Soobshcheniya Po Fizike, an Sssr*, vol. 10, no. pp. 8-11, 1985.

Abstract:The emission of charged particles (p, d, t, and alpha ) following the absorption of negative muons by uranium nuclei and in the fission of these nuclei is investigated for the first time. The angular and energy distributions and the probabilities of emission of these particles are found.

G. E. Belovitsky, C. Petitjean, Y. A. Preobrazhensky, and LV. Suhov, "Muon induced fission of /sup 238/U and muon conversion from the fragments," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 13, no. , pp. 56-8, 1980.

Abstract:Muon induced fission and subsequent processes are investigated by irradiating /sup 238/U loaded photo-emulsions with muons. The muon induced fission can be the result of two processes: nuclear muon capture ('delayed fission'), or radiationless transitions to the muonic 1s orbit ('prompt fission'). In prompt fission the muon remains alive and is kept bound to one of the fragments. During de-excitation it can be re-emitted by the internal conversion process ('muon conversion'). As a primary goal they study this conversion process (probability approximately 10/sup -2/). It gives information on the nature of the radiation emitted from the muonic fragment (multipolarities and lifetimes for E gamma [right angle bracket]3 MeV) and one can determine the probabilities to which one of the fragments the muon gets bound. (5 References).

G. E. Belovitsky and C. Petitjean, "The fate of the muon after prompt fission of U/sup 238/," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 16, no. , pp. 60-2, 1984.

Abstract:Muons in heavy nuclei induce fission by the following excitation mechanisms: radiationless transitions between muonic orbits ('prompt fission'); nuclear muon capture from the 1s state ('delayed fission'). In mu U/sup 238/ about 7% of the nuclei undergo fission, 8% of which are prompt. The authors find that in prompt fission most muons stick to the heavy fragment while for the probability of the muon sticking to the light fragment (W/sub L/) was 7+or-3%. (3 References).

I. Beltrami, B. Aas, W. Beer, P. Ebersold, R. Eichler, PFA Goudsmit, M. Guanziroli, Ledebur T. von, H. J. Leisi, W. Ruckstuhl, W. W. Sapp, G. Strassner, A. Vacchi, U. Kiebele, and R. Weber, "The electron screening effect in muonic /sup 28/Si," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A429, no. 3, pp. 381--8, 1984.

Abstract:The authors have measured the wavelengths of the 4f/sub 7/2/-3d/sub 5/2/ and the 4f/sub 5/2/-3d/sub 3/2/ X-ray transitions in mu -/sup 28/Si with the bent-crystal spectrometer at the SIN muon channel. The results are compared to the calculated transition wavelengths which include radiative corrections (QED). The differences in the corresponding transition energies are attributed to the electron screening shift. Combining the results from both transitions, the authors obtain Delta E/sub ES/(4f-3d)=-1.66+or-0.20 eV. This corresponds to (83+or-11)% of the electron-screening shift calculated for a neutral atom with the muon and Z-1 electrons. These results are in moderate agreement with cascade calculations constrained to reproduce measured muonic X-ray intensities. (17 References).

I. Beltrami, B. Aas, W. Beer, Chambrier G. de, PFA Goudsmit, Ledebur T. von, H. J. Leisi, W. Ruckstuhl, W. W. Sapp, G. Strassner, A. Vacchi, U. Kiebele, J-A Pinston, and R. Weber, "New precision measurements of the muonic 3d/sub 5/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ X-ray transition in /sup 24/Mg and /sup 28/Si: vacuum polarisation test and search for muon-hadron interactions beyond QED," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A451, no. 4, pp. 679--700, 1986.

Abstract:Motivated by the importance of scalar particles in the current work on gauge theories of fundamental interactions, the authors have performed an improved muonic-atom experiment to search for long-range muon-hadron interactions. They remeasured the wavelengths of the 3d/sub 5/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ X-ray transitions in /sup 24/Mg and /sup 28/Si with the bent-crystal spectrometer at the SIN muon channel. The relative difference between the X-ray wavelength lambda /sub exp/ and the theoretical value as obtained from QED calculations averaged over the two elements, is lambda /sub exp/- lambda /sub QED// lambda /sub QED/=(-0.2+or-3.1)*10/sup 6/. Assuming the validity of the QED calculations, they can put limits on an additional muon-nucleon interaction: if such an interaction were mediated, for example, by a scalar or vector (isoscalar) boson with a mass smaller than about 1 MeV, the corresponding coupling constant is g/sub mu /g/sub N/[left angle bracket]or=0.8*10/sup -6/*e/sup 2/. Alternatively, if additional muon-hadron interactions are negligible, the result corresponds to a 950 p.p.m. test of the vacuum polarisation effect in QED. The result can also be interpreted as a 3 p.p.m. measurement of the negative muon mass. (46 References).

YuI Bely, L. Majling, J. Rizek, and VA. Vartanyan, "The neutron channel in muon capture by /sup 15/N and /sup 32/S," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A204, no. 2, pp. 357--70, 1973.

Abstract:The excitation of giant resonances in muon capture by the non-magic nuclei /sup 15/N and /sup 32/S is considered. The capture rates to the levels of the intermediate nuclei /sup 15/C and /sup 32/P as well as neutron decay channels and spectra were calculated. The features of giant resonances in non-magic nuclei are discussed and possibilities of experimentally checking the results obtained are suggested. (13 References).

V. B. Belyaev, A. Bertin, V. M. Bystritsky, A. Gula, O. I. Kartavtsev, A. Kravtsov, L. A. Rivkis, S. I. Sorokin, S. G. Stetsenko, V. A. Stolupin, A. Vitale, and J. Wozniak, "Investigation of nuclear fusion reactions in charge-nonsymmetric muonic molecules," *JINR Communication D15--92--323*, 1992.

Abstract:The project presents an experimental programme on the study of fusion of light nuclei (H, He, Li, Be) in charge-nonsymmetric muonic molecules HeHµ, LiHµ, BeHµ (H is p, d, t). The project describes techniques, conditions of experiments on the study of nuclear fusion reactions in muonic molecules $^{3,4}$HeHµ, $^{6,7}$LiHµ. There are also limiting estimations of nuclear fusion rates, which can be obtained in the experiments. For this experimental programme the intensive muon beams are required.

V. B. Belyaev, S. S. Gershtein, B. N. Zakhar'ev, and S. P. Lomnev, "$\mu ^-$--mesic molecular processes in hydrogen," *Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 37, pp. 1652--1662, 1959.

V. B. Belyaev, A. P. Podkopayev, J. Wrzecionko, and AL. Zubarev, "The Schwinger variational principle for charged particle scattering on atomic systems," *Journal of Physics B (Atomic & Molecular Physics)*, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1225--32, 1979.

Abstract:The Schwinger variational principle has been applied to solve certain scattering problems in atomic physics, and a separable approximation has been used for the Hamiltonian of the bound subsystems. The (e/sup +/H) scattering length and the cross section for p(d mu /sup -/) elastic scattering has been calculated using the second Born approximation. (17 References).

V. B. Belyaev, S. E. Brener, E. M. Gandyl, A. I. Zubarev, and BF. Irgaziev, "On the possible influence of the strong interaction on the properties of mesomolecular systems," *Journal of Physics G *, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 903--9, 1982.

Abstract:It is shown that the strong dT interaction, in the mesic molecule dT mu /sup -/ can produce a new state with energy E=E/sub R/-/sup 1///sub 2/i Gamma for -200 eV[left angle bracket]or=E/sub R/[left angle bracket]or=0. Within a two-channel mechanism allowing for the coupling of the elastic channel dT mu to dT mu with the reaction channel dT mu to /sup 4/He+n+ mu , the average energy E/sub mu / as a function of E/sub R/ was studied. (6 References).

V. B. Belyaev, E. M. Gandyl, and AL. Zubarev, "On mu -mesic-molecular ion dT mu /sup -/spectrum," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 314, no. 1, pp. 107--9, 1983.

Abstract:Mesic-molecular system dT mu /sup -/ in the state with total angular momentum L=0 is considered in a two-channel approximation corresponding to two channels of strong interaction dT/sub to /4/sub Hen//sup to dT/. Coulomb interaction V/sub d mu /+V/sub T mu / is taken into account by introducing an effective potential V/sub mu / in the form of the Morse potential. The main result of the research is the following: the eigenvalue with a small real part and a large width exists even at considerable variations of the effective repulsion between the deuteron and tritium at short distances. (7 References).

V. B. Belyaev, S. E. Brener, R. M. Galimsyanov, and AL. Zubarev, "Solution of Faddeev-type equations in the problem of two coulomb centers," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 317, no. 1, pp. 15--18, 1984.

Abstract:The movement of a light particle in the field of two coulomb centers is considered. A system of equations for components of the total wave function with the appropriate asymptotic behaviour was used without using separation of variables. Effective potentials for a molecular ion of the hydrogen and the mu -mesic ion dd mu /sup -/ are calculated. In the latter system the spectrum of a mesic molecule in a state with the total angular momentum L=0 is found. (7 References).

V. B. Belyaev, J. Revai, and AL. Zubarev, "Dynamics of the fusion reaction in the dt mu /sup -/system," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 219, no. 2-3, pp. 157--60, 1989.

Abstract:A dynamical scheme based on the (td, alpha n) two-channel model is derived for the description of the fusion reaction in the dt mu /sup -/system. Special attention is paid to correct specification of the final states. Several possibilities are pointed out for systematic improvement of the sudden approximation for the sticking coefficient. (10 References).

V. B. Belyaev, O. I. Kartavtsev, and J. Wrzecionko, "Effect of strong interaction in pd mu mesic molecules," *Few-Body Systems*, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 25--30, 1989.

Abstract:It is shown that the inclusion of the exchange interaction between nuclei of a mesic molecule removes the degeneracy of the Coulomb levels and doubles the levels. For the ground state of the pd mu molecular ion the splitting is estimated to amount to Delta E approximately 10/sup -2/ eV. Possible experiments for detection of this effect are discussed. (9 References).

V. B. Belyaev and J. Wrzecionko, "Influence of the strong pd interaction on the spectrum pd mu mesonic molecules," *Physical Review A*, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 6195--8, 1989.

Abstract:A self-consistent treatment of rescattering effects of a nuclear subsystem in a mu -mesonic molecule is proposed. Strong nonlocality of the nuclear t matrix with respect to the mu -meson coordinate is established. This effect gives an essential contribution to the energy shifts of the Coulombic levels of a pd mu mesonic molecule. For a pd mu mesonic molecule the difference of energy shifts of levels with nuclear spins S=/sup 1///sub 2/ and /sup 3///sub 2/ equals 0.052 eV. (7 References).

V. B. Belyaev, V. E. Kuzmichev, and W. Sandhas, "Formation probability of the (/sup 7/Be p mu )-molecule," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 185--8, 1990.

Abstract:The formation probability of molecular (/sup 7/Be p mu /sup -/) bound states and resonances under emission of an atomic electron is estimated. The transition rate increases considerably with increasing mean square radius of the molecular system. Rather large transition probabilities therefore, are to be expected if the formation takes place in highly excited states, a trend enhanced by the final state Coulomb interaction. (2 References).

V. B. Belyaev and J. Wrzecionko, "The strong interaction in mesicmolecular systems," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 508, no. , pp. 109c-14, 1990.

Abstract:A self-consistent treatment of rescattering effects of a nuclear subsystem in a mu -mesomolecule is proposed. Strong nonlocality of the nuclear t-matrix with respect to the mu -meson coordinate is established. This effect gives an essential contribution to the energy shifts of the Coulombic levels of a pd mu mesomolecule. For a pd mu mesomolecule the difference of energy shifts of levels with nuclear spins S=1/2 and S=3/2 equals 0.052 eV. (4 References).

V. B. Belyaev, M. Decker, H. Haberzettl, L. J. Khaskilevitch, and W. Sandhas, "Muonic molecules of light nuclei," in *Few-Body Problems in Physics, Suplementum*, pp. 332-7, 1991.

Abstract:The authors present a systematic study of the muonic molecules (p mu N/sub z/), (d mu N/sub z/), and (t mu N/sub z/) where N/sub z/ are nuclei with charges Z=1,3,4. Their calculations are based on a dual expansion scheme where, in a first step, they employ expansions into surface functions which are then, in a second step, expanded into hyperspherical harmonics. To ensure the correct asymptotic behaviour of the eigenpotentials, they amend the second step by an additive expansion into channel functions. The eigenpotentials obtained show the expected attraction for the (d mu t) system. For Z=3,4, high-lying dips are found indicating resonance behaviour. At present, the radial equation is solved in the extreme adiabatic approximation. First attempts are being made towards a solution in the adiabatic approximation. (5 References).

V. B. Belyaev, H. Fiedeldey, and SA. Sofianos, "Influence of the nuclear interaction in the d mu /sup 7/Be molecule," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 66--70, 1993.

Abstract:The mu -molecular resonances d mu /sup 7/Be and p mu /sup 8/Be(2/sup +/) as four-body systems are considered. The authors emphasize the possible long-range (on a nuclear scale) character of the strong interaction which drives the nuclear transition d mu /sup 7/Be to p mu /sup 8/Be(2/sup +/). The probability of such a process is estimated. (7 References).

V. B. Belyaev, V. I. Korobov, and SA. Rakityansky, "Nuclear transition in the muonic molecule t mu /sup 3/He," *Few-Body Systems*, vol. 17, no. 2-4, pp. 243--54, 1994.

Abstract:We consider the possibility of a nuclear transition, through the intermediate state of the /sup 6/Li(3/sup +/, 0) nucleus, for the muonic molecule t mu /sup 3/He. While the three-body Coulomb part of the problem is treated by a variational method using a large basis of trial functions ( approximately 1000), the strong-interaction effects are calculated in perturbation theory. (14 References).

V. B. Belyaev, H. Fiedeldey, S. A. Rakityansky, and SA. Sofianos, "Nuclear transitions in muonic molecules," in *Few-Body Systems Supplementum*, pp. 201-3, 1994.

Abstract:A scheme, analogous to the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO), is proposed to calculate rates of reactions of nucleon-group transfer between nuclei confined in muonic molecules. As an example the rates of the reactions d- mu -/sup 7/Be to p- mu -/sup 8/Be(2+) and p- mu -/sup 10/Be to t- mu -/sup 8/Be are estimated. (9 References).

V. B. Belyaev, O. I. Kartavtsev, V. I. Kochkin, and EA. Kolganova, "Binding energies and nonradiative decay rates of Hed mu molecular ions," *Physical Review A*, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 1765--8, 1995.

Abstract:The method of hyperspherical {"}surface{"} functions has been applied to the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of muonic molecular ions /sup 3,4/Hed mu . Binding energies and nonradiative decay rates for the states of the total angular momentum L=0, 1, 2 have been obtained. (17 References).

V. B. Belyaev, M. Decker, H. Fiedeldey, S. A. Rakityansky, W. Sandhas, and SA. Sofianos, "Muonic molecules of charge Z>or=3: Coulombic properties and nuclear transitions," *Nukleonika*, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 3--24, 1995.

Abstract:In this report we will discuss properties of and models for nuclear transitions in muonic molecules formed via collisions of muonic atoms of hydrogen isotopes with light nuclei like Li and Be. Their importance for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear physics at super low energies is emphasized. (36 References).

V. B. Belyaev, A. Bertin, V. M. Bystritsky, V. M. Bystritsky, A. Gula, O. I. Kartavtsev, A. V. Kravtsov, A. V. Luchinsky, G. A. Mesyats, L. A. Rivkis, N. A. Rotakhin, A. A. Sinebryukhov, S. I. Sorokin, S. G. Stetsenko, V. A. Stolupin, A. Vitale, and J. Wozniak, "New proposals for the investigation of strong interaction of light nuclei at super low energies," *Nukleonika*, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 85--99, 1995.

Abstract:Two projects of the experimental study of nuclear reactions between light nuclei (p, d, t, He, Li, Be) in the region of very low energies are presented. The first proposal deals with nuclear fusion reactions in charge-nonsymmetric muonic molecular complexes such as /sup 3,4/Hed mu , /sup 3,4/Het mu , /sup 6,7/Lip mu , /sup 6,7/Lid mu , /sup 6,7/Lit mu . In the second one we consider a new approach to the measurement of nuclear reaction cross sections of light nuclei (p, d, t) in the range of 0.01/2 keV, using high intensity radially converging ion flow generated during linear implosion in plasma with the use of high power pulsed generator. The choice of experimental conditions has been made and lower limits of the measured values (fusion rates and cross sections) have been estimated. (23 References).

B. V. Belyaev, V. I. Korobov, and SA. Rakityansky, "Width and shift of the charge-nonsymmetric mu -molecular state," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 687-90, 1995.

Abstract:Influence of the threshold t-/sup 3/He nuclear resonance on the spectrum of t- mu -/sup 3/He molecule is estimated as a perturbation. The three body molecular wave-function was obtained within the variational stabilization method. (4 References).

V. B. Belyaev, O. I. Kartavtsev, V. I. Kochkin, and EA. Kolganova, "Decay processes of He H mu -molecular ions in the hyperspherical surface function method," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 359-63, 1996.

Abstract:The method of hyperspherical {"}surface{"} functions has been applied to the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of muonic molecular ions /sup 3,4/HeD mu . Binding energies and decay rates for the states of the total angular momentum L=0, 1, 2 have been obtained. (11 References).

V. B. Belyaev, O. I. Kartavtsev, V. I. Kochkin, and EA. Kolganova, "Decay rates and gamma -rays spectra of HeH mu systems," *Zeitschrift fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules & Clusters*, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 239--44, 1997.

Abstract:Radiative and nonradiative decay of charge non-symmetrical molecular ions /sup 3,4/He/sup 1,2/H mu have been investigated. Decay rates in both channels and gamma -ray spectra for the states of the total angular momentum L=0, 1, 2 have been calculated using the hyperspherical {"}surface{"} functions method. Isotopic dependence of the decay rates is discussed. A comparison of the calculated gamma -ray spectra with the recent experiments indicates the /sup 3,4/Hed mu decay from the L=1 state. (20 References).

V. B. Belyaev, D. E. Monakhov, S. A. Sofianos, and W. Sandhas, "Existence and transition properties of the three-deuteron muonic molecule 3d2e/sup -/ mu /sup -/," *Physical Review A*, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 2760--6, 1998.

Abstract:We calculated the energy and the size of the three-deuteron muonic molecule 3d2e/sup -/ mu /sup -/, or D/sub 3/ mu . It turns out that this system possesses two equilibrium positions, one at distances typical for muonic molecules and a second one at the usual molecular size. We calculated, moreover, the fusion probability of the three deuterons and found that it could considerably be enhanced due to the existence of a /sup 6/Li* threshold resonance. Our estimates indicate that this probability is considerably higher than the decay rate of the competing Auger transition. (13 References).

V. B. Belyaev, D. E. Monakhov, S. A. Sofianos, and W. Sandhas, "Existence and transition properties of the three-deuteron muonic molecule (3d2e/sup -/ mu /sup -/)," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, no. 1-4, pp. 243--6, 1999.

Abstract:We calculated the energy and the size of the three-deuteron muonic molecule (3d2e/sup -/ mu /sup -/)=D/sub 3/ mu . It turns out that this system possesses two equilibrium positions, one at distances typical for muonic molecules, the second one at the usual molecular size. We show, moreover, that the fusion probability of the three deuterons is considerably enhanced due to the existence of a /sup 6/Li* threshold resonance. Our estimates indicate that this probability is considerably higher than the decay rate of the competing Auger transition. (3 References).

A. K. Belyaev, A. Dalgarno, and R. McCarroll, "The dependence of nonadiabatic couplings on the origin of electron coordinates," *Journal of Chemical Physics*, vol. 116, no. 13, pp. 5395--400, 2002.

Abstract:It is shown both analytically and numerically for a number of examples that both radial and rotational nonadiabatic couplings within the standard adiabatic approach depend on the origin of the light-particle coordinates and the ambiguity in the nonadiabatic couplings does not lead to ambiguity in the coupled channel equations. The examples considered are the nH, nD, np mu /sup -/ quasimolecules, for which the nonadiabatic couplings can be calculated analytically, and the HeH molecule, for which ab initio calculations are carried out. Analytical formulas for couplings calculated with the shifted origin are derived. The coupled equations take their simplest form in Jacobi coordinates for which many nonadiabatic couplings are nonzero, even for such noninteracting systems as nH, nD, and np mu /sup -/. These couplings are a fundamental feature of the adiabatic approach. (24 References).

P. Bém and others, "Phase shift analysis of $d+^3$H reaction below 1 MeV," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, pp. 389--392, 1988.

V. Bemard, T. R. Hemmert, and UG. Meissner, "Ordinary and radiative muon capture on the proton and the pseudoscalar form factor of the nucleon," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 686, no. , pp. 290-316, 2001.

Abstract:We calculate ordinary and radiative muon capture on the proton in an effective field theory of pions, nucleons and delta isobars, working to third and second order in the small scale expansion, respectively. Preceding calculations in chiral effective field theories only employed pion and nucleon degrees of freedom and were not able to reproduce the photon spectrum in the pioneering experiment of radiative muon capture on the proton from TRIUMF. For the past few years it has been speculated that the discrepancy between theory and experiment might be due to Delta (1232) related effects, which are only included via higher-order contact interactions in the standard chiral approach. In this report we demonstrate that this speculation does not hold true. We show that contrary to expectations from naive dimensional analysis, isobar effects on the photon spectrum and the total rate in radiative muon capture are of the order of a few percent, consistent with earlier findings in a more phenomenological approach. We further demonstrate that both ordinary and radiative muon capture constitute systems with a very well-behaved chiral expansion, both in the standard chiral perturbation theory and in the small scale expansion, and present some new ideas that might be at the bottom of the still unresolved discrepancy between theory and experiment in radiative muon capture. Finally, we comment upon the procedure employed by the TRIUMF group to extract new information from their radiative muon capture experiment on the pseudoscalar form factor of the nucleon. We show that it is inconsistent with the ordinary muon capture data. (37 References).

G. Bencze and C. Chandler, "Coulomb screening in low-energy nuclear reactions," *Physical Review C*, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. R532-9, 1992.

Abstract:Coulomb screening effects are studied in very-low-energy nuclear reactions. The two-potential formalism is shown to be a convenient method for the separation of long-range (molecular) and short-range (nuclear) dynamics. As specific applications, electron screening effects and muon catalysis in nuclear reactions are investigated. In the case of electron screening in very-low-energy nuclear reactions a method is elaborated for calculation of the enhancement of the astrophysical factor. For muon-catalysed fusion reactions the sudden approximation is shown to be valid even if the reaction is dominated by a long-lived nuclear resonance. (36 References).

P. Bennett, M. Blecher, R. Chan, S. Daviel, M. Hasinoff, S. Ko, R. Poutissou, D. Sample, and D. Wright, "A trigger card for event rejection in the RMC experiment at TRIUMF," *IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science*, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 1200-2, 1990.

Abstract:A trigger card has been designed and constructed to improve the trigger efficiency of a large solid angle pair spectrometer to be used for the measurement of radiative muon capture at TRIUMF. A number of these trigger cards are connected to FASTBUS pipeline TDCs (time-to-digital converter) via the FASTBUS auxiliary connector to provide coarse information on the tracks of charged particles in a drift chamber. The trigger cards produce a majority OR of groups of six signals from the chamber, allowing very fast online event rejection. The performance of the cards and other relevant technical issues is discussed. (2 References).

S. Berezin, G. Burleson, D. Eartly, A. Roberts, and TO. White, "Muonic, pionic, and kaonic X-rays, atomic de-excitation and nuclear absorption in helium," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 30b, no. 1, pp. 27--9, 1969.

Abstract:New X-ray data from muon, pion and kaon capture in helium are consistent with available scattering measurements, with theoretically expected s-, p-, and d-state absorption rates, and with new atomic cascade calculations requiring Stark-induced sliding transitions to match observed yields. (16 References).

S. Berezin, G. Burleson, D. Eartly, A. Roberts, and T. White, "Muonic, pionic, kaonic and Sigma /sup -/ X-rays, atomic de-excitation cascades, and nuclear absorption rates in He, Li, Be, and C," in *Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on high-energy physics and nuclear structure*, (S. Devons, ed.), pp. 512-15, 1970.

S. Berezin, G. Burleson, D. Eartly, A. Roberts, and TO. White, "X-rays from mu, pi, kappa, and sigma/sup -/ capture in the light elements," *Physical Review A*, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 1630--51, 1970.

Abstract:A search for X-rays from the capture of kaons in helium has disclosed neither K- nor L-series radiation; the upper limit of the X-ray yield is in the range 7-10%. The yields of pionic and muonic X-rays in helium were also measured. Anomalously low yields were found accompanied by intensity distributions of the K-series members in disagreement with the conventional cascade picture of a predominantly circular set of orbits. Monte Carlo cascade calculations could not duplicate the observed results unless weak Stark mixing, in the form of 'sliding transitions' (n, l to n, l+or-1), was added. Agreement with observation was achieved in muonic, pionic, and kaonic atoms with a single value for the parameter describing the strength of the Stark mixing. Yields and energies of kaonic X-rays in Li, Be, and C, were measured. Yields of X-rays from muonic and pionic capture in these elements were remeasured also, and cascade calculations like those for helium repeated. In these elements the addition of Stark mixing is not needed to achieve agreement with experiment. (42 References).

P. C. Bergbusch, D. S. Armstrong, M. Blecher, C. Q. Chen, B. C. Doyle, T. P. Gorringe, P. Gumplinger, M. D. Hasinoff, G. Jonkmans, J. A. Macdonald, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, C. N. Sigler, and DH. Wright, "Radiative muon capture on O, Al, Si, Ti, Zr, and Ag," *Physical Review C*, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 2853--64, 1999.

Abstract:The photon spectra from radiative muon capture (RMC) on O, Al, Si, Ti, Zr, and Ag have been measured for photon energies greater than 57 MeV using a cylindrical pair spectrometer at the TRIUMF cyclotron. Values of R/sub gamma /, the ratio of the radiative rate for photon energies above 57 MeV, to the nonradiative rate, are 1.67+or-0.18, 1.40+or-0.11, 2.09+or-0.20, 1.30+or-0.12, 1.31+or-0.15, and 1.12+or-0.13, respectively, in units of 10/sup -5/. The Al/Si rate difference confirms an earlier result. The Ti/Ca rate difference and the rate suppression in Zr and Ag are new results which confirm that the RMC rate is a much smoother function of neutron excess than of atomic number. This suggests that Pauli blocking is relatively more important for radiative capture than for nonradiative capture. The value of the ratio of the induced weak pseudoscalar to axial coupling constants, g/sub p//g/sub a/, for O was found to be 4.9+or-0.6, 6.3+or-1.1, or 8.1/sub -2.1//sup +1.8/, depending on the theory used to extract it. These values are in good or fair agreement with the partially conserved axial-vector current (PCAC) hypothesis. For the other nuclei studied, large model dependences or a lack of detailed RMC calculations made tests of the PCAC hypothesis difficult. (39 References).

P. Bergem, M. Boschung, T. Q. Phan, G. Piller, A. Ruetschi, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, and H. Schneuwly, "Muon capture in cubic and hexagonal boron nitride," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 15, no. , pp. 69-70, 1983.

Abstract:Recent measurements of muonic X-ray intensities in diamond and graphite have revealed structure effects in the Lyman series intensities. These structure effects have to be attributed to differences in the electron density distributions if one assumes that the Coulomb capture of muons proceeds mainly through Auger electron ejection. Both carbon and boron nitride have diamond and graphite allotropies or, equivalently, cubic and hexagonal structures. Moreover, they are isoelectronic solids. Hence, if the electron density distribution really governs the muon capture mechanism, one expects to find similarities between the muonic carbon and the muonic boron nitride X-ray intensity patterns, or at least similar differences between the respective allotropies. Measurements were performed at the mu E2-channel of the SIN using conventional techniques. The muonic X-rays were registered by three Ge-detectors of 2 cm/sup 3/, 13 cm/sup 3/ and 66 cm/sup 3/ with resolutions of 570 eV, 960 eV and 780 eV respectively for the muonic 2p-1s carbon line at 75 keV. (3 References).

P. Bergem, M. Boschung, T. Q. Phan, G. Piller, A. Ruetschi, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, and H. Schneuwly, "Nuclear polarization in muonic atoms," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 15, no. , pp. 55-6, 1983.

Abstract:In a muonic atom, the true muon-nuclear electromagnetic interaction is first approximated by a suitable electrostatic central potential. The neglected dynamical effects are then taken into account by a second order perturbation calculation known as nuclear-polarization correction. The result is a higher muon binding energy as compared to the static muon-nucleus system. For the low-lying muonic levels, the nuclear polarization correction is much more important than the so-called dispersion corrections in elastic electron scattering experiments. Due to the lack of detailed information about nuclear excitation spectra, the nuclear polarization corrections are the least known corrections when calculating muonic energy levels. A good experimental determination of the nuclear polarization effect is therefore of prime importance. This is the aim of the present experiment. (5 References).

P. Bergem, F. Bienz, M. Boschung, M. Hild, T. Q. Phan, G. Piller, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, and H. Schneuwly, "Muon capture in chromium oxides," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 16, no. , pp. 75-6, 1984.

Abstract:The aim of the present experiment was to test whether there is a difference in the per atom chromium-to-oxygen capture ratio of negative muons between the two oxides, CrO/sub 3/ and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The authors were interested to see whether the muon capture mechanism is sensitive to the amorphous and crystalline state of Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Within the statistical uncertainty the muonic Lyman series intensities were found to be the same in chromium for all three investigated targets. No difference is observed in the intensity patterns of oxygen between the amorphous and the crystalline Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Between CrO/sub 3/ and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, however, all relative intensities are different. (3 References).

P. Bergem, F. Bienz, M. Boschung, C. Gugler, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, C. Piller, W. Reichart, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, D. Siradovic, and G. Torelli, "Transfer of negative muons from hydrogen to argon at high pressure," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 19, no. , pp. 67-8, 1987.

Abstract:The transfer from the 1s ground state of the mu p atom to argon has been studied experimentally by several authors. Unfortunately the agreement between the different measurements is rather poor. The authors study the transfer rate under different experimental conditions and check whether the transfer rate is linear in the concentration of the admixed gas and independent of the total pressure of the mixture. (3 References).

P. Bergem, F. Bienz, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, C. Piller, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, D. Siradovic, and G. Torelli, "Muonic X-ray intensities in isoelectronic series of neon and argon," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 20, no. , pp. NL61-2, 1988.

Abstract:The aim of the experiments is the study of the formation mechanism of exotic atoms, especially muonic atoms. The study of muonic X-ray intensities is part of the systematic investigations. In order to gain insight into the angular momentum distribution of captured muons, the measured muonic X-ray intensities are reproduced using cascade calculations. (5 References).

P. Bergem, G. Piller, A. Rueetschi, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, and H. Schneuwly, "Nuclear polarization and charge moments of /sup 208/Pb from muonic X rays," *Physical Review C*, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 2821--33, 1988.

Abstract:Muonic transition energies between low-lying states in mu /sup -/-/sup 208/Pb have been measured in precision experiment using a Compton suppression spectrometer. Nuclear charge parameters and nuclear polarization corrections have been adjusted to the data. In particular, experimental correlations between the nuclear polarization corrections of the lower muonic levels have been established. A set of nuclear charge parameters reproducing all the experimental transition energies can only be obtained by assuming an inversion in magnitude of the nuclear polarization corrections not only for the 2p states, but also for the two 3p states. Such a result is unexplained by present theoretical models, but corroborates the findings of a recent experiment concerning the 2p states in mu /sup -/-/sup 90/Zr. Using our best-fit parameters, a /sup 208/Pb RMS radius of (r/sup 2/)/sup 1/2/=5.5031(11) fm has been obtained. (34 References).

P. Bergem, F. Bienz, M. Boschung, G. Piller, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, and Y. Tanaka, "Nuclear polarization in heavy muonic atoms," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 20, no. , pp. NL33-5, 1988.

Abstract:The authors have remeasured the muonic transition energies sensitive to the nuclear parameters in muonic /sup 208/Pb at SIN. In addition, they have studied muonic /sup 90/Zr in order to find out whether possible effects are systematic. Using high-resolution Ge detectors with anti-Compton shields and calibration methods closely resembling the actual data taking procedure, energy uncertainties down to 10 ppm have been obtained. (7 References).

R. Bergmann, H. Daniel, Egidy T. von, F. J. Hartmann, and H-J. Pfeiffer, "Measurement of the Coulomb-capture ratio of muons in binary solid solutions of metals," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 280, no. 1, pp. 27--30, 1977.

Abstract:The Coulomb-capture ratios of muons in the metallic solid solutions Au-Ag, Te-Se, Cd-Mg, Nb-V, and Cu-Ni have been measured via the muonic Lyman series intensities. In the case of Nb-V, targets of three stoichiometric ratios were investigated. The results do not agree with the per-atom ratios A(Z/Z') assumed to be equal to Z/Z' ('Fermi-Teller law') or (Z/Z')/sup 7/6/. They are better, but also not in general well, reproduced by A(Z/Z')=Z/sup 1/3/ ln(0.57Z)/((Z')/sup 1/3/ ln(0.57Z')), deviations occurring in cases of different metallic radii. (24 References).

R. Bergmann, H. Daniel, Egidy T. von, F. J. Hartmann, J. J. Reidy, and W. Wilhelm, "Measurement of the Coulomb capture ratio of negative muons and the muonic Lyman-series intensities on solid solutions of Nb-V at five stoichiometric ratios," *Physical Review A*, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 633--8, 1979.

Abstract:The per-atom Coulomb capture ratio A(Nb,V) of negative muons in the solid solution Nb-V has been measured for five stoichiometric ratios S(Nb/V) ranging from 0.046 to 18.5. No change of A(Nb,V) with S was observed. The weighted mean is 1.21+or-0.04. There is also no experimental evidence for a variation of the muonic-Lyman-series intensity patterns of both elements with S. (34 References).

R. Bergmann, H. Daniel, Egidy T. von, F. J. Hartmann, J. J. Reidy, and W. Wilhelm, "Muonic K/sub beta //K/sub alpha / ratios from pure elements," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 291, no. 2, pp. 129--31, 1979.

Abstract:K/sub beta //K/sub alpha / ratios of muonic X-ray spectra from 28 pure elements have been measured with Ge detectors. The correlation of these ratios with properties of the target material and positron life-times is analyzed with statistical correlation theory. (19 References).

R. Bergmann, H. Daniel, Egidy T. von, F. J. Hartmann, and W. Wilhelm, "Muonic Coulomb capture ratios and Lyman intensities in intermetallic compounds and homogeneous and inhomogeneous alloys," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 299, no. 4, pp. 297--300, 1981.

Abstract:The Coulomb capture ratio of negative muons has been measured in the intermetallic compounds Ni/sub 5/Y and Ni/sub 5/Ca and in homogeneous and inhomogeneous Sn-Mg alloys. Strong dependence on the atomic radii and on the degree of inhomogeneity was observed. The muonic K-series intensity pattern was determined. (27 References).

J. C. Bergstrom, I. P. Auer, and RS. Hicks, "Electroexcitation of the 0/sup +/ (3.562 MeV) level of /sup 6/Li and its application to the reaction /sup 6/Li( gamma , pi /sup +/)/sup 6/He," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A251, no. 3, pp. 401--17, 1975.

Abstract:"The M1 form factor for the 0/sup +/ (3.562 MeV

J. Bernabeu and P. Pascual, "Muon capture in /sup 11/B and nuclear wave functions of /sup 11/Be," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 29b, no. 9, pp. 555--7, 1969.

Abstract:Muon capture rates in /sup 11/B going to /sup 11/Be (g.s.) and /sup 11/Be* (320 keV) as well as the electromagnetic transition rate for /sup 11/Be* to /sup 11/Be+ gamma are computed in order to obtain information on the /sup 11/Be nuclear wave functions. The hyperfine muon capture rates to /sup 11/Be* are also calculated. (11 References).

J. Bernabeu, "Muon capture in /sup 11/B," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 4A, no. 4, pp. 715-30, 1971.

Abstract:The partial-capture rates of muons in /sup 11/B going to /sup 11/Bf(g.s) and /sup 11/Be (320 keV), as well as the hyperfine effect in the transition to /sup 11/Be*, are studied. Comparing these results with the beta-decay of /sup 11/Be and the electromagnetic transition /sup 11/Be* to /sup 11/Be, some conclusions are derived on the nuclear structure of the bound states of /sup 11/Be. Some possible experiences which can give information on the pseudoscalar form factor in weak interactions are discussed. (14 References).

J. Bernabeu, "Quasielastic electron and neutrino interactions and the exclusion effects," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. 49, no. , pp. 186-205, 1972.

Abstract:The correlation functions which describe the exclusion effects in quasielastic electron nucleus and neutrino nucleus reactions are studied, showing similarity and difference between them. The calculation of the total structure factors in electron scattering is done for the cases of deuterium, /sup 4/He and /sup 12/C. The effects of the configuration mixing mechanism tend to deviate the values given by the simple shell model towards the supermultiplet relations, then showing the intermediate coupling nature. But they are not large, and practically only affect the spin flip terms, which contribute to the neutrino and muon capture reactions-due to the axial current-but insignificantly to the electron scattering. (22 References).

J. Bernabeu and F. Cannata, "Configuration mixing and total muon capture rates," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 45B, no. 5, pp. 445--7, 1973.

Abstract:The Primakoff closure approximation is modified to get independence on the mean neutrino energy and energy weighted sum rules are used for the corrective terms. A near model- independent discussion is then possible, and the total rates are shown to be a very sensitive tool to investigate configuration mixing of the target. Wild discrepancies with experiment would arise if the limit of pure jj or LS couplings are used for /sup 12/C whereas the Cohen-Kurath wave function gives a very good result. (6 References).

J. Bernabeu and F. Cannata, "SU(4) breaking, allowed transitions and total muon capture rates in nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A215, no. 2, pp. 411--23, 1973.

Abstract:The authors study muon capture rates in light nuclei and show that one can evaluate them in a model-independent way by correcting the Primakoff closure approximation to the first order in the neutrino energy dependence. In this framework the interplay between the existence of allowed transitions and SU(4) breaking is analyzed. In the correction to the first order in the neutrino energy dependence by a sum rule, Majorana and SU(4) breaking potentials are taken into account. The method is also applied to single multipolar transitions, in particular for the dipole transitions. General considerations are illustrated for /sup 6/Li and /sup 12/C by explicit calculations. The stability of the results varying the mean neutrino energy allows the use of capture rates as a very sensitive tool to investigate the configuration mixing of the target because we connect the corrective term to spectroscopic information using directly the matrix elements of the effective potentials. (10 References).

J. Bernabeu, "On total muon capture rates and the average neutrino energy," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A201, no. 1, pp. 41--8, 1973.

Abstract:A method of avoiding the uncertainty associated with the average neutrino energy nu in the usual closure approach to muon capture rates is discussed. Instead of neglecting the kinematic dependence on each particular channel, the partial capture rate is approximated by a first-order expansion around nu . After the sum over the final states is performed, the result is quite independent of the specific value of nu . Application to /sup 3/He, /sup 6/Li and closed-shell nuclei is given, as an effective test of the nuclear models used. (17 References).

J. Bernabeu and C. Jarlskog, "Polarizability contribution to the energy levels of the muonic helium ( mu /sup 4/He)/sup +/," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. B75, no. 1, pp. 59--71, 1974.

Abstract:An experiment measuring the 2S-2P separation in the ion ( mu /sup 4/He)/sup +/ is in progress at CERN. Comparison of the outcome of this experiment with the prediction of quantum electrodynamics requires the knowledge of the hadronic correction due to the two-photon exchange mechanism. Therefore, the authors have calculated the correction to the energy levels of the ion ( mu /sup 4/He)/sup +/ due to this mechanism. The hadronic contribution to the 2S-2P separation is found to be approximately 16 AA which is about three times larger than the expected experimental uncertainty. (12 References).

J. Bernabeu, TEO Ericson, and C. Jarlskog, "Parity violations by neutral currents in muonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 50B, no. 4, pp. 467--71, 1974.

Abstract:The 2S-1S transition low Z muonic atoms is shown to be extremely sensitive to possible parity violation, such as may be introduced by neutral currents. The most striking effects of parity violation are found in the case of muonic Li and Be where they are estimated to be of the order of 10% on the basis of current models. (19 References).

J. Bernabeu, "Restrictions for asymmetry and polarizations of recoil in muon capture," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 55B, no. 3, pp. 313--17, 1975.

Abstract:"Using the helicity formalism, muon capture by targets of spin-zero is discussed. Owing to the definite neutrino helicity, three independent observables define a complete experiment. The precise relation between asymmetry alpha and longitudinal polarization P/sub L/ of recoil

J. Bernabeu and C. Jarlskog, "Origin of discrepancy in the theoretical value of the polarizability correction to the ( mu /sup 4/He)/sup +/ energy levels," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 60B, no. 2, pp. 197--200, 1976.

Abstract:Different approach in calculating the polarizability correction to the energy levels of the muonic /sup 4/He ion are compared. These calculations disagree with each other by giving results 3 to 10 times larger than the experimental uncertainty. The origin of the major discrepancy is traced to the treatment of the nuclear excitations. It is shown that the experimental value of the electric polarizability of /sup 4/He provides a crucial restriction on model calculations. (15 References).

J. Bernabeu, TEO Ericson, and C. Jarlskog, "Muon capture at large energy transfer," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 69B, no. 2, pp. 161--6, 1977.

Abstract:A novel and parameter free approach to mu capture is introduced. The inclusive capture rate at maximal energy transfer is connected with the off-mass shell s and p wave scattering lengths for pions. Inside PCAC a rigorous lower bound results. The vector current contributions are shown to be insignificant. In a numerical illustration it is shown that this picture qualitatively explains the high energy nucleons emitted in mu capture. (14 References).

J. Bernabeu and P. Pascual, "Long-range parity violating interaction in muonic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A336, no. 3, pp. 407--15, 1980.

Abstract:Long-range parity violating forces are induced in muonic atoms by virtual gamma -Z/sup 0/ conversion between the muon and the nucleus. They are of order G/sub F/ alpha with range (2m/sub e/)/sup -1/. The relevant diagrams in unified electroweak interactions are calculated and the effects of the corresponding potential on parity admixtures in muonic levels are studied. It is proved that they are negligible for n=3 orbits, but they have overwhelmed the conventional short-range contribution for n=5. (11 References).

J. Bernabeu and TEO. Ericson, "Polarizability effects in electronic and muonic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 309, no. 3, pp. 213--17, 1983.

Abstract:The S state polarizability shifts are derived from the virtual forward Compton scattering in the unretarded dipole approximation. In the non-relativistic limit omega /sub N//2m[left angle bracket][left angle bracket]1, the shift is proportional to the photonuclear sum rule sigma /sub -3/2/, while in the relativistic limit omega /sub N//2m[right angle bracket][right angle bracket]1 it is proportional to a logarithmically weighted sigma /sub -2/ sum rule. In both cases, the characteristic momentum transfer is (2m omega /sub N/)/sup 1/2/. The non-locality from the intermediate lepton propagation removes the divergence typical of the static limit. Explicit formulas for the shifts are given for both the relativistic and non-relativistic limits. (11 References).

J. Bernabeu, J. Bordes, and J. Vidal, "Parity violation correlations in light muonic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik C-Particles & Fields*, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 679--85, 1989.

Abstract:The 2S-1S transition in light muonic atoms is very sensitive to parity violation correlations induced via neutral currents. Observables depending on these transitions such as the photon polarization and the angular correlation between the emitted radiation and the atom polarization are a clear signal of weak neutral currents in atoms. The authors find the relation between the lepton and quark couplings and these observables emphasizing the effect of the nuclear spin. The results expected in muonic atoms mu -/sup 4/He and mu -/sup 3/He are given. (18 References).

J. Bernabeu, "Neutral currents in atomic and nuclear physics," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A518, no. 1-2, pp. 317--28, 1990.

Abstract:The spin structure function of the proton measured by the EMC collaboration suggests an axial isoscalar neutral current for the nucleon. The author studies its implications for neutral current phenomena in atomic and nuclear physics. This includes parity-violating observables for transitions between hyperfine multiplets in light muonic atoms, selected inelastic neutrino nuclear reactions and the polarization asymmetry in electron scattering for isoscalar transitions. The neutrino-induced process /sup 7/Li to /sup 7/Li*(0.478 MeV) is particularly favourable for neutrino reactor experiments. The axial isoscalar coupling extracted from the EMC measurement increases the neutrino cross section by 60%. (26 References).

J. Bernabeu, E. Nardi, and D. Tommasini, "mu -e conversion in nuclei and Z' physics," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. B409, no. 1, pp. 69--86, 1993.

Abstract:Together with the existence of new neutral gauge bosons, models based on extended gauge groups (rank [right angle bracket]4) often predict also new charged fermions. A mixing of the known fermions with new states with exotic weak-isospin assignments (left-handed singlets and right-handed doublets) will induce tree level flavour changing neutral interactions mediated by Z exchange, while if the mixing is only with new states with ordinary weak-isospin assignments, the flavour changing neutral currents are mainly due to the exchange of the lightest new neutral gauge boson Z'. We show that the present experimental limits on mu -e conversion in nuclei give a nuclear-model-independent bound on the Z-e- mu vertex which is twice as strong as that obtained from mu to eee. In the case of E/sub 6/ models these limits provide quite stringent constraints on the Z' mass and on the Z-Z' mixing angle. We point out that the proposed experiments to search for mu -e conversion in nuclei have good chances to find evidence of lepton flavour violation, either in the case that new exotic fermions are present at the electroweak scale, or if a new neutral gauge boson Z' of E/sub 6/ origin lighter than a few TeV exists. (21 References).

J. Bernabeu, V. M. Suslov, T. A. Strizh, and SI. Vinitsky, "New approach for numerical solution of configuration-space Faddeev equations," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 391-9, 1996.

Abstract:A new computational scheme for solving the bound state configuration-space Faddeev equations is applied. The scheme is based on the spline-approximation and the adiabatic limit of Faddeev equations. An ordering of variables being in agreement with the limit was chosen. As a result the matrix of the eigenvalue problem has a sparse block structure. Calculations of the bound states of mu HH, mu DD, mu TT mesic molecules and pDD, pTT antiprotonic ones, were performed. To check the method, calculations of the binding energies for such systems as the positronium ion Ps/sup -/, /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He were carried out. The results are compared with the best results of other authors. (12 References).

V. Bernard, T. R. Hemmert, and U-G. Meissner, "Ordinary and radiative muon capture on the proton," in *Proceedings from the Institute of Nuclear Theory. Chiral Dynamics Theory and Experiment III*, (A. M. Bernstein, J. L. Goity, and U-G. Meissner, eds.), pp. 376--7, 2000.

Abstract:Ordinary muon capture (OMC), mu /sup -/(l)p(r) to nu /sub mu /(l')n(r'), as well as radiative muon capture (RMC), mu /sup -/(l)p(r) to nu /sub mu /(l')n(r') gamma (k), allows to measure the so-called induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g/sub p/. Our main point is that one should not resort to the artificial enhancement of the contributions ~ g/sub p/ as done in the TRIUMF experiment analysis. Such a rescaling presents severe loopholes, in particular it would lower the value of Gamma /sub O//sup OMC/ = 477*s/sup -1/ which would lie outside the error bars of the experimental results. We have shown that a combination of small effects, isospin breaking effects, occupation numbers, next to next to leading order, etc, will in fact explain most of the shift in the spectrum. A complete calculation including all of these effects remains to be done. (9 References).

V. Bernard, T. R. Hemmert, and U. G. Meissner, "Ordinary and radiative muon capture on the proton and the pseudoscalar form factor of the nucleon," *Nucl. Phys. A*, vol. 686, pp. 290-316, 2001.

Abstract:We calculate ordinary and radiative muon capture on the proton in an effective field theory of pions, nucleons and delta isobars, working to third and second order in the small scale expansion, respectively. Preceding calculations in chiral effective field theories only employed pion and nucleon degrees of freedom and were not able to reproduce the photon spectrum in the pioneering experiment of radiative muon capture on the proton from TRIUMF For the past few years it has been speculated that the discrepancy between theory and experiment might be due to Delta (1232) related effects, which are only included via higher-order contact interactions in the standard chiral approach. In this report we demonstrate that this speculation does not hold true. We show that contrary to expectations from naive dimensional analysis, isobar effects on the photon spectrum and the total rate in radiative muon capture are of the order of a few percent, consistent with earlier findings in a more phenomenological approach. We further demonstrate that both ordinary and radiative muon capture constitute systems with a very well-behaved chiral expansion, both in the standard chiral perturbation theory and in the small scale expansion, and present some new ideas that might be at the bottom of the still unresolved discrepancy between theory and experiment in radiative muon capture. Finally, we comment upon the procedure employed by the TRIUMF group to extract new information from their radiative muon capture experiment on the pseudoscalar form factor of the nucleon. We show that it is inconsistent with the ordinary muon capture data. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

V. Bernard, L. Elouadrhiri, and U. G. Meissner, "Axial structure of the nucleon," *J. Phys. G-Nucl. Part. Phys.*, vol. 28, pp. R1-R35, 2002.

Abstract:We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering. charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture oil the proton.

J. Bernebau, R. Guardiola, and P. Pascual, "Total muon capture rate. Application to /sup 11/B," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 9A, no. 4, pp. 450-62, 1972.

Abstract:A study of the total muon-capture rate in nuclei is presented, with the aid of the impulse and closure approximations and under the assumption that the initial nucleus can be described by a mixing of states in the J-scheme. The theory is applied to the process of muon capture in /sup 11/B, with a discussion on the value of the average neutrino momentum. (20 References).

I. B. Bersuker and VI. Gol'danskii, "The influence of the effective charges of molecular groups on the probability of pi -meson absorption by hydrogen," *Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR*, vol. 203, no. 6, pp. 1332--5, 1972.

Abstract:Some general relationships are obtained between the probability of meson absorption by hydrogen and the parameters of chemical bonds in a series of systems. A more detailed examination is made of one of the characteristic aspects of L. I. Ponomariev's 'large mesomolecule' model, namely the case of a mesomolecule containing several equivalent hydrogen- containing groups. (5 References).

A. Bertin, A. Vitale, and A. Placci, "A system of large liquid scintillation counters used with a simplified neutron-gamma discrimination technique," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods*, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 24--38, 1969.

Abstract:A system of NE 213 liquid scintillator neutron counters working with a straightforward neutron-gamma discrimination technique and a digitized data output is described. The apparatus was built up using only standard electronics, and has been working at CERN in recent muon capture experiments. The performances of the neutron counters are reported with particular reference to the neutron-gamma discrimination features and to the energy resolution. The calculation of the efficiency of the described system is also discussed. (19 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruno, A. Vitale, A. Placci, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the rate lambda /sub e/ for the reaction mu p+d to mu d+p at room temperature," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 449-53, 1972.

Abstract:The authors have performed this measurement at the muon channel of the 600 MeV CERN synchrocyclotron, by slowing-down negative muons in a gaseous target of ultrapure hydrogen, contaminated by small amounts of deuterium and xenon. The experiment was carried out using an already existing apparatus to measure the time distribution of the decay electrons coming from muons stopped in the gaseous target. (11 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruno, A. Vitale, A. Placci, and E. Zavattini, "Direct measurement of the ratio between the transfer rates of muons from mu p and mu d atoms to xenon in a gaseous target of deuterated hydrogen," *Physical Review A*, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 462--9, 1973.

Abstract:The ratio B between the transfer rates lambda /sub mu p,Xe/ and lambda /sub mu d,Xe/ of muons from mu p and mu d muonic atoms to xenon has been directly measured by stopping negative muons in a gaseous target containing deuterated hydrogen and small xenon admixtures at a total pressure of 6 atm abs. and at 293 degrees K. The results were obtained by analyzing the differential time distribution of the decay electrons coming from muons stopped within the gaseous mixture. In this way one gets B=1.98+or-0.12, which supports the dependence of the transfer rates on the mass of the primary muonic atom within 6%. More precise values for lambda /sub mu p,Xe/ and lambda /sub mu d,Xe/ are also given, i.e., lambda /sub mu p,Xe/=(4.53+or-0.15)*10/sup 11/ sec/sup -1/ and lambda /sub mu d,Xe/=(2.30+or-0.17)*10/sup 11/ sec/sup -1/. A lower limit for the scattering cross section of of mu d atoms against xenon is obtained, i.e., sigma [right angle bracket]or=10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/.

A. Bertin, A. Vitale, A. Placci, and E. Zavcittini, "Muon capture in gaseous deuterium," *Physical Review D*, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 3774--93, 1973.

Abstract:Using a gaseous target of 95% H/sub 2/+5% D/sub 2/, at 7.6 atm. and 293 degrees K, an experimental value of (445+or-60) sec/sup -1/ was obtained for the mu /sup -/ nuclear capture rate by free deuterons. This result, combined with previous ones (see abstr. A20077 of 1973) gives a value of (-1.35+or-0.1) for the ratio of axial-vector to vector coupling constants, and is also compatible with the principle of electron-muon universality. (51 References).

A. Bertin, A. Vitale, and A. Placci, "Nuclear capture of muons in argon and neon," *Physical Review A*, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2214--17, 1973.

Abstract:The total nuclear capture rates of muons by argon and neon have been measured. The experiment was performed by stopping negative muons in a target of ultrapure gaseous deuterium (at 6 atm pressure and 293 degrees K) separately contaminated by small amounts of argon and neon, and observing the differential time distribution of the decay electrons coming from muons stopped within the gaseous mixture. (13 References).

A. Bertin, G. Carboni, G. Gorini, O. Pitzurra, E. Polacco, G. Torelli, A. Vitale, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the initial population and decay rate of the ( mu /sup 4/He)/sub 2S//sup +/ system in a helium target at 50 atm," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 253--6, 1974.

Abstract:The fraction ( epsilon /sub 25/) of negative muons captured by the 2S level of He atoms and the lifetime tau /sub 2S/ of the muons at this level has been observed with pure helium gas at 50 'atm' and 293K. epsilon /sub 2S/, with no Stark effect, =(4.3+or-0.6)*10/sup -2/, for max. Stark effect, =(3.5+or-0.5)*10/sup -2/ and is insignificantly pressure dependent. tau /sub 2S/=(1.43+or-0.15) mu sec. X-rays from a 2S level two-photon decay and the delayed muon decay electron were observed. (7 References).

A. Bertin, G. Carboni, A. Placci, E. Zavattini, U. Gastaldi, G. Gorini, G. Neri, O. Pitzurra, E. Polacco, G. Torelli, G. Stefanini, A. Vitale, J. Duclos, and J. Picard, "A new method to induce transitions in muonic atoms using a high-power tunable dye laser coupled to a stopping muon beam," *Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica B-General Physics Relativity Astronomy & Mathematical Physics & Methods*, vol. 23B, no. 2, pp. 489-526, 1974.

Abstract:An apparatus is described in which a ruby-pumped dye laser is used to induce transitions from the 2S to the 2P levels of the muonic ion ( mu He)/sup +/. The dye laser supplies infra-red radiation pulses in the wavelengths (8040-8180) AA, at typical repetition rates of 1 pulse every 4 s, with an energy release per pulse of 300 mJ for 1.2 J pumping energy. A special synchronization procedure is followed to trigger the laser in close coupling with the incoming muon beam which is stopped in a helium target at pressures between 40 and 50 atm. The other performances of the device are fully discussed with reference both to the laser facility and to the special high-pressure helium target. (23 References).

A. Bertin, A. Vitale, and A. Placci, "Atomic and molecular processes involving hydrogen and deuterium muonic systems in matter. Formation and elastic scattering of mu p and mu d muonic atoms," *Rivista del Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 423-97, 1975.

Abstract:A survey of the experimental and theoretical work on muons in matter is reported which covers atomic capture and cascade process of negative muons in hydrogen and deuterium as well as scattering processes of mu p and mu d atoms in their ground state. (91 References).

A. Bertin, G. Carboni, A. Placci, E. Zavattini, U. Gastaldi, G. Gorini, G. Neri, O. Pitzurra, E. Polacco, G. Torelli, A. Vitale, J. Duclos, and J. Picard, "Experimental study on the ( mu /sup 4/He)/sub 2S//sup +/ metastable system in helium gas," *Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica B-General Physics Relativity Astronomy & Mathematical Physics & Methods*, vol. 26B, no. 2, pp. 433-80, 1975.

Abstract:The authors report the results of an experimental investigation on the properties of the ( mu He)/sub 2S//sup +/ metastable muonic system, which was performed stopping negative muons in a pure helium target at pressures ranging from 10 to 50 atm, and observing the total yield and the differential time distribution of the X-rays released in delayed coincidence with the arrival of muons. At each pressure P, information was obtained on the following quantities: a) the total disappearance rate lambda /sub 2S,tot/(P) of the ( mu He)/sub 2S//sup +/ system, b) the disappearance rates lambda /sub A/(P) and lambda /sub St/(P) of the ( mu He)/sub 2S//sup +/ system for external Auger effect and Stark-mixing collisions. (35 References).

A. Bertin, G. Carboni, J. Duclos, U. Gastaldi, G. Gorini, G. Neri, J. Picard, O. Pitzurra, A. Placci, E. Polacco, G. Torelli, A. Vitale, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the 2P/sub 3/2/-S/sub 1/2/ energy difference in the ( mu /sup -4/He)/sup +/ muonic ion by means of a tunable infrared dye-laser," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 55B, no. 4, pp. 411--14, 1975.

Abstract:Results of an experiment to measure the 2P/sub 3/2/-2S/sub 1/2/ energy difference S/sub 1/ in the muonic ( mu /sup -4/He)/sup +/ ion are presented; it was found that S/sub 1//sup exp/=1.5274+or-0.0009 eV. Comparison with QED predictions shows that there is agreement between theory and experiment within 0.0087 eV; this limitation is mainly due to the uncertainty with which the r.m.s. charge radius of the /sup 4/He nucleus is known. (6 References).

A. Bertin, A. Vitale, and E. Zavattini, "Evidence for the transfer of negative muons from muonic deuterium to helium atoms," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 381-7, 1977.

Abstract:The transfer processes of negative muons from hydrogen or deuterium muonic atoms to /sub z/Y nuclei (where the mu p and mu d systems are in the 1S ground state) are known to occur, in general, with large rates. Possible explanations of this are mentioned and some experimental results on the muon transfer rate from D to He are discussed. The analysis of these results (see Placci et al. (1967)) is updated and it is concluded that, under certain conditions, muon transfer from excited states of the mu d systems to He can be a significant phenomenon. (20 References).

A. Bertin, A. Vacchi, and A. Vitale, "On the initial population of the 2S metastable state in muonic hydrogen and deuterium," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 277-82, 1977.

Abstract:The fraction of muons which form the mu p/sub 2S/ metastable system when stopped in hydrogen is found by inducing the 2S to 2P transition by irradiating the systems and studying the yield of the muonic hydrogen cascade X-rays. The fraction value is assumed to hold also for the case of muonic deuterium. The fraction value, which is directly proportional to the initial population of the 2S level, is essential information for future tests of quantum electrodynamics predictions. (22 References).

A. Bertin, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, G. Vannini, and A. Vitale, "Atomic capture ratio (W(Al)/W(O)) for negative muons transferred from muonic hydrogen to aluminium oxide," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 401-5, 1978.

Abstract:Results are reported of an analysis of some experimental data collected while measuring the elastic cross section for the process mu p+p to mu p+p. Negative muons were transferred from mu p muonic atoms, formed in ultrapure gaseous H/sub 2/ at 26 atm., to a series of regularly spaced Al foils (30 mu m thick), dipped into the H/sub 2/ target, and covered by a natural layer of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 600 to 1000 AA thick. The analysis was performed with the aim of determining the ratio R between the number of muons transferred to the Al and O nuclei on the foils. This number is directly related to the per atom capture ratio (W(Al)/W(O))/sub alpha / for Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. (14 References).

A. Bertin, F. Ferrari, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, G. Vannini, and A. Vitale, "Muon transfer effect on the Lyman series of mu Al muonic atoms," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 68A, no. 2, pp. 201--3, 1978.

Abstract:The Lyman series spectrum of mu Al atoms formed through the transfer reaction mu p+Al to mu Al+p is investigated. The higher members of the series are significantly enhanced with respect to the case of direct muon capture in aluminium. (11 References).

A. Bertin, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, A. Vacchi, G. Vannini, and A. Vitale, "New measurement of the cross section for the elastic scattering process mu p+p to mu p+p in gaseous hydrogen at 26 atmospheres," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 78B, no. 2-3, pp. 355--9, 1978.

Abstract:The authors have measured the elastic scattering cross section for the process mu p+= to mu p+p in ultra-pure gaseous hydrogen at 26 atm and at room temperature. The result is sigma =(1.4+or-0.2)*10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2/. (10 References).

A. Bertin, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, G. Vannini, and A. Vitale, "Observation of negative muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to aluminium interfaces," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 577-81, 1978.

Abstract:Negative muons can easily be transferred from muonic hydrogen ( mu p) to an atom present within the target where the mu p systems are formed, and the resulting series of muonic X-rays may be detected. Possible applications of this technique, e.g. as a probe for surface composition, are outlined. The results obtained when mu p is in contact with Al foils are presented. (10 References).

A. Bertin, F. Ferrari, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, G. Vannini, and A. Vitale, "Isotope effect on the Lyman series of mu Al atoms formed by muon transfer from free mu p and mu d systems," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 72A, no. 4-5, pp. 319--21, 1979.

Abstract:The authors have observed the Lyman series spectrum of mu Al atoms formed through the transfer reaction mu d+Al to mu Al+d. The results are compared to those previously obtained for the similar process mu p+Al to mu Al+p. (9 References).

A. Bertin, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, A. Vacchi, G. Vannini, and A. Vitale, "New measurement of the elastic scattering cross section of mu d muonic atoms off deuterons," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 85B, no. 4, pp. 458--62, 1979.

Abstract:The authors have measured the elastic scattering cross section for the process mu d+d to mu d+d in ultrapure gaseous deuterium at 14 atm and at room temperature. The result is sigma /sub dd/=(8+or-2)*10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2/. (17 References).

A. Bertin, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, G. Vannini, A. Vitale, and G. Matone, "Triplet state lifetime for ( mu p)/sub 1S/ muonic atoms in gaseous hydrogen," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 88B, no. 1-2, pp. 185--8, 1979.

Abstract:The lifetime tau /sub T/ of the triplet state for ( mu p)/sub 1S/ muonic atoms is evaluated as a function of the hydrogen pressure, starting from recent experimental results on the scattering cross section for the process ( mu p+p to mu p+p). It is found that tau /sub T/ is significantly smaller than expected on the basis of previous calculations. (12 References).

A. Bertin, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, G. Vannini, and A. Vitale, "Vanishing muon transfer effect on the Lyman series of mu Xe muonic atoms," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 74A, no. 1-2, pp. 39--40, 1979.

Abstract:The authors have observed the Lyman series spectrum of mu Xe atoms formed through the transfer reaction mu p+Xe to mu Xe+p. They present the first evidence of a Z-dependence of the K-lines intensity ratios for transfer-generated muonic atoms. (7 References).

A. Bertin, "Elastic scattering of muonic hydrogen atoms against protons. Status of experiments," in *Exotic Atoms '79. Fundamental Interactions and Structure of Matter. Proceedings of the Second Course of the International School of Physics of Exotic Atoms*, (K. Crowe, J. Duclos, G. Fiorentini, and G. Torelli, eds.), pp. 161-7, 1980.

Abstract:Reviews the status of experimental results on the elastic scattering cross section of muonic hydrogen against protons, following the reaction mu p+p to mu p+p. The process was studied: (i) to get an effective comparison between the results of experiment and the theoretical predictions (1979) on the problem of three bodies interacting through the Coulomb's law; (ii) to get information on E/sub 0/, a parameter to which (at least to some extent) the features of process (1) can be related: E/sub 0/ is an important quantity to establish for the feasibility of precision experiments on the QED effects on the levels of muonic hydrogen; and (iii) to establish the relative population of the triplet and singlet states of the mu p atoms formed in given experimental conditions, as is required for the interpretation of the muon nuclear capture experiments in hydrogen targets at low density (1975). (13 References).

A. Bertin, M. Capponi, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, and G. Vannini, "Formulation channel effect on the electromagnetic cascade of mu /sup Z/Y muonic atoms: Evidence for a dependence on Z," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 73-7, 1981.

Abstract:A muonic atom mu /sup Z/Y can be formed in at least three different ways, namely by stopping muons directly in a /sup Z/Y target, mu /sup -/+/sup Z/Y to ( mu /sup Z/Y) and by transferring them from free muonic hydrogen ( mu P) mu p+/sup Z/Y to ( mu /sup Z/Y)*+p or muonic deuterium ( mu d) atoms mu d+/sup Z/Y to ( mu /sup Z/Y)*+d. In the final states, all the three processes yield an excited system ( mu /sup Z/Y)* (where the muon has replaced an atomic electron of the element /sup Z/Y), which decays promptly to its 1S ground state. During the de-excitation stage (atomic cascade), a characteristic series of muonic X-rays is released (X/sub 8/, X mu /sub p/ and X mu /sub d/, respectively). With the purpose of obtaining information on the atomic cascade of mu /sup Z/Y atoms produced by the transfer mode the authors observed the Lyman series of mu /sup 36/K muonic atoms produced by the direct process and by transfer from free muonic hydrogen. (14 References).

A. Bertin, M. Capponi, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, G. Vannini, M. Poli, and A. Vitale, "Experimental study of the elastic-scattering processes of muonic hydrogen and deuterium against protons and deuterons," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 72A, no. 3, pp. 225-64, 1982.

Abstract:The authors have measured the elastic-scattering cross-sections of muonic hydrogen and deuterium atoms against protons and deuterons, respectively. The results are sigma /sub pp/=(1.49+or-0.14)*10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2/ (referring to mu p atoms in the singlet state) and sigma /sub dd/=(8.0+or-2.0)*10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2/. For ( mu P)/sub 1S/ atoms formed in gaseous hydrogen, renewed predictions are given in the lifetime tau /sub T/ of the triplet states as a function of pressure. (41 References).

A. Bertin, M. Capponi, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, G. Vannini, M. Poli, and A. Vitale, "Pseudocrossing-model analysis of the Lyman spectra and formation rates of transfer-generated muonic atoms," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 76A, no. 1, pp. 35-51, 1983.

Abstract:The observed reaction rates ( lambda /sub mu p,Y/) and the Lyman spectra of the muonic X-radiation (X/sub mu p/) released in sequence to the processes mu p+/sub z/Y to ( mu /sub z/Y)*+p(( mu /sub z/Y)* to ( mu /sub z/Y)/sub 1S/+X/sub mu p/) are analysed for the cases /sub z/Y=Ar, Kr and Xe in terms of the pseudocrossing model for the muon transfer mechanism. While there is only a qualitative agreement between theoretical and experimental rates, the observed relative intensity ratios within the X/sub mu p/ radiation are in fair agreement with the predictions of the pseudocrossing model. (17 References).

A. Bertin and A. Vitale, "Strangeness-conserving semi-leptonic weak processes," *Rivista del Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1-63, 1984.

Abstract:The authors consider this concept with particular regard to nuclear muon captive and pion decay. (113 References).

A. Bertin, M. Capponi, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, G. Vannini, M. Poli, and A. Vitale, "Muon nuclear capture in hydrogen and triplet state lifetime of ( mu p)/sub 1s/ muonic atoms," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 86A, no. 2, pp. 123-44, 1985.

Abstract:With reference to recent experiments, the authors present the results of an extended calculation which updates the information on the lifetime of triplet spin states for ( mu p)/sub 1s/ systems in gaseous hydrogen. The possibility of determining the triplet spin state capture rate, on the basis of the information presently available, is also discussed. (29 References).

A. Bertin and A. Vitale, "Muon capture in hydrogen and deuterium: next generation experiments," in *Hadronic Physics at Intermediate Energy. Winter School*, (T. Bressani and RA. Ricci, eds.), pp. 201--7, 1986.

Abstract:The authors briefly review the main possibilities which are considered to add significant experimental information to clarify the presently available information on this topic. (22 References).

A. Bertin and A. Vitale, "Present knowledge of the axial-vector weak interaction coupling constant," in *Hadronic Physics at Intermediate Energy. Winter School*, (T. Bressani and RA. Ricci, eds.), pp. 189--200, 1986.

Abstract:One of the still open problems in the field of low-energy weak interactions is to determine the values of the different coupling constants involved in a precise and reliable way. The authors' aim is to show that, in the particular case of the axial-vector coupling constant, to state that there is an agreement between the results of experiment would be nowadays a too approximate assumption. It is also underlined that a new generation of experiments is demanded both on neutron decay and on muon capture in hydrogen and deuterium. (22 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, M. Capponi, Castro S. De, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, M. Poli, N. Semprini-Cesari, A. Vitale, and A. Zoccoli, "Energy cost of pions and muons for muon-catalyzed fusion," *Europhysics Letters*, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 875--80, 1987.

Abstract:The authors present the results of systematical calculations on the energy expenditure in producing pion and muons for the purposes of muon-catalyzed fusion. (12 References).

A. Bertin, M. Capponi, Castro S. De, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, M. Poli, N. Semprini-Cesari, A. Vitale, and A. Zoccoli, "A method to study some significant parameters in the deuterium-tritium muon-catalyzed fusion by a pulsed muon beam," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 1, no. 1-4, pp. 151--60, 1987.

Abstract:The authors discuss a method to investigate some parameters which are relevant to muon-catalyzed fusion in a deuterium-tritium mixture. The method, which assumes availability of pulsed muon beams, is based on the observation of the fusion neutron time distribution for long time intervals ([right angle bracket]15 mu s). It would allow measurement of the sticking coefficient of muons to helium fairly independently of the values of other significant parameters. (25 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, M. Capponi, Castro S. De, U. Marconi, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, M. Poli, N. Semprini-Cesari, A. Trombini, A. Vitale, and A. Zoccoli, "Density dependence of the energy cost of muons for muon-catalyzed fusion," *Europhysics Letters*, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 299--304, 1988.

Abstract:The dependence of the energy cost of muons on the target density for the purposes of muon-catalyzed fusion in a deuterium-tritium target is investigated. The advantages of a particular target structure are discussed. (10 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, M. Capponi, Castro S. De, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, M. Poli, N. Semprini-Cesari, A. Trombini, A. Vitale, and A. Zoccoli, "On the energy cost of producing muons in a deuterium-tritium target for muon catalyzed fusion," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 405-14, 1988.

Abstract:The costs of producing negative muons in d-t targets at different densities are determined. The advantages of a segmented target structure are discussed, alternating high-density layers to suitably dimensioned vacuum gaps. (14 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, M. Capponi, J. D. Davies, Castro S. De, I. Massa, M. Piccinini, M. Poli, N. Semprini-Cesari, A. Trombini, A. Vitale, and A. Zoccoli, "Muon losses in deuterium-tritium muon-catalyzed fusion due to fast transfer reactions to helium nuclei," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 161-8, 1988.

Abstract:The results obtained at low density on the fast muon transfer from excited levels of mu d muonic atoms to /sup 4/He are discussed. The significant muon losses which fast transfer processes to /sup 4/He nuclei may induce in a high-density deuterium-tritium target used for muon-catalyzed fusion are considered. (11 References).

A. Bertin and A. Vitale, "Experimental frontiers in muon-catalyzed fusion," in *Proceedings of the 5th Winter School on Hadronic Physics. Problems of Fundamental Modern Physics II*, (R. Cherubini, P. Dalpiaz, and B. Minetti, eds.), pp. 488--517, 1991.

Abstract:After a brief theoretical discussion the authors discuss: (i) effects of decreasing the cycling rate in a D-T mixture; (ii) decreasing muon losses in the catalytic cycle; and (iii) decreasing the muon energy cost. (42 References).

A. Bertin and A. Vitale, "Experimental frontiers in muon-catalyzed fusion," in *Italian Physical Society. Proceedings of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' Course CXVI. Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Energy: Fission and Fusion*, (C. Salvetti, R. A. Ricci, and E. Sindoni, eds.), pp. 449-69, 1992.

Abstract:The authors discuss dt mu fusion and the problems of muon sticking. Reducing the cost of muon production is discussed and experimental research is reviewed. (42 References).

A. Bertin, N. Semprini-Cesari, M. Piccinini, and A. Vitale, "On the interaction cross sections of light nuclei at low energies," in *Proceedings of the 7th Winter School on Hadronic Physics: Common Problems and Trends of Modern Physics*, (T. Bressani, S. Marcello, and A. Zenoni, eds.), pp. 269-75, 1992.

Abstract:Experimental information on the interactions of light nuclei at low energy is rather incomplete. In the range of thermal energies for instance, only neutron scattering lengths (n-n, n-d, n-He, n-Li) were measured in the different spin states. The corresponding data for the proton are obtained by assuming charge symmetry of strong interactions, while for more complex nuclei the interaction cross sections (like the d-d one, for instance) are determined by extrapolating data obtained at higher energies. On the one hand, a comparison of the binding energies of mirror nuclei clearly indicates that the validity of charge symmetry of strong interactions should be rediscussed; on the other, as it will be seen in the following, recent experimental results set some doubts on the reliability of extrapolating cross sections from higher to lower energies. The authors discuss how this lack of experimental knowledge demands to reexamine several important problems, like for instance (besides charge symmetry in strong interactions) the relative abundance of light nuclei within stellar matter and the problem of solar neutrinos. They also show that experiments on muonic molecules formed with light nuclei may provide quite significant information also in this direction. (6 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, D. Bulgarelli, V. M. Bystritsky, M. Capponi, I. D'Antone, Castro S. De, D. Galli, U. Marconi, I. Massa, C. Moroni, M. Piccinini, M. Poli, N. Semprini-Cesari, R. Spighi, V. A. Stolupin, S. Vecchi, M. Villa, A. Vitale, J. Wozniak, G. Zavattini, and A. Zoccoli, "Neutron spectrometry by means of a two-stage neutron-gamma pulse-shape discriminating apparatus," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 105A, no. 5, pp. 751-6, 1992.

Abstract:The authors report on the results obtained by a novel coincidence neutron spectrometer while detecting time-of-flight selected neutrons in the MeV energy range. (5 References).

A. Bertin, Castro S. de, and A. Vitale, "Low-energy muon physics between pure and applied science," in *8th Winter Course on Hadronic Physics. At the Frontiers of Hadronic Physics*, (M. Gibilsco and G. Preparata, eds.), pp. 273--81, 1994.

Abstract:Low-energy muon physics answers both fundamental interests and scientific questions connected to the catalysis of nuclear fusion. Experimental results and open problems are reviewed. (28 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, V. M. Bystritsky, M. Capponi, B. Cereda, I. D'Antone, S. De Castro, D. Galli, B. Giacobbe, U. Marconi, I. Massa, C. Moroni, M. Piccinini, M. Poly, N. Semprini-Cesari, R. Spighi, V. A. Stolupin, S. Vecchi, A. Vezzani, M. Villa, A. Vitale, J. Wozniak, G. Zavattini, and A. Zoccoli, "Performance of a coincidence neutron spectrometer with double pulse-shape discrimination," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors & Associated Equipment*, vol. 337, no. 2-3, pp. 445--460, 1994.

Abstract:We describe here the performance of a new coincidence spectrometer which allows the detection of neutrons in the MeV energy range, by exploiting a two-stage pulse-amplitude analysis

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, V. M. Bystritsky, M. Capponi, B. Cereda, Castro S. De, A. Ferretti, D. Galli, B. Giacobbe, U. Marconi, I. Massa, C. Moroni, M. Piccinini, M. Poli, N. Semprini-Cesari, R. Spighi, S. Vecchi, A. Vezzani, M. Villa, V. Vitale, J. Wozniak, G. Zavattini, and A. Zoccali, "A Monte Carlo study of the neutron registration efficiency of a multichannel NE213 detection system," *Nukleonika*, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 101--11, 1995.

Abstract:The Monte Carlo calculations of the registration efficiency of a four-channel NE213 detector for 2.5 MeV neutrons are reported. The dependence of the efficiency on registration threshold as well as the influence of different substances placed between the neutron source and the scintillators on the efficiency value are also shown. (9 References).

A. Bertin and others, "Low--energy pion and muon production at high--energy proton beams," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5/6, pp. 349--356, 1990/91.

A. Bertin and others, "A novel coincidence neutron spectrometer with neutron--gamma pulse--shape discrimination," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5/6, pp. 395--403, 1990/91.

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, V. M. Bystritsky, M. Capponi, S. De Castro, B. Cereda, A. Ferretti, T. Florkowski, D. Galli, B. Giacobbe, V. V. Gushchin, U. Marconi, I. Massa, C. Moroni, M. Piccinini, M. Poly, L. A. Rivkis, V. I. Sakharov, N. Semprini-Cesari, R. Spighi, V. A. Stolupin, V. N. Tebus, S. Vecchi, A. Vezzani, M. Villa, A. Vitale, J. Wozniak, G. Zavattini, and A. Zoccoli, "Absence of Tritium Yield in Metal--Deuterium Systems," *Physics of Atomic Nuclei*, vol. 59, no. 6, 1996.

Abstract:Within errors of measurements, no tritium yield due to low-temperature nuclear dd fusion is observed in titanium of various modifications and in intermetallic compounds ZrNbV, LaCo/sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4.9/Al/sub 0.1/, and MM/sub 0.7/Ti/sub 0.3/Mn/sub 2/ saturated with deuterium. At a 90% confidence level, upper limits on the rate of dd fusion with tritium production in titanium and intermetallic compounds are found to be as follows: lambda /sub f/(Ti)[left angle bracket]or=2*10/sup -23/ s/sup -1/ (dd)/sup -1/ and lambda /sub f//sup eff/(Ti; intermet.)[left angle bracket]or=6*10/sup -24/ s/sup -1/ (dd)/sup -1/. (19 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, V. M. Bystritsky, Vit. M. Bystritskii, M. Capponi, S. De Castro, B. Cereda, V. D. Dugar-Zhabon, A. Ferretti, D. Galli, B. Giacobbe, V. I. Kirpal, A. I. Knyazev, I. M. Kravchenko, U. Marconi, I. Massa, S. I. Merzlyakov C. Moroni, M. Piccinini, M. Poly, L. A. Rivkis, N. V. Samsonenko, N. Semprini-Cesari, V. N. Shvetsov, V. T. Sidorov, V. N. Smirnov, S. I. Sorokin, R. Spighi, E. P. Starshin, V. A. Stolupin, A. V. Strelkov, S. Vecchi, A. Vezzani, M. Villa, A. Vitale, J. Wozniak, G. Zavattini, N. I. Zhuravlev, and A. Zoccoli, "Negative Result of an Experiment Aimed at Verifying a Report on Cold Nuclear Fusion in Systems of the Na /sub x {WO /sub 3}/(D;D-T) Type," *Physics of Atomic Nuclei*, vol. 59, no. 5, 1996.

Abstract:The results of an experiment aimed at verifying the conclusions drawn in the studies that were performed at the Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry (IHE, Yekaterinburg) and which report the observation of neutron emission due to low-temperature dd fusion in Na/sub x/WO/sub 3//deuterium systems are presented. Within statistical errors, the excess of the neutron yield above the background level is not observed in our experiment for the interaction of deuterium and deuterium-tritium mixture with oxide tungsten bronze. The hypothesis that hot dt fusion is possible in such systems is not confirmed either. The results of this study cast some doubt on the validity of the conclusions drawn in the IHE reports. At a 90% confidence level, an upper limit on the intensity I/sub n/ of a hypothetical neutron source associated with dd and dt fusion in the single crystals of oxide tungsten bronze is estimated to be 5*10/sup -3/ s/sup -1/. (12 References).

A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, V. M. Bystritsky, M. Capponi, S. De Castro, B. Cereda, A. Ferretti, T. Florkowski, D. Galli, B. Giacobbe, V. V. Gushchin, U. Marconi, I. Massa, C. Moroni, M. Piccinini, M. Poly, L. A. Rivkis, V. I. Sakharov, N. Semprini-Cesari, R. Spighi, V. A. Stolupin, V. N. Tebus, S. Vecchi, A. Vezzani, M. Villa, A. Vitale, J. Wozniak, G. Zavattini, and A. Zoccoli, "Negative Result of an Experiment Aimed at Verifying the Hypothesis That Cold and Hot Nuclear Fusion Occurs in Ti/(D-T) and ZrNbV/(D-T) Systems," *Physics of Atomic Nuclei*, vol. 59, no. 5, 1996.

Abstract:The results of an experiment aimed at verifying the hypothesis that low-temperature nuclear fusion occurs in metal-hydrogen systems are presented. Titanium and an intermetallic compound ZrNbV saturated with a deuterium-tritium mixture are chosen for substances to be studied. Within experimental errors, no excess of neutron emission above the background level is observed for these substances saturated with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The hypothesis that hot nuclear dt fusion occurs in metal(D-T) systems is not confirmed in our experiment either. (14 References).

W. H. Bertl, W. H. Breunlich, P. Kammel, H. G. Mahler, W. L. Reiter, W. J. Kossler, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, and C. Petitjean, "Hyperfine transitions of mu d-atoms in liquid hydrogen-deuterium mixture," *Atomkernenergie Kerntechnik*, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 184--7, 1983.

Abstract:The absolute gamma yield of the fusion reaction p mu d to mu He/sup 3/+ gamma was investigated in liquid hydrogen with various deuterium admixtures using the coincidence method. From the yield and its enhancement at high deuterium concentration (Wolfenstein-Gershtein effect) the authors find an unexpectedly high value of the hyperfine transition rate lambda /sub p//sup mu p/ in the process mu d(3/2)+p to mu d(1/2)+p with lambda /sub p//sup mu d/=(4.7+or-0.2)*10/sup 6/ sec/sup -1/. This value is a lower limit, if effects of slow thermalization of the mu d atoms are included. In connection with their recent lambda /sub d//sup mu d/ result of Kammel et al. (1982), they now obtain between agreement of their measured absolute gamma yields with theory. For large lambda /sub p//sup mu d/ values the mu d termalization time at c/sub d/=0.63% is found to be 70 nsec. (21 References).

W. Bertl, P. David, R. Engfer, C. Gugler, H. Hanscheid, E. A. Hermes, J. Konijn, T. Krogulski, Laat CTAM de, T. Mayer-Kuckuk, C. Petitjean, S. Polikanov, H. S. Pruys, H. W. Reist, F. Risse, CFG Rosel, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, W. Schreider, A. K. Sinha, A. Taal, N. Trautmann, and D. Vermeulen, "Studies of muonic actinides," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 20, no. , pp. NL48-50, 1988.

Abstract:"The authors present various results involving muonic reactions on actinides, (i) muon capture rates in /sup a/U

W. Bertl, D. Healey, J. Zmeskal, M. D. Hasinoff, M. Blecher, and DH. Wright, "A compact hydrogen recycling system using metal hydrides," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors & Associated Equipment*, vol. 355, no. 2-3, pp. 230--5, 1995.

Abstract:A gas recycling system to prevent losses of isotopically enriched hydrogen gas has been developed for the operation of a liquid target (2.7 l) used by the Radiative Muon Capture group at TRIUMF. The experimental requirements for high gas purity (chemical impurities below 10/sup -9/), low operating pressure (below 1 bar abs) and high loading pressure (about 10 bar needed for a palladium purifier) together with the usual hydrogen safety requirements were satisfied with a metal hydride storage device in combination with a small pump/compressor system. A description of the complete system together with its characteristic operational data are given in this paper. (18 References).

W. Bertozzi, "Inelastic electron scattering," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 409-36, 1975.

Abstract:The author shows how inelastic electron scattering measurements can give accurate values of three nuclear transition densities, viz. charge, current, and intrinsic magnetisation. An application of this technique to beta-decay, negative muon capture and positive pion photoproduction in /sup 6/Li-/sup 6/He is presented. Giant electric and magnetic dipole resonances, vibrational states in /sup 64,66,68/Zn, shapes of deformed nuclei, MIT energy-loss spectrometer experiments, and Saclay high-resolution spectrometry of the low-lying level structure of /sup 52/Cr are also discussed. (28 References).

W. Bertozzi, "Inelastic electron scattering," in *Nuclear Interactions*, (BA. Robson, ed.), pp. 231-45, 1979.

Abstract:Electron scattering shares with other electromagnetic probes the advantage of employing an interaction that is well understood compared to the strong interaction of the hadronic probes. In contrast to Coulomb excitation and mu -mesic atom studies it carries the flexibility of allowing the transferred momentum to vary independently of the transferred energy. This last feature allows us to obtain the momentum transfer dependence of the elastic and inelastic cross sections. From this dependence one can determine the spatial structure of the charges and currents responsible for the nuclear scattering. Also, in contrast to the use of slow ions with Coulombic excitation, the electron-nucleus interaction is in effect for a very short time. Therefore, it can be well described in the sudden perturbation approximation and since alpha (1/137) is small, one may hope that absorption and complicated multistep processes are not very important. (38 References).

D. R. Bes and O. Civitarese, "Spurious center of mass effects in electroweak decays," *Czechoslovak Journal of Physics*, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 495-504, Acad. Sci. Czech. Republic, 2002.

Abstract:The microscopic treatment of the spurious motion of the center of mass in nuclear many-body systems is reviewed. In this talk we present and compare the results of using the counterterms which are needed to fulfill the translational and Galilean invariances, and those obtained by using collective variables. The formalism is applied to the calculation of matrix elements of electroweak operators, as those which are active in the ( mu /sup -/,e/sup -/) conversion process. (18 References).

D. R. Bes and O. Civitarese, "Spurious states and their effects in electroweak decays," *Revista Mexicana de Fisica*, vol. 48, no. , pp. 77--82, 2002.

Abstract:The microscopic treatment of the spurious motion of the center of mass in nuclear many-body systems is reviewed. In this paper we present and compare the results of the use of counter-terms, needed to fulfill the translational and Galilean invariance at the RPA order of approximation, and of the use of collective variables. The formalism is applied to the calculation of matrix elements of electroweak operators, as the ones which are active in the ( mu /sup -/,e/sup -/) conversion process. (5 References).

R. J. Beuhler, G. Friedlander, and L. Friedman, "Cluster impact fusion," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 63, pp. 1292--1295, 1989.

V. Bezak, "On alternative forms of the variational principle implying the generalized Thomas-Fermi theory," *Czechoslovak Journal of Physics*, vol. B26, no. 3, pp. 306--19, 1976.

Abstract:A gas of fermions in a static potential is investigated within the framework of the March-Murray perturbation scheme (1961), equivalent to a generalization of the Thomas-Fermi theory. The author's formulation includes variations with respect to the potential function. The quantum variational (many-body) principles are formulated self-consistently, with due attention to the Poisson equation of electrodynamics. They are considered first for zero temperature and afterwards for arbitrary temperatures. The functional considerations involved in the present paper are related to the thermodynamics of quantum microcontinuum. A variational calculation of the ground state energy of pi /sup -/ 'mesoatoms' or 'mesoions' is given. It leads mathematically to the well-known problem of calculating the ground 1 S (parastate) energy of two electrons in the helium atom. (5 References).

A. K. Bhatia and RJ. Drachman, "Mesic molecules and muon catalyzed fusion," in *Electronic and Atomic Collisions. 13th International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Int. Conference on the Phys. Electron. & Atomic Collisions*, (J. Eichler, W. Fritsch, I. V. Hertel, N. Stolterfoht, and U. Wille, eds.), 1983.

Abstract:"The process of muon-catalyzed fusion involves very tightly bound molecules whose nuclei are isotopes of hydrogen held together by muons rather than electrons. The scale of such mesic molecules depends on the muon Bohr radius, a/sub 0//m/sub mu / approximately=250 fm and the rate of spontaneous fusion reactions between the nuclei can become very large. Early enthusiasm for muon-catalyzed fusion as a practical energy source faded when detailed investigation revealed that it would be unlikely for a muon to catalyze more than about two successive reactions before being lost by capture or decay. More recently, however, the process of resonant mesic molecule formation has been discovered for the (dd mu ) and (dt mu ) molecules. This can very greatly accelerate the rate of mesic molecule formation, but it depends critically on the very loosely bound excited J=1

A. K. Bhatia and RJ. Drachman, "Variational calculations of muonic-molecule energy levels," *Physical Review A*, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 2138--40, 1984.

Abstract:The authors report the best variational energies obtained to date of the bound states of muonic molecules containing nucleons of unit charge, or isotopes of hydrogen. Hylleraas wave functions are used to describe the three-particle systems, and the convergence of the energies is carefully studied; as many as 440 terms have been included in some cases. These results are compared with the best previous values. (8 References).

A. K. Bhatia and RJ. Drachman, "Variational calculations of mesic molecule energy levels," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, pp. 90-7, 1984.

Abstract:The authors report the best variational energies obtained to date on the bound states of mu-mesic molecules containing nucleons of unit charge, or isotopes of hydrogen. Hylleraas wave functions are used to describe the three-particle systems, and the convergence of the energies is carefully studied; as many as-440 terms have been included in some cases. These results are compared to the best previous variational and non-variational values. Some results for the pi-mesic system have also been obtained. (7 References).

A. K. Bhatia, R. J. Drachman, and L. Chatterjee, "Deexcitation of muonic molecules by internal conversion," *Physical Review A*, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 3400--4, 1988.

Abstract:Stabilization of the resonantly formed muonic molecular ion (td mu ) depends on the transition from the excited J=1 state to some lower-lying state in competition with decay through the entrance channel. The most important process leading to this transition is internal conversion (Auger effect), in which the excitation energy of the muonic system is carried away by an orbital electron. Using variational wave functions similar to those previously reported (A.K. Bhatia and R.J. Drachman, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2138 (1984)), the authors have now computed the matrix elements responsible for the transitions. For simplicity, they have assumed that the muonic ion is the nucleus of a hydrogenic atom and have calculated lifetimes and branching ratios for various transitions among the J=0, 1, and 2 states. The J=2 binding energy (E/sub 2/=101.59 eV) is the first reported variational result for this state. The authors find that the excited J=0 state is populated several hundred times as often as the ground state. (10 References).

A. K. Bhatia, R. J. Drachman, and L. Chatterjee, "De-excitation of muonic molecules by internal conversion," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 303-5, 1988.

Abstract:"The resurgence of interest in muon catalyzed fusion is largely due to the realization that there exists a resonant process forming the td mu molecular ion: (t mu )+D/sub 2/ to ((td mu )*d2e)*. The authors have previously computed some fairly accurate wave functions for all the J=0 and J=1 states of the muonic molecular ions and now use them (suitably improved) to calculate the rate of internal conversion. They have also carried out the first variational calculation of the J=2 wave function of the td mu ion, obtaining a binding energy of 101.59 eV. They have used the best available binding energies for J=0 and J=1 and for J=2. Instead of considering the molecular case, in which the emitted electron moves in the field of an H/sub 2//sup +/ ion, they have, for simplicity, assumed that the muonic ion is the nucleus of a hydrogenic atom and have calculated lifetimes and branching ratios for various transitions among the J=0

A. K. Bhatia and RJ. Drachman, "Muon-catalyzed fusion: a possible source of energy?," *Comments on Atomic & Molecular Physics*, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 281--94, 1989.

Abstract:Conventional fusion of deuterium and tritium requires temperatures of several million degrees, close to the temperature of the Sun's core. It has long been known, however, that a mu /sup -/ can serve to bind a deuteron and a triton to form a muonic molecule, in which the two nuclei are so close together that fusion occurs very rapidly. In addition, the muon is usually released after the reaction along with a neutron, an alpha particle and 17.58 MeV of kinetic energy, free to repeat the process like a chemical catalyst. This exotic particle is thus able to continue the chain reaction until it is eventually captured by the alpha or undergoes beta -decay. Up to now nearly 150 fusions per muon have been observed, releasing about 2.5 GeV of energy. Muon-catalyzed fusion presents a fascinating problem in cross-disciplinary physics and may be a possible source of energy. (32 References).

A. K. Bhatia and RJ. Drachman, "Polarizabilities and other properties of the td mu molecular ion," *Canadian Journal of Physics*, vol. 79, no. 9, pp. 1149--58, 2001.

Abstract:Wave functions of the Hylleraas type were used earlier to calculate energy levels of muonic systems. Recently, we found in the case of the molecular ions H/sub 2//sup +/, D/sub 2//sup +/, and HD/sup +/ that it was necessary to include high powers of the internuclear distance in the Hylleraas functions to localize the nuclear motion when treating the ions as three-body systems without invoking the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We tried the same approach in a muonic system, td/ mu /sup -/ (triton, deuteron, and muon). Improved convergence was obtained for J=0 and I states for shorter expansions when we used this type of generalized Hylleraas function, but as the expansion length increased the high powers were no longer useful. We obtained good energy values for the two lowest J=0 and I states and compared them with the best earlier calculations. Expectation values were obtained for various operators, the Fermi contact parameters, and the permanent quadrupole moment. The cusp conditions were also calculated. The polarizability of the ground state was then calculated using second-order perturbation theory with intermediate J=1 pseudostates. (It should be possible to measure the polarizability by observing Rydberg states of atoms with td mu /sup -/ acting as the nucleus.) In addition, the initial sticking probability (an essential quantity in the analysis of union catalyzed fusion) was calculated and compared with earlier results. (13 References).

A. Bhattacharya, M. M. Panja, and B. Talukdar, "Atomic anapole moments in the electroweak theory," *Physical Review A*, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 4963--5, 1995.

Abstract:The role of anapole moments (a) arising from the P-violating and T-invariant theory of electron-nucleon interactions in the atom is examined. The standard model of the electroweak theory is used to compute numbers for |a| for alkali-metal atoms and muonic hydrogen. The physical implications of the results obtained are discussed. (17 References).

S. Bhattacharyya, L. Chatterjee, and T. Roy, "mu -atom energy levels-revisited," *Indian Journal of Physics, Part B*, vol. 57B, no. 1, pp. 80-4, 1983.

Abstract:Muonic atoms have been studied in the framework of a cut-off type potential V(r) such that V(r)=-ze/sup 2/2/r outside the nuclear radius, and V(r)=(kr/sup 2/+constant) within the nuclear boundary. The energy values agree well with those obtained by other authors. (4 References).

W. S. Bian, X. Zhao, Y. G. Wang, and Y. X. Wang, "Direct solution of the Schrodinger equation for some muonic molecules," *Chem. Phys.*, vol. 242, pp. 195-202, 1999.

Abstract:We use the hyperspherical harmonic method developed by us to directly solve the Schrodinger equation for some muonic molecules without recourse to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. In our method, a kind of simplified potential harmonic representation derived by us is used, and analytic expressions for all matrix elements are obtained; the generalized Laguerre function expansion method is used in the solution of the coupled differential equations. The practical calculations yield very good results for the energy. For example, we obtain a ground-state energy of - 0.055623 pau for pp mu, - 0.029884 dau for dd mu, and -0.020521 tau for tt mu, in good agreement with the exact values of -0.055676 pau, - 0.029921 dau, and - 0.020553 tau. The calculated energy values for the first excited states of pp mu, dd mu, tt mu are also reported. It is shown that, the potential harmonic representation we used is simple and convenient, and the convergence of the basis functions is uniform and rather rapid. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

A. Bianchetti, P. Hauser, H. Hofer, F. Kottmann, C. Luchinger, R. Scharen, and L. Simons, "Laser resonance experiment with muonic helium ions," *Psi Nuclear & Particle Physics Newsletter*, no. , pp. 67-8, 1990.

Abstract:This last run using the 'muon bottle' was one of the highlights in the 15-years-history of this device. The authors have searched for laser-induced 2s-2p transitions in mu /sup 4/He-ions at the wavelength predicted by the old CERN experiment. The performance of the apparatus has been improved considerably in the last years by using the 'slab' laser system developed at PSI and elaborate diagnostics for the laser beam in the muon bottle. The result of a preliminary analysis is that any positive effect at the given wavelength can be excluded with a confidence level of several sigma 's. (5 References).

S. Bianco and others, "The DEAR case," *Rivista Del Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1--46, 1999.

H. Bichsel and M. Inokuti, "Difference in stopping power for protons and deuterons of a given speed," *Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B-Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms*, vol. 134, pp. 161-164, 1998.

Abstract:Kinematic limits on the momentum transfer depend weakly on the particle mass M, and lead to a small correction proportional to 1/M to the Bethe electronic stopping number. For protons, the magnitude of the correction seems to be too small to allow unequivocal detection within the precision of current measurements. For muons, the effect would be larger. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

F. Bienz, P. Bergem, M. Boschung, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, G. Piller, W. Reichart, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, and G. Torelli, "Transfer of negative muons from hydrogen to argon in gaseous H/sub 2/+Ar mixtures at high pressure," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 21, no. 15, pp. 2725--35, 1988.

Abstract:The transfer rate of negative muons from the 1s state of hydrogen to argon has been measured in H/sub 2/+Ar gas mixtures at total pressures of 100 and 140 bar and argon concentrations C (Ar/H/sub 2/) of 6*10/sup -4/ and 20*10/sup -4/. The reduced transfer rates have been found to be independent of the total pressure and of the argon concentration. The mean reduced transfer rate obtained, Lambda /sub pAr/=(1.46+or-0.05)*10/sup 11/ s/sup -1/, is compared with the rates measured by other authors. (18 References).

S. M. Bilenkii, van Kh'eu Nguyen, L. L. Nemenov, and FG. Tkebuchava, "Production and decay of ( mu /sup +/ mu /sup -/) atoms," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 812--14, 1969.

Abstract:Production of ( mu /sup +/ mu /sup -/) atoms in reactions involving hadrons and gamma quanta is considered. The decay of such systems is also considered. Atoms produced by pi and K mesons, are discussed.

R. Bimbot, C. Cabot, D. Gardes, H. Gauvin, and M. F. Rivet, "Differences in the energy responses of thick silicon detectors for protons and alpha--particles," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods*, vol. 156, pp. 447--449, 1978.

G. F. Bin'ko, V. N. Grebenev, YuB Gurov, V. P. Dzhelepov, YuP Dobretsov, V. G. Zinov, V. G. Kirillov-Ugryumov, A. A. Maloletnev, A. L. Mikaelyan, A. P. Pichugin, V. V. Fil'chenkov, and NN. Khal'ko, "Measurement of the residual polarization of negative muons in gaseous deuterium at a pressure of 10 atm," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 476--9, 1989.

Abstract:The residual polarization of negative muons was measured using an apparatus with a gas target filled with deuterium to a pressure of 10 atm. A value of P/sub mu /=7.2+or-2.1% was obtained. This value is in agreement with the theory. The measurements were carried out in a muon beam of the JINR phasotron. (11 References).

G. F. Bin'ko, YuP Dobretsov, V. N. Grebenev, YuB Gurov, V. G. Kirillov-Ugryumov, A. A. Maloletnev, A. L. Mikaelyan, and AP. Pichugin, "Formation of the muonic HF molecule during the stopping of negative muons in a neon-hydrogen mixture," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 741--5, 1993.

Abstract:The residual polarization of negative muons has been measured by the mu SR method in an apparatus with a gaseous target, either pure neon or a Ne+H/sub 2/ mixture, at room temperature in a transverse magnetic field of 200 G. In pure neon (24 atm) a precession of the polarization of the muon frequency was not observed. The measured asymmetry coefficient in the mixture Ne (24 atm)+H/sub 2/ (16 atm) is 0.59+or-0.09%. The results are explained in terms of the formation of a muonic HF molecule. The results show that it is possible to use polarized negative muons to study fast physical and chemical processes in the gas phase. (11 References).

G. F. Bin'ko, V. N. Grebenev, YuP Dobretsov, V. G. Kirillov-Ugriumov, A. A. Maloletnev, A. L. Mikaelyan, and AP. Pichugin, "Observation of muonic HF molecule formation with TF mu /sup -/SR," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 87, no. 1-4, pp. 905--10, 1994.

Abstract:Negative muon polarization has been measured in pure gaseous Ne (24 atm) and in Ne+H/sub 2/ mixtures (24 atm Ne+1.8 atm H/sub 2/, 8 atm H/sub 2/ and 16 atm H/sub 2/). The experiment was performed at JINR (Dubna) on a mu SR-spectrometer with 200 G transverse magnetic field at room temperature. In pure Ne no polarization was observed (a/sub 0/=0.09+or-0.1%) while in Ne+H/sub 2/ mixtures clear precession signals were detected at the free-muon frequency with asymmetries a/sub 1.8/=0.33+or-0.13%, a/sub 8/=0.33+or-0.14% and a/sub 16/=0.59+or-0.09%. The fact that polarization appears in the muonic HF molecule shows that at the moment of the molecule formation (t approximately 10/sup -10/ s) the muon is not completely depolarized. The estimate of the reaction constant k=(2.3+or-1.6)*10/sup -11/ cm/sup 3/ s/sup -1/ agrees with the experimental values obtained by other methods. The result achieved demonstrates that mu /sup -/SR-method can be applied for studying fast kinetics processes in the gas phase and in particular for measuring chemical reaction rates of halogen atoms and ions. (10 References).

B. L. Birbrair and YuA. Kalashnikov, "Influence of nuclear structure on widths of pi -atomic terms," *Journal of Physics G*, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. L145-8, 1980.

Abstract:The authors calculate the widths of 2p and 3d pi -atomic states in the nuclei /sup 12/C, /sup 16/O, /sup 32/S, /sup 40/Ar, /sup 40-48/Ca, /sup 46-50/Ti and /sup 52/Cr assuming the 'two-nucleon' mechanism to be the doorway process for nuclear pion absorption. The results are in good agreement with experiment. (11 References).

B. L. Birbrair and YuA. Kalashnikov, "Excitation of two nucleons into the continuum as a doorway process for bound-pion absorption by nuclei," *Journal of Physics G *, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1531--45, 1982.

Abstract:The problem of bound-pion absorption by nuclei has been studied in a semimicroscopic way. Calculations of the widths of the 1s, 2p and 3d levels in /sup 12/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 16-18/O, /sup 19/F, /sup 20/Ne, /sup 23/Na, /sup 24-26/Mg, /sup 27/Al, /sup 28/Si, /sup 31/P, /sup 32/S, /sup 35/Cl, /sup 39/K, /sup 40/Ar, /sup 40-48/Ca, /sup 46-50/Ti, /sup 51/V and /sup 52/Cr and the 4f level in /sup 209/Bi pi /sup -/-atoms based on the nuclear self-consistent theory of Birbrair et al. (1978) and Alkhazov et al. (1978) are performed assuming that the 'two-nucleon' mechanism is the doorway process for nuclear pion absorption (Birbrair and Kalashnikov). Both P and S absorption mechanisms together with their interference are included here. This enables us to calculate the widths of the 1s levels where S absorption dominates. The results are in good agreement with experiment. (15 References).

B. L. Birbrair, V. N. Fomenko, A. B. Gridnev, and YuA. Kalashnikov, "Pionic atoms and the problem of pion condensation," *Journal of Physics G *, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1473--86, 1983.

Abstract:Recently it was shown that the nuclear stability against pion condensation can be caused by interference between pseudovector and pseudoscalar pi N interactions. The authors determined the value of the mixing parameter x from the transition energies between pi -mesoatomic states in nuclei from /sup 12/C to /sup 209/Bi as x=-0.32+or-0.01. For such values of x the nuclear matter is close to pion condensation at densities 0.25n/sub 0/[left angle bracket]or=n[left angle bracket]or=0.5n/sub 0/ where n/sub 0/ is the ground-state density. (32 References).

B. L. Birbrair, A. B. Gridnev, and YuA. Kalashnikov, "Continuous-spectrum pi /sup -/ meson capture in the lower /sup 208/Pb mesoatomic states," *Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Fizicheskaya*, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 63--5, 1991.

Abstract:A method is proposed for populating deep states in heavy pi /sup -/ mesoatoms that are not seen in gamma cascades because of strong upper-level pion absorption. Calculations have been performed on the cross sections of the proposed reactions involving the population of 1s and 2p states in /sup 208/Pb. (6 References).

B. L. Birbrair and AB. Gridnev, "Relativistic approach to pionic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A528, no. 3-4, pp. 647--54, 1991.

Abstract:A significant additional s-wave repulsion in the pion-nucleus optical potential appears in the impulse approximation when the nuclear relativism is taken into account. (7 References).

P. M. Bird, A. S. Clough, K. R. Parker, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, S. Baird, C. J. Batty, A. I. Kilvington, F. M. Russell, and P. Sharman, "Kaonic hydrogen atom X-rays," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A404, no. 3, pp. 482--94, 1983.

Abstract:The X-ray spectrum obtained with kaons stopping in liquid hydrogen has been measured. Possible candidates for X-ray lines from kaonic hydrogen atoms have been identified and the results compared with previous experiments and with theoretical predictions. X-ray lines from Sigma /sup -/p atoms may also have been observed. (9 References).

D. M. Bishop and AM. Frolov, "Bound states in Coulomb three-body symmetric systems," *Journal of Chemical Physics*, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 7186--7, 1992.

Abstract:The authors present calculations for /sup infinity /He, dd mu , and tt mu . The isotopic shifts with respect to /sup infinity /He for the 3D states of the He atom are calculated directly without using perturbation theory to account for the mass polarisation operator. They also discuss the problem related to the presence of the /sup 1/D state in the Ps/sup -/ ion. (10 References).

D. M. Bishop, A. M. Frolov, and VH Jr. Smith, "Properties of the bound S states (L=0) in Coulomb three-body systems with unit charges," *Physical Review A*, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 3636--44, 1995.

Abstract:Various energetic, geometric, and other properties for the ground and first vibrationally excited S states (L=0) of Coulomb three-body systems having unit charges are obtained by means of accurate exponential wave functions. The mass dependence of the properties for these systems has a relatively smooth form for the ground states. The results presented should be useful as a basis for further investigation of these three-body systems. The prethreshold (weakly bound) exotic nonsymmetric systems (d/sup +/t/sup +/p/sup -/, mu /sup +/ pi /sup +/ mu /sup -/, and mu /sup +/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/) considered have sharp cluster structures, i.e., the lighter positive ion moves in the field of the neutral pair (e.g., d/sup +/ in d/sup +/t/sup +/p/sup -/ moves in the field of t/sup +/p/sup -/). (31 References).

G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan, M. A. Rudzskii, and ZF. Seidov, "Nonequilibrium beta-processes and the role of excited nuclear states," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 1621--30, 1974.

Abstract:Electron cparue by heavy nuclei is calculated on basis of the gas model of the nucleus by taking into account excited states of the final nucleus. Results of experiments on muon capture by nuclei in mesoatoms are used for determining the value of the matrix element. The cross section for neutrino capture by heavy nuclei is calculated within the framework of the same model and it is demonstrated that with a large probability capture of neutrinos with energies E/sub v/[right angle bracket]or approximately=30 MeV should involve ejection of the neutron from the excited nucleus. This fact may be important for recording neutrinos. (18 References).

J. A. Bistirlich, K. M. Crowe, ASL Parsons, P. Skarek, and P. Truoel, "Radiative pion capture in /sup 12/C," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 689--93, 1970.

Abstract:The spectrum of high-energy gamma rays following the capture of negative pions in /sup 12/C was measured with high resolution. The observed structure in the giant resonance region is the first direct experimental proof of the influence of collective excitations in radiative pion capture. This supports recent theories concerning the analogy between this process and muon capture. (17 References).

M. Bittner, A. Meister, D. Ohms, E. Paffrath, D. Rahner, R. Shwierz, D. Seeliger, K. Wiesener, and P. Wustner, "Method for investigation of fusion reactions in condensed matter," in *Proceedings of the XIX-th International Symposium on Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Processes in Fusion Reactors*, (D. Seeliger, ed.), pp. 221-34, 1989.

Abstract:A method for systematic studies of the DD-fusion neutron production in condensed matter is presented. This method bases on relative, long-time measurements between both different cells with electrolytically charged palladium cylinders and background (empty position). The statistical methods used for data analysis are presented, which allow the identification of even very small effects. One example is shown, for which a definite counting rate difference of about three counts per hour over 100 hours is evident. From long-time measurements with a big palladium slab after its active phase an upper limit on the cosmic ray muon catalyzed fusion can be set. (12 References).

A. Blaer, J. French, A. M. Sachs, M. May, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of K X-rays from muonic helium formed in a low-density target in an intense pulsed muon beam," *Physical Review A*, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 158--62, 1989.

Abstract:An experiment was constructed to measure the contribution of vacuum polarization (in quantum electrodynamics (QED)) to the 3d-3p energy difference in muonic helium. Major features of the experimental apparatus included design and construction of a pulsed beam of stopping muons with the highest instantaneous intensity available, a laser system producing multijoule pulses from doubly isotopic CO/sub 2/ gas, a cavity to trap the laser light in 3 atm of helium, and Si(Li) detectors to measure the helium X-rays. The number of stimulated X-rays accumulated was not sufficient to permit a statistically significant QED measurement, but the results demonstrate the feasibility of laser spectroscopy in a pulsed muon beam. The intensities of separate K X-ray lines in muonic helium were measured at 1 and 3 atm for comparison with recent theories of pressure effects on the muon cascade. (9 References).

F. Blanc, "Measurement of the K$^0_e3$ form factor in the CPLEAR experiment", 1998.

K. Blaum, B. A. Bushaw, S. Diel, C. Geppert, A. Kuschnick, P. Muller, W. Nortershauser, A. Schmitt, and K. Wendt, "Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the Xe4f/sup 7/5d6s/sup 29/D/sub J/ to Xe4f/sup 7/5d6s6p/sup 9/F/sub J+1/ transitions of gadolinium," *European Physical Journal D*, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 37--44, 2000.

Abstract:High-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in all Xe4f/sup 7/5d6s/sup 29/D/sub J/ to Xe4f/sup 7/5d6s6p/sup 9/F/sub J+1/(J=2-6) and the Xe4f/sup 7/5d6s/sup 29/D/sub 6/ to Xe4f/sup 7/5d6s6p/sup 9/D/sub 5/ transitions of gadolinium (Gd I). Gadolinium atoms in an atomic beam were excited with a tunable single-frequency laser in the wavelength range of 422-429 nm. Resonant excitation was followed by photoionization with the 363.8 nm line of an argon ion laser and resulting ions were mass separated and detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Isotope shifts for all stable gadolinium isotopes in these transitions have been measured for the first time. Additionally, the hyperfine structure constants of the upper states have been derived for the isotopes /sup 155,157/Gd and are compared with previous work. Using prior experimental values for the mean nuclear charge radii, derived from the combination of muonic atoms and electron scattering data, field shift and specific mass shift coefficients for the investigated transitions have been determined and nuclear charge parameters lambda for the minor isotopes /sup 152,154/Gd have been calculated. (37 References).

M. Blecher, S. Ahmad, D. S. Armstrong, G. Azuelos, R. A. Burnham, ETH Clifford, P. Depommier, T. P. Gorringe, M. D. Hasinoff, A. J. Larabee, J. A. Macdonald, H. Mes, T. Numao, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, B. C. Robertson, J. Summhammer, C. W. Waltham, and DH. Wright, "Radiative muon capture on carbon, oxygen, and calcium," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. 13, no. , pp. 322-4, 1990.

Abstract:The pseudoscalar coupling strength, g/sub p/, induced by the strong force in semi-leptonic reactions is particularly sensitive to radiative muon capture (RMC) rates. RMC measurements on nuclei, mu /sup -/Z to (Z-l) nu gamma are experimentally easy to measure since most muons capture rather than decay (unlike in hydrogen). However, the final nuclear response is not well known. Also the possibility exists that non-nucleonic degrees of freedom may modify the elementary interaction and be observable as a renormalized value for g/sub p/. The free nucleon value, g/sub p/ (q/sup 2/=-0.88 m/sub mu //sup 2/) approximately=7g/sub A/, is predicted in terms of the axial vector coupling constant by the Goldberger-Treiman relation. A recent review of the experimental data indicates an upward renormalization in light nuclei and a downward renormalization in heavy nuclei. In order to investigate such effects and to study the problems related to an RMC measurement on the proton, RMC rates on C, O, and Ca have been measured at TRIUMF. (17 References).

M. Blecher, S. Ahmad, D. S. Armstrong, G. Azuelos, W. Bertl, C. Q. Chen, P. Depommier, Egidy T. von, T. P. Gorringe, P. Gumplinger, M. D. Hasinoff, R. Henderson, G. Jonkmans, A. J. Larabee, J. A. Macdonald, S. C. McDonald, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, B. C. Robertson, D. G. Sample, W. Schott, G. N. Taylor, D. H. Wright, and NS. Zhang, "Measurement of the induced pseudoscalar coupling via radiative muon capture on hydrogen," in *Few-Body Systems Supplementum*, pp. 87-91, 1991.

Abstract:The authors present measurements of the pseudoscalar coupling g/sub p/ using the mu /sup -/p to nu n gamma reaction. Brief experimental details are presented and detailed results are given. (9 References).

M. Blecher, D. S. Armstrong, G. Azuelos, W. Bertl, C. Q. Chen, P. Depommier, B. Doyle, T. P. Gorringe, P. Gumplinger, M. D. Hasinoff, G. Jonkmans, A. J. Larabee, J. A. Macdonald, S. C. McDonald, M. Munro, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, B. C. Robertson, D. G. Sample, E. Saettler, C. M. Sigler, G. N. Taylor, S. Veillette, and DH. Wright, "Measurement of the pseudoscalar coupling via radiative muon capture on hydrogen," in *Pan XIII. Particles and Nuclei. 13th International Conference*, (A. Pascolini, ed.), pp. 605-6, 1994.

Abstract:The branching ratio for radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen, mu /sup -/p to nu /sub mu /n gamma , is particularly sensitive to the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant. Due to its small value (1.5*10/sup -8/) and the presence of many backgrounds, no previous measurement has been attempted. A large acceptance, medium momentum resolution pair spectrometer has been constructed at TRIUMF in order to detect photons from RMC. The main backgrounds and the methods which discriminate them are discussed. Measurements of the pseudoscalar coupling are presented. (6 References).

M. Blecher, A. Ahmad, D. S. Armstrong, G. Azuelos, W. Bertl, C. Q. Chen, P. Depommier, B. C. Doyle, Egidy T. von, T. P. Gorringe, P. Gumplinger, M. D. Hasinoff, D. Healey, G. Jonkmans, A. J. Larabee, J. A. Macdonald, S. C. McDonald, M. Munro, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, B. C. Robertson, D. G. Sample, E. Saettler, C. Sigler, G. N. Taylor, D. H. Wright, and NS. Zhang, "Radiative muon capture on hydrogen," in *Yamada Conference XL IV. Proceedings of the IV International Symposium on Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei*, (H. Ejiri, T. Kishimoto, and T. Sato, eds.), pp. 334--9, 1995.

Abstract:The first observation of the elementary process mu /sup -/p to nu /sub mu /n gamma is reported. The muons stopped in purified liquid hydrogen and captured mainly on the ortho p mu p molecule. The photons were converted to pairs which were analysed in a magnetic spectrometer. This reaction is sensitive to the pseudoscalar coupling constant, found to be: g/sub p/(q/sup 2/=-0.88 m/sub mu //sup 2/)=(10.0+or-0.9+or-0.3)g/sub a/(0). This value of g/sub p/, determined from the photon energy spectrum using a perturbation theory calculation based on tree-level Feynman diagrams, is ~1.5 times the predicted value. The first error is the quadrature sum of statistical and systematic errors, while the second error is due to the uncertainty in lambda /sub ap/, the decay rate of the ortho to para p mu p molecule. (8 References).

E. J. Bleser, L. Lederman, J. Rosen, J. Rothberg, and E. Zavattini, "µ--Mesonic molecules in liquid hydrogen," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 8, pp. 128--131, 1962.

E. J. Bleser and others, "Muonic molecules in liquid hydrogen," *Physical Review*, vol. 132, pp. 2679--2691, 1963.

A. H. Blin and G. Wolschin, "Muon-induced prompt fission of uranium," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 112B, no. 2, pp. 113--15, 1982.

Abstract:The prompt-fission probabilities of muonic /sup 238/U in radiationless dipole and quadrupole transitions of the muon are calculated. The 3d to 1s transition is found to dominate, in agreement with experiment. A measured drastic enhancement in the Gamma /sub n/ Gamma /sub f/ ratio compared to photofission data is reproduced in terms of the increase of the fission barrier in the presence of the muon. (15 References).

J. Blocki, Z. Sujkowski, and M. Zielinska-Pfabe, "Penetrability of nuclear fission barrier for muonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 42B, no. 4, pp. 415--18, 1972.

Abstract:The nuclear fission penetrability for muonic atoms is calculated as a function of excitation energy. The results obtained for /sup 234,236,238/U and /sup 240/Pu are compared with the fission of normal atoms. (10 References).

L. D. Blokhintsev and AM. Mukhamedzhanov, "Few-body problems in nuclear astrophysics. Asymptotic behaviour of bound state wave functions in two-body channels and radiative capture reactions," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 801-4, 1995.

Abstract:Few-body problems of astrophysical direct radiative capture reactions are discussed. At astrophysical energies these reactions are peripheral and governed by the asymptotics of the many-particle bound state wave function in the two-body channel. The role of the normalization coefficient of this tail and methods to calculate it are discussed. New anomalous asymptotics have been found in few-body approach what gives rise to the new mechanism of radiative capture and can influence nuclear astrophysical reactions, muon-catalysed fusion and electron screening. (5 References).

I. Blokland, A. Czarnecki, and K. Melnikov, "Expansion of bound-state energies in powers of m/M and (1-m/M)," *Physical Review D*, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 073015/1-9, 2002.

Abstract:Elaborating on a previous Letter [A. Czarnecki and K. Melnikov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013001 (2001)], we use a new approach to compute energy levels of a nonrelativistic bound state of two constituents, with masses m and M, by systematic expansions-one in powers of m/M and another in powers of (1-m/M). Technical aspects of the calculations are described in detail. Theoretical predictions are given for O( alpha (Z alpha )/sup 5/) radiative recoil and O((Z alpha )/sup 6/) pure recoil corrections to the average energy shift and hyperfine splitting relevant for hydrogen, muonic hydrogen, and muonium. (28 References).

R. Blomquist, M. Eckhause, F. R. Kane, J. R. Kane, P. Martin, G. H. Miller, W. W. Sapp, C. B. Spence, and RE. Welsh, "Nuclear gamma rays in /sup 19/F following stopping pions," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. B19, no. 2, pp. 632--6, 1970.

Abstract:The yield per stopped pion of 197 and 109 keV gamma -rays in CF/sub 2/ has been found to depend on target thickness. The probable excitation mechanism and methods to reduce such yields in studies of muonic and pionic atoms are discussed. More precise determinations of the energies of the first and second excited states of /sup 19/F are listed. (11 References).

J. Blomqvist, "Vacuum polarization in exotic atoms," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. B48, no. 1, pp. 95--103, 1972.

Abstract:The e/sup +/e/sup -/ vacuum polarization potential around a point charge Ze is given in explicit form to orders alpha Z alpha , alpha /sup 2/Z alpha and alpha (Z alpha )/sup 3/. The potentials are expanded in series of powers of r and log r. The energy of the 5g/sub 9/2/ to 4f/sub 7/2/ transition in muonic Pb is evaluated. The deviation from the observed energy is found to be smaller than in previous calculations. (20 References).

SD. Bloom, "Difference in the electronic and fission decay modes for muonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 48B, no. 5, pp. 420--2, 1974.

Abstract:A simple model is presented which predicts a difference in the electronic and fission decays of ground-state muonic heavy atoms. It is interpretable in terms of the relative population of two nuclear states: the isomeric fission state and the ground state. The application of the model to /sup 238/U indicates there could be a significant population of the isomeric state at the end of the muonic atomic cascade. (8 References).

B. Blum, "A phenomenological approach for a pi /sup -/ meson nucleus potential," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. B23, no. 1, pp. 155--67, 1970.

Abstract:The observed level shifts and widths of pi -mesic atoms are described in terms of an optical potential between the pion and the nucleus. A special form of this potential is proposed: herein the microscopic picture of the scattering and absorption of pions by bound nucleons served as a guideline; the parameters, however, are chosen freely to give a best fit to the experimental data. It turns out that only three parameters are necessary to describe satisfactorily the available data for all known 2p-1s and 3d-2p transitions. (19 References).

S. J. Blundell, "Spin-polarized muons in condensed matter physics," *Contemp. Phys.*, vol. 40, pp. 175-192, 1999.

Abstract:A positive muon is a spin-1/2 particle. Beams of muons with all their spills polarized can be prepared and subsequently implanted in various types of condensed matter. The subsequent precession and relaxation of their spins call then be used to investigate a variety of static and dynamic effects in a sample and hence to deduce properties concerning magnetism, superconductivity, and molecular dynamics. Though strictly a lepton, and behaving essentially like a heavy electron, it is convenient to think of a muon as a light proton, and it is often found with a captured electron in a hydrogen-like atom known as muonium. This article outlines the principles of various experimental techniques which involve implanted muons and describes some recent applications. The use of muons in condensed matter physics has shed new light oil subjects as diver se as passivation in semiconductors, frustrated spin systems, vortex lattice melting, and quantum diffusion of light particles.

I. Bobodyanov, "On the multiplicity of neutrons produced by mu -capture," *Acta Physica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae*, vol. 29, no. , pp. 151-2, 1970.

Abstract:On the basis of the measured neutron multiplicities nu , due to muon capture in Fe, Cu, Zn, Sb and Pb the empirical dependence of nu upon A, the atomic number of the nucleus, has been found to be nu =(0.30+or-0.02) A/sup 1/3/. (6 References).

V. D. Bobrov and others, "Capture of negative muons by atoms in a chemical compound," *Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 48, pp. 1197--1199, 1965.

J. Böcklin and others, "A large--area xenon gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) with timing information for the detection of low energy muonic x--rays," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods*, vol. 176, pp. 105--109, 1980.

J. A. Böcklin, "Suche nach dem metastabilen 2S-Zustand im myonischen Wasserstoff bei tiefen Gasdrucken", 1982.

F. Boehm, A. Hahn, H. E. Henrikson, J. Miller, R. J. Powers, P. Vogel, J. L. Vuilleumier, and KC. Wang, "Determination of strong interaction widths and shifts of pionic X-rays with a crystal spectrometer," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 215--18, 1977.

Abstract:The use of a curved crystal spectrometer in conjunction with a synchrocyclotron proton beam in studying transitions in light pionic atoms is described. The line widths and shifts of 3d-2p pionic X-ray transitions, in the strong interactions range, have been obtained for F, Mg and Na using a 600 MeV external proton beam. The results are compared with standard optical model calculations for pion-nucleus systems. (7 References).

M. C. Boehm and J. Schuett, "Peculiarities in the quantum statistics of pi electron systems," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 232, no. 1-2, pp. 106--14, 1997.

Abstract:The peculiarities in the quantum statistics of pi electron systems are analyzed by comparing pi energies derived for the conventional fermionic (fe) ensemble with so-called hard core bosonic (hcb) energies, hcb ensembles combine fermionic on-site and bosonic intersite properties. They obey the Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) but not the Pauli antisymmetry principle (PAP). In the present study we extend our previous theoretical findings evaluated for one-dimensional (1D) model structures to 2D arrangements realized in hydrocarbon pi molecules. Topological electronic ordering principles which have been derived for 1D order can be transferred to 2D networks. It is demonstrated that pi systems are destabilized with increasing deviations from the hcb boundary. In the annulene series this destabilization occurs in the 4n anti-Hueckel rings (n=1, 2, 3,...). The competition between quantum constraints (PEP, PAP) and the two-electron interaction of pi Hamiltonians on the energy of pi systems is discussed. Numerical results are given for the Pariser-Parr-Pople, Hubbard and Hueckel molecular orbital pi Hamiltonians. (20 References).

A. M. Boesgaard and G. Steigman, "Big ban nucleosynthesis: theories and observations," *Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, vol. 23, pp. 319--378, 1985.

A. Jr. Bogan, "Spectrum and asymmetry of direct neutrons from muon capture in calcium," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 71--6, 1969.

Abstract:The energy spectrum and asymmetry of neutrons emitted directly on the capture of polarized muons by /sup 40/Ca have been calculated in a simple nuclear shell model, taking account of terms proportional to the nucleon momentum. The energy spectrum is within the error brackets of recent experiments with the nucleon- momentum terms making a small contribution. The asymmetry coefficient is strongly affected by the inclusion of the momentum-dependent terms and is found to change sign and increase in magnitude with energy, in qualitative agreement with recent experiments. (29 References).

JR. Bogan, "Spectrum and asymmetry of high energy neutrons emitted in the absorption of polarized muons," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. B12, no. 1, pp. 89--109, 1969.

Abstract:The rate of production and the asymmetry of neutrons emitted directly with the capture of polarized muons have been expressed in terms of single-nucleon integrals. This expression takes account of momentum-dependent terms to first order in the muon capture Hamiltonian and is suitable for calculations involving general neutron wave functions. When plane waves in nuclear matter are assumed for the neutron wave function, the calculated intensities and asymmetries are in agreement with recent experiments on silicon, sulfur and calcium. The momentum-dependent terms strongly affect the asymmetry but not the intensity, whereas the nuclear model seems to affect the intensity but not the asymmetry. (29 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, V. E. Markushin, V. S. Melezhik, and L. I. Ponomarev, "Nuclear synthesis reaction in the muonic molecule dtµ," *JINR Preprint E4--80--819*, 1980.

L. N. Bogdanova, V. E. Markushin, L. I. Ponomarev, and VS. Melezhik, "Nuclear synthesis reaction in mesic molecule dt mu," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1191--206, 1981.

Abstract:The rate lambda /sub f//sup J nu / of synthesis reaction d+t to n+/sup 4/He from different states (J nu ) of dt mu molecule and the shifts Delta epsilon /sub J nu / of dt mu levels due to nuclear dt interaction are calculated. The wave functions of dt mu mesic molecule found in the adiabatic representation of the three-body problem and the generalized optical potential reproducing the dt scattering and reaction data are used. (36 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, V. E. Markushin, and VS. Melezhik, "Nuclear widths and shifts of the dt mu mesic molecule levels," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 829--41, 1981.

Abstract:The nuclear widths Gamma /sup Jv/ and shifts Delta E/sup Jv/ of the (Jv) levels of the dt mu mesic molecule due to resonant interaction between the d and t in the s wave are expressed in terms of the cross section for the d+t to n+/sup 4/He reaction. It is found that the effect of nuclear resonance /sup 5/He*(/sup 3///sub 2//sup +/) on the spectrum of the mesic molecular states is weak due to the small probability of the d and t being in the region of action of the nuclear forces in the dt mu mesic molecule and to the large inelastic resonance width. The values of the nuclear widths and shifts are the same as those calculated by using the generalized optical potential corresponding to the problem of coupled dt-n/sup 4/He channels. (16 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, V. E. Markushin, V. S. Melezhik, and LI. Ponomarev, "Lifetime of the mesic molecule dt mu," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 1615--22, 1982.

Abstract:A lifetime of tau approximately=10/sup -11/ sec is calculated for the mesic molecule dt mu produced resonantly in the excited rotational-vibrational state J= nu =1. (22 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, V. E. Markushin, V. S. Melezhik, and LI. Ponomarev, "The nuclear fusion in the muonic molecule dd mu and the charge symmetry violation in the low energy dd interaction," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 115B, no. 3, pp. 171--3, 1982.

Abstract:The rate lambda /sub f/=1.0*10/sup 9/ s/sup -1/ of the nuclear fusion in the dd mu molecule is calculated. It is shown that the ratio of the neutron to the proton yield equals the ratio of the p-wave cross sections of the d(d,n)/sup 3/He and d(d,p)t reactions near the dd threshold. (24 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, V. E. Markushin, V. S. Melezhik, L. I. Menshikov, and LI. Ponomarev, "Muon sticking to helium in the muon catalyzed fusion dd mu to mu /sup 3/He+n," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 161B, no. 1-3, pp. 1--4, 1985.

Abstract:The coefficient of muon sticking to helium in the nuclear fusion reaction dd mu to mu /sup 3/He+n from the states (Iv)=(11) and (Iv)=(10) of the mesic molecule dd mu is calculated: omega /sub s//sup 0/=0.133. The mesic molecule wave functions used include the non-adiabatic effects in the motion of the nuclei. With the shaking off of the muons taken into account the sticking probability omega /sub s/=0.12 is in good agreement with the experimental value omega /sub s/=0.126+or-0.004. (17 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, L. Bracci, G. Fiorentini, S. S. Gerstein, V. E. Markushin, V. S. Melezhik, L. I. Menshikov, and LI. Ponomarev, "The probability of muon sticking to helium in the muon-catalyzed fusion dt mu to mu -/sup 4/He+n," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A454, no. 3-4, pp. 653--68, 1986.

Abstract:In the sudden perturbation approximation, the probability of muon sticking to helium, omega /sub S//sup 0/, is found to equal 0.848*10/sup -2/ in the reaction dt mu to mu alpha +n. In calculations the authors use accurate wave functions of the mesic molecule dt mu obtained in the adiabatic representation of the three-body problem. Corrections to the sudden approximation do not exceed 3%. In view of a subsequent shaking-off of muons during deceleration of mu alpha , the resulting sticking probability omega /sub s/ equals 0.58*10/sup -2/. (29 References).

LN. Bogdanova, "Nuclear fusion in hydrogen isotope mesic molecules," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, no. 1-4, pp. 359--76, 1988.

Abstract:A review is given of theoretical studies of nuclear fusion in mesic molecules dt mu , dd mu , tt mu , pd mu , pt mu . Methods and results of calculations of fusion rates from various mesic molecular states and probabilities of reaction channels, including these with muon sticking to the charged reaction products are discussed. The contributions from various mesic molecular states to fusion are found with mesic molecular cascade processes included, and effective fusion rates are obtained. (49 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, YuA Kuperin, A. A. Kvitsinsky, V. E. Markushin, S. P. Merkuriev, and LI. Ponomarev, "Non-radiative fusion in pd mu mesic molecule," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, no. 1-4, pp. 377--87, 1988.

Abstract:Non-radiative capture of the proton by the deuteron in pf mu mesic molecule is considered. Three-body wave functions obtained in the modified Faddeev approach are used to describe both the bound state of /sup 3/He nucleus and the scattering one in the pd system. The rate of non-radiative fusion channel in pd mu mesic molecule is calculated. (25 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, V. E. Markushin, V. S. Melezhik, and LI. Ponomarev, "Effect of the nuclear interaction in the muonic molecule dt mu on the probability for the muon sticking to helium in the reaction dt mu to mu alpha +n," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1365--73, 1989.

Abstract:The effect of the nuclear interaction in the initial state of the reaction dt mu to mu alpha +n on the muonic molecule spectrum and wave function and on the probability for the muon sticking to the helium nucleus is studied. It is shown that these quantities change significantly only for a special choice of the interaction parameters for which rearrangement of the spectrum occurs. For realistic parameters of the nuclear dt interaction which reproduce the experimental data on the reaction d+t to n+ alpha and scattering d+t to d+t near threshold, the sticking probability omega /sub S/ for the J=0 state of the molecule dt mu differs insignificantly from the value omega /sub S//sup 0/ calculated for the purely Coulombic interaction, being only 3% larger. (30 References).

L. N. Bogdanova and VE. Markushin, "Nonradiative fusion in p mu t mesic molecule," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 103--7, 1989.

Abstract:The rates of muon conversion lambda /sub mu / and e/sup +/e/sup -/ pair production lambda /sub e-e-/ for the ground state of p mu t mesic molecule are calculated. (14 References).

L. Bogdanova and V. Markushin, "Nonradiative fusion in pt mu mesic molecule," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 508, no. , pp. 29c-34, 1990.

Abstract:The rates of muon conversion lambda /sub mu / and e/sup +/e/sup -/ pair production (e/sup +/e/sup -/) for the ground state of the pt mu mesic molecule are calculated. (13 References).

L. N. Bogdanova and VE. Markushin, "Nuclear fusion reactions in pd mu mesic molecules and kinetics of muon catalysis in hydrogen-deuterium mixtures," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 189--97, 1990.

Abstract:The kinetics of the muon catalyzed fusion in hydrogen-deuterium mixtures has been considered with hyperfine structure effects taken into account. The gamma-ray and muon yields from the reactions pd mu to mu /sup 3/He+ gamma , mu +/sup 3/He have been calculated as a function of the deuterium fraction with both doublet and quartet pd spin state contributions to the radiative fusion. A fair agreement with SIN/PSI experiments is obtained for the relative gamma yields, and a new interpretation of the Wolfenstein-Gerstein effect is given. The nonradiative fusion rate lambda /sub 1/2//sup mu /=(0.056+or-0.006)*10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/ is determined from old bubble chamber data on the absolute muon yield. (30 References).

LN. Bogdanova, "Muon catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) as a method for studying few nucleon systems," in *Few-Body Systems Supplementum*, pp. 314-25, 1991.

Abstract:The theoretical analysis of the methods to obtain information about the properties of few nucleon systems from the muon catalysis studies is presented. The kinetics of the mu CF processes in the hydrogen isotope mixture is considered and the observables in mu CF are related to the characteristics of the fusion reactions between hydrogen isotopes, e.g. the astrophysical S-factor in the E=0 limit. The kinetics of mu CF in HD mixture is discussed and the doublet and quartet pd spin state contributions to M1 pd radiative capture at rest is obtained from the analysis of gamma-ray yields in pd mu to mu /sup 3/He+ gamma reaction. The non-radiative fusion channel pd mu to mu +/sup 3/He is analyzed and the E0 transition matrix element is determined from the data on the absolute muon yields. The possibility to extract the M1 pd radiative capture constant and the E0 matrix element of /sup 4/He*(0+) excitation is explained. (46 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, G. M. Hale, and V. E. Markushin, "Muon catalysis and fusion reactions at low energies," *Los Alamos Preprint LA--UR--93--1883*, 1993.

L. .N Bogdanova, S. S. Gershtein, and L. I. Ponomarev, "Nuclear Fusion in d$\mu ^3$He mesic molecules," *PSI Preprint 97--33*, 1997.

L. N. Bogdanova, S. S. Gershtein, and LI. Ponomarev, "Nuclear fusion in the mesic molecule d mu /sup 3/He," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 89--94, 1998.

Abstract:A new scheme is presented for the physical processes leading to the nuclear fusion reaction d(/sup 3/He,/sup 4/He)p catalyzed by a negatively charged muon mu /sup -/. It is shown that the observable rate and yield of the nuclear reaction depend on a chain of ion-molecular reactions involving the participation of the d mu /sup 3/He molecule. New calculations of the nuclear fusion rates in the d mu /sup 3/He molecule are presented. (27 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, V. I. Korobov, and LI. Ponomarev, "Nuclear fusion rates from resonant states of /sup 3/Hed mu molecular ion," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, no. 1-4, pp. 183--6, 1999.

Abstract:We present new theoretical calculations of nuclear fusion rates lambda /sub f//sup J/ from the resonant states of the muonic molecular ion /sup 3/Hed mu /sup ++/ with total angular momenta J=0, 1. As a byproduct, new very accurate variational wave functions for these states have been obtained. Using these wave functions, the probability density | Psi (R=0)|/sup 2/ in a fusion region has been calculated by extrapolating the variational solution to small internuclear distances by means of the multi-channel adiabatic solution. Calculated fusion rates for the states J=0 and J=1 are: lambda /sub f//sup 0/=1.9.10/sup 5/ s/sup -1/ and lambda /sub f//sup 1/=0.65.10/sup 3/ s/sup -1/, respectively. (14 References).

L. N. Bogdanova and VV. Filchenkov, "Radiative and nonradiative fusion in muonic molecules," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 321--30, 2001.

Abstract:Considerable efforts in mu CF studies were aimed at observation of various fusion processes. The impact of these studies on the understanding of properties of the lightest nuclei, the dynamics of low-energy fusion reactions and the Coulomb three-body system structure are reviewed. Unsolved theoretical and experimental problems are summarized. (30 References).

L. N. Bogdanova and V. V. Filchenkov, "Radiative and non-radiative fusion in muonic molecules," *Hyperfine Interact.*, vol. 138, pp. 321-330, 2001.

Abstract:Considerable efforts in muCF studies (since [1]) were aimed at observation of various fusion processes. The impact of these studies on the understanding of properties of the lightest nuclei, the dynamics of low-energy fusion reactions and the Coulomb three-body system structure are reviewed. Unsolved theoretical and experimental problems are summarized.

L. N. Bogdanova, V. R. Bom, D. L. Demin, Eijk CWE van, V. V. Filchenkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, K. I. Gritsaj, A. D. Konin, A. V. Kuryakin, V. A. Nazarov, V. V. Perevozchikov, A. I. Rudenko, S. M. Sadetsky, YuI Vinogradov, A. A. Yukhimchuk, S. A. Yukhimchuk, V. G. Zinov, and SV. Zlatoustovskii, "Search for the radiative capture reaction d+d to /sup 4/He+ gamma from the dd mu muonic molecule state," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 1826--32, 2002.

Abstract:A search for the muon-catalyzed fusion (MCF) reaction d+d to /sup 4/He+ gamma in the dd mu muonic molecule was performed using the experimental MCF installation TRITON and NaI(Tl) detectors for gamma quanta. A high-pressure target filled with deuterium was exposed to the negative muon beam of the JINR phasotron to detect gamma quanta with an energy of 23.8 MeV. The first experimental estimation for the yield of radiative deuteron capture from the dd mu state J=1 was obtained at a level of eta /sub gamma /[left angle bracket]or=2*10/sup -5/ per one fusion. (19 References).

L. N. Bogdanova, G. M. Hale, and V. E. Markushin, "The analytical structure of the S--matrix for the coupled channel problem $d+t \leftrightarrow n+\alpha$ and the interpretation of the J$^{P} = 3/2^+$ resonance in $^5\!$ He," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5/6, pp. 233--240, 1990/91.

P. Bogorad, J. Behr, E. J. Brash, G. D. Cates, W. J. Cummings, A. Gorelov, M. D. Hasinoff, O. Hausser, K. Hicks, R. Holmes, J. C. Huang, K. S. Kumar, B. Larson, W. Lorentzon, J. McCracken, H. Middleton, P. Michaux, E. Saettler, D. Siegel, P. A. Souder, D. R. Swenson, D. Tupa, X. Wang, and A. Young, "Laser-polarized muonic /sup 3/He and a measurement of the induced pseudoscalar coupling," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 433-7, 1996.

Abstract:We describe the first measurement of the spin dependence of the reaction: mu /sup -/+/sup 3/He to /sup 3/H+ nu /sub mu /. This spin dependence is quite sensitive to the induced pseudoscalar form factor, F/sub p/, a piece of the weak charged nuclear current of /sup 3/He about which, experimentally, relatively little is known. The data are presently being analyzed and we plan to quote a number for F/sub p/ shortly. (9 References).

P. Bogorad, E. J. Brash, G. D. Cates, W. J. Cummings, A. Gorelov, M. D. Hasinoff, O. Hausser, K. Hicks, R. Holmes, J. C. Huang, D. Krieger, K. S. Kumar, B. Larson, W. Lorenzon, J. McCracken, P. Michaux, H. Middleton, E. Saettler, D. Siegel, P. A. Souder, D. R. Swenson, J. Thywissen, D. Tupa, J. Ullom, X. Wang, and AR. Young, "A combined polarized target/ionization chamber for measuring the spin dependence of nuclear muon capture in laser polarized muonic /sup 3/He," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors & Associated Equipment*, vol. 398, no. 2-3, pp. 211--23, 1997.

Abstract:We describe a device used in experiment 1231 at LAMPF and in e683 at TRIUMF to study the spin dependence of the reaction mu /sup -/+/sup 3/He to /sup 3/H+ nu /sub mu /. In order to study the spin dependence, we needed to form and polarize muonic /sup 3/He and in the same volume detect the 1.9 MeV tritons created in the reaction. Furthermore, the recoil direction of the tritons had to be determined. The apparatus served both as a polarized target and as a detector. The detector, a gridded ion chamber, was incorporated inside a 5 l polarized target that was filled with 8 atm of /sup 3/He and 100 Torr of N/sub 2/ and rubidium metal. At the operating temperature of the device (205-230 degrees C) the rubidium number density was approximately 10/sup 15/ atoms/cm/sup 3/. Muons that stopped in the target formed muonic helium atoms, which were then polarized by collisions with optically pumped Rb vapor. Two high-powered GaAlAs diode laser arrays were used to polarize the Rb in the 100 cm/sup 3/ fiducial volume located inside the ion chamber. The ion chamber produced clean signals from the reaction tritons despite having to operate under the extreme conditions required for efficient optical pumping. The direction of the tritons was determined by analyzing the shapes of the ionization pulses. The muon polarization was measured using the decay electron asymmetry. (38 References).

P. Boi, L. Bracci, G. Fiorentini, and P. Quarati, "On the significance of muon distribution between the fission fragments," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 132B, no. 1-3, pp. 39--43, 1983.

Abstract:The authors investigate the attachment probability of muons to the fission fragments of /sup 238/U. They find it is largely insensitive to the fission time, whereas it depends markedly on the final kinetic energy and mass asymmetry of the fragments. For the most likely configuration (A/sub L//A/sub H/=0.8 and E/sub kin/=165 MeV) they find the probability of attachment to the light fragment is P/sub L/ approximately=10%. (10 References).

V. R. Bom and VV. Filchenkov, "On the absolute efficiency of large neutron detectors for mu CF," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, no. 1-4, pp. 365--7, 1999.

Abstract:The absolute efficiency for a large organic scintillator neutron detector has been calculated via Monte Carlo simulation for neutrons of 14 MeV. The influence of the environmental geometry (source scattering, etc.) has been taken into account. Full differential cross-sections, including resonances, have been used. The calculated response function compares well with the measured one. (7 References).

V. R. Bom, J. N. Bradbury, J. D. Davies, A. M. Demin, D. L. Demin, A. E. Drebushko, V. P. Dzhelepov, Eijk CWE van, V. V. Filchenkov, A. N. Golubkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, S. K. Grishechkin, V. G. Klevtsov, A. D. Konin, A. A. Kukolkin, S. V. Medved, V. A. Nazarov, V. V. Perevozchikov, V. I. Pryanichnikov, VYa Rozhkov, A. I. Rudenko, S. M. Sadetsky, G. G. Semenchuk, V. T. Sidorov, YuV Smirenin, I. I. Sukhoi, N. I. Voropaev, A. A. Yukhimchuk, V. G. Zinov, and SV. Zlatoustovskii, "Temperature and density dependence of mu -catalysis cycling rate in dense D/T and H/D/T gas mixtures," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, no. 1-4, pp. 103--9, 1999.

Abstract:Muon catalyzed dt fusion in dense D/T and H/D/T gas mixtures of hydrogen isotopes is studied by the MCF collaboration at JINR. The measurements were carried out with a high pressure target at the JINR phasotron in the temperature range 300-800 K at mixture densities equivalent to 0.4 and equivalent to 0.8 LHD. Tentative experimental results obtained by several analysis methods are presented. (20 References).

V. R. Bom, J. N. Bradbury, J. D. Davies, A. M. Demin, D. L. Demin, Eijk CWE van, V. V. Filchenkov, A. N. Golubkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, S. K. Grishechkin, K. I. Gritsaj, V. G. Klevtsov, A. D. Konin, A. A. Kukolkin, S. V. Medved, V. A. Nazarov, V. V. Perevozchikov, A. N. Ponomarev, VYa Rozhkov, A. I. Rudenko, S. M. Sadetsky, YuV Smirenin, N. I. Voropaev, A. A. Yukhimchuk, S. A. Yukhimchuk, V. G. Zinov, and SV. Zlatoustovskiv, "Investigation of the parameters of muon-catalyzed fusion in double D/T mixture at high temperature and density," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 213--23, 2001.

Abstract:Experiments on the study of the muon catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) process in a double D/T mixture of hydrogen isotopes in the temperature range 300-800 K at densities 0.3-0.5 LHD are performed at the JINR phasotron. The values of the effective mu CF parameters (cycling rate lambda /sub c/, neutron yield Y/sub n/, muon losses omega ) are obtained. Tentative dt mu -molecule formation rates on D/sub 2/ and DT molecules ( lambda /sub dt mu -d/ and lambda /sub dt mu -t/) are obtained for different mixture temperatures and densities. The results obtained show that lambda dt mu -t increases with temperature, but its value is smaller than theoretical predictions. (18 References).

V. R. Bom, J. N. Bradbury, D. L. Demin, Eijk C. Van, V. V. Filchenkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, K. I. Gritsaj, A. D. Konin, A. V. Kuryakin, V. A. Nazarov, V. V. Perevozchikov, A. I. Rudenko, S. M. Sadetsky, YuA Vinogradov, A. A. Yukhimchuk, S. A. Yukhimchuk, and VG. Zinov, "Measurement of the temperature dependence of the dd mu -molecule formation rate in dense deuterium at temperatures 300-800 K," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 313--19, 2001.

Abstract:Muon catalyzed fusion in deuterium was studied by the MCF collaboration at the JINR phasotron. The measurements were carried out with a high-pressure deuterium target at the JINR phasotron in the temperature range 300-800 K at densities approximately= 0.5 LHD. The first experimental results for dd mu -molecule formation rate lambda /sub dd mu / in the temperature range 400-800 K with a deuterium density of 0.5 LHD are presented. (22 References).

V. R. Bom, D. L. Demin, Eijk CWE van, V. V. Filchenkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, K. I. Gritsaj, A. D. Konin, A. V. Kuryakin, V. A. Nazarov, V. V. Perevozchikov, A. I. Rudenko, S. M. Sadetskyd, Y. I. Vinogradov, A. A. Yukhimchuk, S. A. Yukhimchuk, V. G. Zinov, and SV. Ziatoustovskii, "Measurement of the temperature dependence of the dd mu molecule formation rate in dense deuterium at temperatures of 85-790 K," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 518--526, 2003.

Abstract:Muon catalyzed fusion (MCF) in deuterium was studied by the MCF collaboration on the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Phasotron. The measurements were carried out with a high-pressure deuterium target in the temperature range 85-790 K at densities of about 0.5 and 0.8 of the liquid hydrogen density. The first experimental results for the dd mu molecule formation rate lambda /sub dd mu / in the temperature range 400-790 K with a deuterium density of about 0.5 of the liquid hydrogen density are presented. (30 References).

D. K. Bondi, JNL Connor, J. Manz, and J. Romelt, "Exact quantum and vibrationally adiabatic quantum, semiclassical and quasiclassical study of the collinear reactions Cl+MuCl, Cl+HCl, Cl+DCl," *Molecular Physics*, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 467--88, 1983.

Abstract:Accurate quantum calculations of reaction probabilities have been carried out using Delves' polar coordinates for the collinear reactions Cl+XCl(v) to ClX(v')+Cl(X=Mu, H, D). An extended London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface with a linear symmetric barrier height of 35.77 kJ mol./sup -1/ has been used in the calculations. The diagonal v to v reaction probabilities dominate over the off-diagonal v to v' not=v reaction probabilities and show sinusoidal oscillations as a function of energy. Superimposed on these oscillations for X=H, D is a spectrum of narrow resonances. The positions of the resonances can be predicted very accurately from the solution of a vibrationally adiabatic (VA) single channel Schrodinger equation provided the diagonal corrections to the VA potential are also included. The sinusoidal oscillations are analysed using VA semiclassical and quasiclassical theories. There is good agreement between the quantum, semiclassical and quasiclassical results at low energies, but differences appear at high energies where the VA assumption starts to break down. The VA approximation is more accurate the lighter the mass of the central atom, that is, its validity increases in the order D[left angle bracket]H[left angle bracket]Mu. (84 References).

D. K. Bondi, JNL Connor, B. C. Garrett, and DG. Truhlar, "Test of variational transition state theory with a large-curvature tunneling approximation against accurate quantal reaction probabilities and rate coefficients for three collinear reactions with large reaction-path curvature: Cl+HCl, Cl+DCl, and Cl+MuCl," *Journal of Chemical Physics*, vol. 78, no. 10, pp. 5981--9, 1983.

Abstract:The large-curvature ground-state model for the transmission coefficient of generalized transition state theory (presented in a previous paper by B.C. Garrett, D.G. Truhlar, A.F. Wagner, and T.H. Dunning, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 4400 (1983)) is tested against accurate quantal calculations of the rate coefficients for collinear reactions with very large inertial effects, namely Cl+HCl to ClH+Cl, Cl+DCl to ClD+Cl, and Cl+MuCl to ClMu+Cl. The tests cover the temperature range 200-2400K. The accurate rate calculations are based on reaction probabilities obtained by a new numerical method for solving Schrodinger's equation in Delves' coordinates. Improved canonical variational transition state theory predicts rate coefficients 5.0-18 times smaller than those predicted by conventional transition state theory for the H transfer; for the D transfer, the ratio is 2.0-3.4; and for Mu it is 22-2.8*10/sup 7/. The large-curvature model predicts transmission coefficients as large as 41, 8, and 206 for the H, D, and Mu-transfer cases at 200K, decreasing to 1.2, 1.1, and 1.4 at 2400K. Despite the large effect of variationally optimizing the transition state location and the large size of the tunneling effect and the wide variation of both effects with temperature, improved canonical variational transition state theory with large-curvature ground-state transmission coefficients (ICVT/LCG) is accurate within a factor of 1.7 over a temperature range of a factor of 8, 300-2400K, for all three reactions. At 200K, the ICVT/LCG model underestimates the rate coefficients, by factors of 2.3, 1.9, and 1.5 for H, D, and Mu, respectively. (24 References).

G. L. Borchert, H. Gorke, D. Gotta, S. Lenz, T. Siems, D. F. Anagnostopoulos, M. Augsburger, D. Chatellard, J. P. Egger, D. Belmiloud, P. El-Khoury, P. Indelicato, M. Daum, P. Hauser, K. Kirch, and LM. Simons, "High precision spectroscopy of pionic and muonic X-rays to extract an upper limit for the muon-neutrino mass," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. 29, no. 1-2, pp. 131--40, 1998.

Abstract:A new experiment for a high precision measurement of the pion mass is presented. It combines the cyclotron trap to produce pionic atoms in a small volume, with a doubly focussing crystal spectrometer to measure pionic and muonic X-ray transitions with high accuracy. The muonic X-rays will serve as new high precision standards. The first test experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the project. It yielded a preliminary value for the pion mass of (139570.71+or-0.53) keV/c/sup 2/. In combination with a recent muon momentum result a new value for the muon neutrino mass was obtained: M/sub nu mu //sup 2/=(0.02898+or-0.03267)MeV/sup 2//c/sup 4/. With some improvements which are being prepared, the next measurement can be expected to yield an accuracy of better than 1 ppm for the pion mass and hence a limit smaller than 70 keV/c/sup 2/ for the neutrino mass. (22 References).

G. L. Borchert, D. Anagnostopoulos, M. Augsburger, D. Belmiloud, C. Castelli, D. Chatellard, M. Daum, J. P. Egger, P. El-Khoury, M. Elble, R. Frosch, H. Gorke, D. Gotta, P. Hauser, P. Indelicato, K. Kirch, S. Lenz, N. Nelms, K. Rashid, O. W. B. Schult, T. Siems, and L. M. Simons, "High precision X-ray spectroscopy in hydrogen-like fermionic and bosonic atomic systems," *Hyperfine Interact.*, vol. 114, pp. 157-164, 1998.

Abstract:Some time after its formation an exotic atom may be considered a hydrogen-like system consisting of a nucleus and an exotic particle in a bound state. In this situation it is an ideal tool to study cascade properties, while for the innermost orbits it can be used to probe the interaction with the nucleus. From an extended series of experiments using high resolution X-ray spectroscopy for both aspects typical examples are reported and preliminary results are given: 1. To determine the complex scattering length in (p) over bar H the 3D --> 2P hyperfine transitions have been measured. 2. To determine the pion mass the 5 --> 4 transitions in pi(14)N have been studied. In all cases a major contribution to the uncertainty originates from the calibration. Therefore a new method is proposed that will establish a universal set of high precision calibration lines for pionic, muonic and electronic systems.

G. L. Borchert, B. Manil, D. Anagnostopoulos, J. P. Egger, D. Gotta, M. Hennebach, P. Indelicato, Y. W. Liu, N. Nelms, and LM. Simons, "Precision measurement of the charged pion mass by high resolution X-ray spectroscopy," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 132, no. 1-4, pp. 195--207, 2001.

Abstract:A new experiment for a high-precision measurement of the pion mass at a 1 ppm level is presented. It combines an improved cyclotron trap that produces pionic and muonic atoms in a small volume with a doubly focusing crystal spectrometer to measure the corresponding exotic X-ray transitions with high accuracy and a novel type of CCD detector. The muonic X-ray lines serve as highly accurate calibration lines. The measurement has been accomplished recently. A detailed analysis of the data is on the way. (27 References).

E. Borchi and Gennaro S. De, "Migdal's quasiparticle model and radiative muon capture in Ca/sup 40/," *Physical Review C*, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1012--19, 1970.

Abstract:The authors evaluate the radiative photon spectrum and the branching ratio R of radiative-to-ordinary muon capture rate in Ca/sup 40/, taking into account the nucleon-nucleon residual interaction by means of Migdal's quasiparticle model. The most important effect of the residual interaction is to reduce both the ordinary and radiative rate about 40% lower than that obtained in the closure- harmonic-oscillator model. This result differs from that obtained by Fearing using the giant-dipole-resonance model, while it confirms the prediction of Rood and Tolhoek (RT) that the branching ratio R would be nearly independent of the nuclear model. The authors also evaluate the circular polarization of the photons, P/sub gamma /. They find that their values of P/sub gamma / are greater than the RT values by about 15% in the high-energy range. In the low-energy range, their values of P/sub gamma / are in close agreement with those of RT. For the maximum energy of the photon spectrum, they obtain the average value k/sub max/=90.5 MeV, which is very close to the RT value. Comparing their results with the experimental data of Conversi, Diebold, and Di Lella, they find that their calculation requires g/sub P/=(12.4+or-2.8)g/sub A/ to fit the experimental values, where g/sub P/ is the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant and g/sub A/ the axial-vector coupling constant. Finally, they think that the disagreement between their result and the more currently accepted value of g/sub P/ is not so great as to call into question the theoretical mechanism of the radiative capture, if one takes into account the large experimental uncertainties.

J. Bordes, Hong-Mo Chan, R. Gallego, and Cheung Tsun. Tsou, "Coherent muon-electron conversion in the dualized standard model," *Physical Review D*, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 077702/1-4, 2000.

Abstract:Muon-electron conversion in nuclei is considered in the framework of the dualized standard model. The ratio B/sub mu -e/ of the conversion rate to the total muon capture rate is derived and computed for several nuclei in a parameter-free calculation using parameters previously determined in other physical contexts. The values obtained all lie within the present experimental bounds, but some are so close as to seem readily accessible to experiments already being planned. (22 References).

V. F. Boreiko, V. M. Bystritsky, V. I. Datskov, A. N. Fedorov, V. N. Pavlov, V. A. Stolupin, Rosso A. del, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, F. Mulhauser, and LA. Rivkis, "New target cryostat for experiments with negative muons,"

Abstract:An experimental setup, including a cryostat with temperature control and gas supply systems has been developed to study muon catalyzed fusion in mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes. The target body is made of aluminum with five Kapton windows 55-135 mu m thick. The working temperature range of the target is 21-300 K, and the pressure is 0-10 atm. The coolant is either liquid helium or liquid nitrogen, according to the experimental conditions. The average consumption of liquid helium at a target temperature of 32 K is 0.6 l/h, providing a 0.45 W cooling power. The temperature control system ensures an accuracy of +or-0.05 K in the temperature range 21-70 K. Hydrogen isotopes are purified by molecular sieves (CaA), and helium isotopes by the intermetallic compound ZrCrFe. (22 References).

E. Borie, "Lamb shift in light muonic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 275, no. 4, pp. 347--9, 1975.

Abstract:The QED contributions to the 2s-2p/sub 3/2/ splitting in muonic /sup 4/He are recalculated with the aim of providing a check on previous theoretical calculations, and clarifying a possible small discrepancy in the comparison between theory and experiment (no significant discrepancy is found in the present work). Numerical results for other light nuclei are presented. (15 References).

E. Borie, "On higher order radiative corrections in muonic atoms," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 48, no. 5-6, pp. 671--4, 1976.

Abstract:Radiative corrections of order alpha /sup 2/(Z alpha ) corresponding to the fourth order Lamb shift for muonic atoms are calculated. Numerical results are presented for the 1s, 2s, and 2p states of Nd and Hg. All contributions other than the well-known contribution due to fourth order electron vacuum polarization are too small to be experimentally important. (17 References).

E. Borie, "Hyperfine structure of light exotic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 278, no. 2, pp. 127--31, 1976.

Abstract:Recoil corrections to the hyperfine structure of light exotic atoms, including the effect of the anomalous magnetic moment are calculated for light muonic and baryonic atoms. In the case of muonic atoms, the effects of recoil and finite nuclear size are significant in view of the presently attainable experimental precision. (24 References).

E. Borie, "Virtual Delbruck contribution to the energy levels of muonic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A267, no. 3, pp. 485--92, 1976.

Abstract:The contribution of the alpha /sup 2/(Z alpha )/sup 2/ vacuum polarization correction to the energy levels is calculated by standard graphical techniques. The resulting energy shifts are negative (increased binding) and too small to be experimentally important. (30 References).

E. Borie and GA. Rinker, "Improved calculation of the muonic-helium Lamb shift," *Physical Review A*, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 324--7, 1978.

Abstract:Several small, previously uncalculated contributions to the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ splitting S/sub 1/ in muonic /sup 4/He are calculated, and previously calculated contributions are verified. The improved theoretical result is 1817.5+or-0.6+0.4(r/sup 2/)/sup 1/2/-106.2(r/sup 2/)+1.4(r/sup 2/)/sup 3/2/ approximately=1527.3-102.6(r/sup 2/)-2.80) meV, where (r/sup 2/) is the mean-square charge radius of /sup 4/He in fm/sup 2/. Using the most recent value of the rms charge radius the authors get S/sub 1th/=1527.1+or-4.2 meV, in excellent agreement with the experimental result S/sub 1exp/=1527.5+or-0.3 meV. (21 References).

E. Borie, "On the hyperfine structure of neutral muonic helium," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 291, no. 2, pp. 107--12, 1979.

Abstract:The ground state hyperfine splitting of the neutral muonic helium atom has been (re)calculated to be equal to 4493.3 Mhz. (14 References).

E. Borie and GA. Rinker, "Calculation of the 3p-3d transitions in muonic helium," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 296, no. 2, pp. 111--12, 1980.

Abstract:The energy splittings of the 3p and 3d states of muonic helium have been calculated. The theoretically predicted transition energies should be useful in connection with a proposed laser resonance experiment. (15 References).

E. Borie, "Lamb shift in muonic /sup 3/He," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 297, no. 1, pp. 17--18, 1980.

Abstract:Results of an improved calculation of the 2p-2s splittings in muonic /sup 3/He, including new results for higher order radiative and recoil corrections are presented. The relevance to a proposed precision measurement is discussed. (9 References).

E. Borie and M. Leon, "X-ray yields in protonium and mesic hydrogen," *Physical Review A*, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1460--8, 1980.

Abstract:Recent experimental investigations of atomic X-rays in protonium have revived interest in the atomic cascade process. Following a calculation of Leon and Bethe, which includes chemical and Auger deexcitation, Stark mixing and annihilation, as well as radiative transitions, the authors investigate the dependence of the yields of K and L X-rays on the target density, and on the hadronic shifts and widths of the 1s and 2p levels. Numerical results are also given for kaonic, pionic, and muonic hydrogen. (22 References).

E. Borie, "Hadronic vacuum polarization correction in muonic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 302, no. 3, pp. 187--9, 1981.

Abstract:The contribution of hadronic vacuum to the energy levels of muonic atoms is reevaluated using an improved parametrization of the total cross section for e/sup +/e/sup -/ to hadrons. The numerical results can be simply related to the correction due to muonic vacuum polarization. (8 References).

E. Borie, "More nuclear size corrections to the Lamb shift," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 568--71, 1981.

Abstract:An evaluation of previously uncalculated finite size effects on the Lamb shift of normal atoms, with use of methods which are well known from muonic atoms, gives corrections which are larger than the experimental uncertainties (40 ppm for the Lamb shift in hydrogen). The additional corrections tend to restore agreement between theory and experiment. (27 References).

E. Borie and GA. Rinker, "The energy levels of muonic atoms," *Reviews of Modern Physics*, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 67--118, 1982.

Abstract:The theory of muonic atoms is a complex and highly developed combination of nuclear physics, atomic physics, and quantum electrodynamics. Perhaps nowhere else in microscopic physics are such diverse branches so intimately intertwined and yet readily available for precise experimental verification or rejection. In the present review the authors summarize and discuss all of the most important components of muonic atom theory, and show in selected cases how this theory meets experimental measurements. (257 References).

L. A. Borisoglebsky and EE. Trofimenko, "The nuclear size correction to the energy levels of the light hydrogen-like and muonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 81B, no. 2, pp. 175--7, 1979.

Abstract:A closed form expression for the nuclear size correction to the energy of the S states of the light hydrogen-like and muonic atoms is obtained in the second- and third-order perturbation theory. (6 References).

F. Borkowski, G. G. Simon, V. H. Walther, and R. D. Wendling, "On the determination of the proton RMS--radius from electron scattering data," *Zeitschrift Für Physik A*, vol. 275, pp. 29--31, 1975.

H. Bossy, H. Daniel, Egidy T. von, F. J. Hartmann, W. Neumann, G. Schmidt, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Nagele, J. Zmeskal, and C. Petitjean, "Measurement of the muonic HeK/sub alpha / X-ray yield in the mu -induced DD fusion," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, pp. 201-6, 1984.

Abstract:In the d mu d fusion process the muon can be released and catalyse a further fusion. If the muon sticks to the recoil nucleus /sup 3/He and ends in an excited state of mu He, then the fusion process is followed by the emission of a muonic He X-ray. The authors have measured the mu He K/sub alpha / line from a liquid deuterium target by means of a Si(Li) detector. The X-rays were detected in coincidence with the incoming muon, the fusion neutron and the mu decay electron, with the time delays registered. The experimental mu He K/sub alpha / X-ray yield per fusion will be presented. The experiment was performed at the mu E4 area of SIN. (0 References).

H. Bossy and others, "Measurements of X--Ray and $\gamma$--ray intensities following the fusions of dµd and pµd," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 55, pp. 1870--1873, 1985.

H. Bossy, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, W. Neumann, H. S. Plendl, G. Schmidt, Egidy T. von, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Nagele, A. Scrinzi, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, and C. Petitjean, "Determination of muonic helium X-ray yields after muon-catalyzed pd, dd, and dt fusion," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 59, no. 25, pp. 2864--7, 1987.

Abstract:X-ray yields of the muonic helium (2-1) transition from mu -catalyzed fusion have been measured for the time in various mixtures of hydrogen isotopes. They were determined to be 0.032(4), 0.016(2), and 0.0019(5) for pd, dd, and dt fusion, respectively. (18 References).

H. Bossy, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, W. Neumann, H. Plendl, G. Schmidt, Egidy T. Von, W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Nagele, A. Scrinzi, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, and C. Petitjean, "Measurement of muonic X-rays after muon catalyzed fusion of DT, PD, and DD," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 1, no. 1-4, pp. 115--20, 1987.

Abstract:In the first experiment of this kind, intensities of muonic X-rays after muon-catalyzed fusion have been measured. Liquid targets of deuterium with 0.04% of tritium, protium with 0.5% of deuterium, and pure deuterium were used. The yield per fusion of the muonic He(2-1) line was found to be (0.25+or-0.05)% for the DT mixture, (2.9+or-0.3)% for the PD mixture, and (1.6+or-0.4)% for pure deuterium (preliminary values). From the DT value, a final sticking probability of around 0.5% may be deduced. (24 References).

H. Bossy, "mu CF sticking: history and recent developments," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 303--13, 1990.

Abstract:A brief history of muon-catalyzed fusion sticking is presented, as well as a discussion of the most recent theoretical and experimental developments. (58 References).

F. J. Botella and J. Bernabeu, "The induced pseudoscalar coupling and the neutrino helicity from /sup 12/C( mu , nu /sub mu /)/sup 12/B," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 114B, no. 2-3, pp. 208--10, 1982.

Abstract:Recent measurements by Roesch et al. (1981) of recoil polarizations in /sup 12/C( mu , nu /sub mu /)/sup 12/B (g.s.) are analyzed when the sign of the helicity h/sub nu / of the emitted neutrino is allowed to change. Although the analysis of observables in terms of a ratio of two amplitudes remains the same, the dynamical information on couplings contained in this ratio is different. The authors conclude, from the experimental results, that the nuclear pseudoscalar coupling is f/sub p/=-1.02 if h/sub nu /=-1, whereas f/sub p/=+2.79 if h/sub nu /=+1. (8 References).

F. J. Botella and J. Bernabeu, "Muon capture beyond V-A currents," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A414, no. 3, pp. 456--64, 1984.

Abstract:The authors show the relevance of muon capture in analyzing the structure of weak charged currents. The study is made using rotational invariance and the reality condition imposed by time-reversal invariance, without a definite neutrino helicity, as the only inputs. The longitudinal and transverse polarizations of the outgoing neutrino are connected to measurable observables. All magnitudes are related to four independent observables, chosen as the capture rate Gamma , the average polarization P/sup N/, the longitudinal polarization P/sub L//sup N/ and the asymmetry alpha in the angular distribution of recoils. (15 References).

FJ. Botella, "Muon capture in a general class of weak models," *Physical Review D*, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1760--4, 1985.

Abstract:The author studies muon capture by /sup 12/C in a general class of weak models. There is always a parameter characteristic of the weak model that can be extracted in a nuclear-model-independent way from the average polarization P/sub av/, the longitudinal polarization P/sub L//sup N/ and the asymmetry alpha in the angular distribution of recoils. For a less general class of models the asymmetry alpha is unnecessary. Using the experimental values of P/sub L//sup N/ and P/sub av/ a lower bound is obtained for the mass of the right-handed gauge boson of the left-right-symmetric model, M(W/sub R/)[right angle bracket]or=2.5M(W/sub L/), in a nuclear-model-independent way. The dependence of this bound in the experimental values is also discussed. (18 References).

F. J. Botella and J. Bernabeu, "(V+A) components from the measured observables in muon capture," *Physical Review D*, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1755--9, 1985.

Abstract:The authors use the data on the average polarization and the longitudinal polarization of recoil in the process /sup 12/C( mu /sup -/, nu /sub mu /)/sup 12/B to extract independent values for leptonic (V+A) currents and induced pseudoscalar hadronic coupling. Present results give mod xi mod [left angle bracket]0.25 for the mixing parameter of the left-right-symmetric model whereas f/sub P/ is consistent with PCAC (partial conservation of axial-vector current). The interest of better precision in the longitudinal polarization, as well as the measurement of the asymmetry in the angular distribution, is discussed. (13 References).

A. Bottino, G. Ciocchetti, and CW. Kim, "0/sup -/ to or from 0/sup +/ beta decay and muon capture in the A=16 nuclei," *Physical Review C*, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1120--3, 1977.

Abstract:The processes mu /sup -/+/sup 16/O(0/sup +/) to /sup 16/N*(0/sup -/)+ nu /sub mu / and /sup 16/N(0/sup -/) to /sup 16/O(0/sup +/)+e/sup +/+ nu /sub e/, are analysed in the elementary particle treatment to minimise uncertainties from used of the impulse approximation. Calculated ratios of the rates agree with the impulse approximation values of Donnelly and Walecka (1975), and their consistency with experiment shows no need for the large increase in the nucleon form factor, g/sub p/, suggested by Palffy et al. (1975). A small downward renormalization of g/sub p/, as suggested recently, would improve agreement with experiment. (18 References).

M. Boucher, O. Huot, P. E. Knowles, L. Ludhova, F. Mulhauser, L. A. Schaller, C. A. N. Conde, J. M. F. Dos Santos, L. M. P. Fernandes, J. F. C. A. Veloso, F. Kottmann, A. Antognini, R. Pohl, and D. Taqqu, "Large area APDs for low energy X-ray detection in intense magnetic fields," *Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip.*, vol. 505, pp. 136-139, 2003.

Abstract:An experiment to measure the energy difference between the 2S2P atomic levels (Lamb shift) in muonic hydrogen is being prepared at PSI. Since the energy levels of muonic hydrogen are a factor of 186 more energetic than those of hydrogen, according to the ratio of reduced masses, the transitions lie in the soft X-ray region. The experiment needs long-lived muonic hydrogen in the 2S state. This is achieved by stopping a low energy muon beam in a small volume of low pressure hydrogen in a 5 T magnetic field. A pulsed beam from a tunable laser induces the 2S-2P transition and the 1.9 keV X-ray photons resulting from the 2P-1S deexcitation will be detected. Measuring the coincidences between the laser pulse and the X- ray as a function of the laser wavelength allows us to determine the Lamb shift. In this presentation we will discuss the perspectives of using large area avalanche photodiodes for the direct detection of the Xrays. Compared to gaseous detectors, they are more compact and simpler in operation. They are also insensitive to magnetic fields. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

R. Bouclier, M. Capeáns, C. Garabatos, F. Sauli, and K. Silander, "Effects of outgassing from some materials on gas chamber aging," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods A*, vol. 350, pp. 464--469, 1994.

A. Boughrara, H. Beaumevieille, and S. Ouichaoui, "Branching ratios and screening effect in the d+d nuclear interaction," *Europhysics Letters*, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 264--8, 1999.

Abstract:Using the WKB approximation for the evaluation of penetrabilities at stellar energies, the D(d,p)T and D(d,n)/sup 3/He total cross-sections are analysed in the energy range 0-100 keV (c.m.). The s and p wave contributions are extracted in each of these reactions. The branching ratios calculated from this partial wave decomposition are in good agreement with the experimental values deduced from muon catalyzed fusion and with those calculated from R-matrix theory. The screening effect is studied and the U/sub 0/ electron screening potential discussed. (14 References).

A. Boukour, R. N. Hewitt, and C. LeclercqWillain, "Close-coupling calculations of mu(-) transfer in t+d mu(-) collisions," *J. Phys. B-At. Mol. Opt. Phys.*, vol. 29, pp. 4309-4317, 1996.

Abstract:We present calculations of the cross sections for muon transfer in t + d mu(-) collisions within the framework of the quantal close-coupling approximation. The total internal wavefunction of the system is expanded in terms of atomic orbitals on each atomic centre. The appropriate Jacobi coordinates are used in the direct and rearrangement channels. A pseudostate representation of the continuum is also employed. The t-matrix elements are obtained from the solution of coupled Lippmann- Schwinger equations using the momentum space formulation. For the isotopic exchange calculations the basis consists of a large number of s and p type atomic states symmetrically distributed between direct and rearrangement channels. The present results are in agreement with existing calculations in the case of elastic scattering for collision energies above about 0.001 eV. In the case of the rearrangement process the agreement is satisfactory for collision energies greater than 10 eV.

A. Boukour, R. N. Hewitt, and C. LeclercqWillain, "The Coulomb capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms in the non-adiabatic close-coupling approximation," *Hyperfine Interact.*, vol. 102, pp. 263-269, 1996.

Abstract:We present some results obtained within the non-adiabatic close-coupling approximation for Coulomb capture during collisions of slow negative muons with hydrogen atoms, The calculations are performed in momentum-space and a statistical distribution analysis is used to obtain the final cross sections. The present model results are in harmony with existing calculations. We conclude that further calculations within the present approach are justified.

A. Boukour, C. Leclercq-Willain, and VS. Melezhik, "Low-energy scattering of muonic hydrogen on hydrogen molecules: a semi-classical approach," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 125-32, 1996.

Abstract:The cross-sections for low-energy scattering of muonic hydrogen on hydrogen molecules are calculated in a semi-classical approach. The molecular binding is described with the {"}mass-tensor approach{"} and the electronic screening corrections are calculated in the Glauber approximation. This rather simple computational scheme is applied to the scattering D mu +H/sub 2/ and p mu +D/sub 2/. The results obtained are in good agreement with the values reported by Adamczak et al. (6 References).

A. Boukour, Ch Leclercq-Willain, and VS. Melezhik, "Low-energy scattering of muonic hydrogen on hydrogen molecules: a semiclassical approach," *Physical Review A*, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 3314--23, 1996.

Abstract:The cross sections for low-energy scattering of muonic hydrogen on hydrogen molecules are calculated in a semiclassical approach. The molecular binding is described with the {"}mass-tensor approach{"} and the electronic screening corrections are calculated in the Glauber approximation. This rather simple computational scheme is applied to the scattering of d mu on H/sub 2/ and T/sub 2/ and to the scattering of p mu and t mu on D/sub 2/. The results obtained are compared to the values reported by Adamczak et al. [Muon Catalyzed Fusion 7, 309 (1992)]. (22 References).

A. Boukour and Chiyu. Hu, "Applications of the modified Faddeev equations: t+d mu /sup /," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, no. 1-4, pp. 161--4, 1999.

Abstract:We present calculations of the cross-sections for elastic as well as for muon transfer in t+d mu /sup -/ collisions below the t mu /sup -/ (n=2) threshold. The appropriate mass-scaled Jacobi coordinates are used in the direct and rearrangement channels. The K-matrix elements are obtained from the solution of multichannel Faddeev equations in the configuration space formulation. A bipolar expansion and spline representation are used in the numerical solution of the modified Faddeev equations. (7 References).

A. Boukour, V. S. Melezhik, and Ch. Leclercq-William, "Rotational excitations of hydrogen molecules by slow muonic atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 323--9, 1999.

Abstract:A computational scheme based on the infinite-order sudden approximation (IOS) is proposed for treating molecular and screening effects in muonic atoms scattering at low energies. With this scheme the differential cross sections (d sigma /d Omega )( epsilon ,j from 0| theta ) and the total cross sections sigma /sub tot/ ( epsilon ) for the scattering of the muonic atoms on molecules of hydrogen isotopes are calculated at energies epsilon /sub rot/=h(cross) omega /sub I/[left angle bracket]or= epsilon [left angle bracket]or= epsilon /sub vib/=h(cross) omega /sub nu /. The IOS permits a quantitative analysis of the dependence of the differential cross sections on the scattering angle and on the rotational excitations, particularly of the rotational rainbow effects. An attractive feature of this approach is that the energy and angular dependencies are included in the {"}input{"} cross sections for the scattering of the muonic atom on the bare nuclei of the molecule. (21 References).

A. Boukour, V. S. Melezhik, and C. Leclercq-Willain, "Rotational excitations in muonic atom scattering by molecular hydrogen," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, no. 1-4, pp. 153--9, 1999.

Abstract:A computational scheme based on the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) is proposed for treating molecular and screening effects in muonic atom scattering at low energies. With this scheme the differential (d sigma /d Omega )( epsilon ,j from 0 | theta ) and the total sigma /sub tot/( epsilon ) cross-sections of muonic atoms scattering on molecules of hydrogen isotopes are calculated at energies epsilon /sub rot/=h(cross) omega /sub I/[left angle bracket]or= epsilon [left angle bracket]or= epsilon /sub vib/=h(cross) omega /sub nu /. The IOS permits a quantitative analysis of the dependence of the differential cross-sections on the scattering angle and on the rotational excitations, particularly the rotational rainbow effects. An attractive feature of this approach is also to include the energy and the angular dependencies in the {"}input{"} cross-sections describing the muonic atom scattering on each bare nucleus of the molecule. The calculated total cross-sections sigma /sub tot/( epsilon ) are in agreement with the data obtained earlier with the pseudopotential approach. (6 References).

S. Bourzeix and others, "High resolution spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom: Determination of the 1S Lamb shift," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 76, pp. 384--387, 1996.

A. Boussy, H. Ngo, and Mau N. Vinh, "Neutron emission in muon capture by /sup 40/Ca," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 44B, no. 2, pp. 139--42, 1973.

Abstract:The neutron spectrum and asymmetry have been calculated for /sup 40/Ca with different wave functions for the bound proton and the emitted neutron. The asymmetry is shown to be very sensitive to the behaviour of the wave functions near the nuclear surface while the spectrum is mostly sensitive to the strength of the real part of the neutron optical potential. (15 References).

A. Bouyssy and Mau N. Vinh, "Spectrum and asymmetry of neutrons emitted emitted after polarized muon capture by /sup 16/Q and /sup 40/Ca," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. a185, no. 1, pp. 32--48, 1972.

Abstract:The emitted neutron intensity and asymmetry are calculated taking account of first-order momentum-dependent terms with pure shell-model and multi-hole-multi-particle configuration mixing nuclear wave functions. The final-state interaction between the residual nucleus and the emitted neutron is taken into account by means of an optical potential with surface and volume absorption. The calculated intensity and asymmetry are for /sup 40/Ca, in agreement with measurements; because of the final-state interaction, large asymmetries are obtained for 25-30 MeV neutron energies. Second class currents, if they exist, would also affect the asymmetry and the intensity. (23 References).

A. Bouyssy and Mau N. Vinh, "Longitudinal polarization of the emitted neutron in direct muon capture," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 48B, no. 2, pp. 162--4, 1974.

Abstract:The neutron longitudinal polarization has been calculated for /sup 40/Ca using different wave functions for the bound proton and the emitted neutron. It is shown to be more sensitive to the final state interaction than to the details of the nuclear density. (8 References).

E. Bovet, F. Boehm, R. J. Powers, P. Vogel, K-C Wang, and R. Kunselman, "Electron screening and inner shell refilling in pionic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 92B, no. 1-2, pp. 87--90, 1980.

Abstract:Using a bent crystal spectrometer and a Ge detector, the authors have determined the energies of five pionic transitions possessing sizable electron screening corrections. In three of the cases studied, depletion of the inner-electron shells through Auger processes in preceding cascades is known to occur and these shells may be highly ionized when the pionic X-ray is emitted. In the other two cases studied, no depletion of the 1s electron shell is expected. The findings for all transitions agree well with the calculated screening correction assuming full electron shells. They conclude that for medium and heavy pionic atoms electronic refilling takes place prior to emission of observable pionic X-rays. (10 References).

E. Bovet, L. Antonuk, J-P Egger, G. Fiorucci, K. Gabathuler, and J. Gimlett, "A new determination of the pi /sup -/H and pi /sup -/D 2P-1S strong interaction shifts using crystal diffraction," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 153B, no. 4-5, pp. 231--4, 1985.

Abstract:The 2P-1S X-ray transition energy in pionic hydrogen ( pi /sup -/H) and pionic deuterium ( pi /sup -/D) has been measured using a curved graphite crystal spectrometer: E/sub 2P-1S/( pi /sup -/H)=2434.5+or-0.4 (stat)+or-0.3 (syst) eV, E/sub 2P-1S/( pi /sup -/D)=2592.1+or-0.8 (stat)+or-0.5 (syst) eV. The deduced strong interaction shifts Delta E( pi /sup -/H)=-4.9+or-0.4 (stat)+or-0.3 (syst) eV, Delta E( pi /sup -/D)=+5.5+or-0.8 (stat)+or-0.5 (syst) eV, corresponding to the S-wave scattering lengths Rea/sub pi -p//sup 0/=+0.084+or-0.009 fm, Rea/sub pi -d//sup 0/=-0.083+or-0.014 fm, are compared with recent calculations. The X-ray yield is found to be 0.04+or-0.02 2P-1S X-rays per stopped pi /sup -/ in saturated hydrogen vapour of 3 atm pressure. (13 References).

M. S. Bowers, B. H. Choi, and KT. Tang, "Quantum mechanical determination of rates of reactions involving hydrogen isotopes," *Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 145--52, 1987.

Abstract:A three-dimensional, quantum mechanical, coupled channel distorted wave approximation is used for calculating thermal rate constants for the isotopic D+H/sub 2/, H+D/sub 2/, Mu+H/sub 2/, and para to ortho H+H/sub 2/ exchange reactions using the most accurate available potential surface. The calculated cross sections for the H+H/sub 2/ reaction are found to be in excellent agreement with converged close coupling results. Rate constants obtained from the cross sections are compared with the available experimental results. (35 References).

C. J. Bowers and others, "Experimental investigation of excited--state lifetimes in atomic ytterbium," *Physical Review A*, vol. 53, pp. 3103--3109, 1996.

M. A. Boxwell, T. A. Claxton, and SFJ. Cox, "Ab initio calculations on the hyperfine isotope effect between C/sub 60/H and C/sub 60/Mu," *Journal of the Chemical Society-Faraday Transactions*, vol. 89, no. 16, pp. 2957--60, 1993.

Abstract:Simplified to three modes of vibration, the potential-energy surface governing proton and muon motion in the radical C/sub 60/H and its muonic isotopomer is calculated together with the property surface representing spin density at these particles. Averaged over zero-point motion in the vibrational ground states, spin density at the muon is predicted to be 6.6% larger than at the proton. (13 References).

JH. Boyd, "Properties of the pi /sup -/-/sup 4/He atom as determined from low-energy pi +or-/sup 4/He scattering phase shifts," *Physical Review A*, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 2186--90, 1970.

Abstract:An effective-range analysis is used to predict properties of the pi /sup -/-/sup 4/He atom. The method produces precise predictions; however, the author's predictions are broadened because of systematic differences between phase shifts from the various scattering experiments. The bounds obtained for the 1s and 2p level shifts (due to the strong interaction) are 90 to 160 eV (toward less binding) and (-2.4 to -4.0)*10/sup -3/ eV, respectively. The bounds obtained for the nuclear capture rates from the 1s and 2p states are (0.12 to 1.8)*10/sup 17/ sec/sup -1/ and (0.46 to 4.0)*10/sup 12/ sec/sup -1/, respectively. The results are consistent with mesonic X-ray measurements. (11 References).

L. Bracci and G. Fiorentini, "Coulomb de-excitation of mesic hydrogen," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 43A, no. 1, pp. 9-30, 1978.

Abstract:Some aspects of the cascade of neutral exotic atoms are analysed. In particular the relevance of the Coulomb de-excitation-transitions induced by the Coulomb interaction with the surrounding atoms-is pointed out. Cross-sections and rates are calculated for mu /sup -/p and pi /sup -/p atoms in hydrogen with energies ranging between 0.1 and 10 eV. The effect turns out to be dominant for n[right angle bracket]or approximately=10 and for a large interval of pressure values. The consequence is a drastic shortening of the early stages of the cascade. When considered for pi /sup -/p atoms, the effect provides a better agreement between the theoretical and experimental cascade times than that previously found. (11 References).

L. Bracci and G. Fiorentini, "Meson transfer to atoms and molecules," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 50A, no. 3, pp. 373-92, 1979.

Abstract:The role of the electron distribution in meson transfer reactions is studied. It is found that the transfer cross-sections from excited states are strongly dependent on the chemical structure. (12 References).

L. Bracci and G. Fiorentini, "Effects of surface structure in meson transfer reactions," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 78, pp. 437--442, 1980.

L. Bracci and G. Fiorentini, "Some aspects of the muon catalysis of d-t fusion," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A364, no. 2-3, pp. 383--407, 1981.

Abstract:"When a deuteron, a triton and a muon are bound in a (d mu t) mesomolecule the nuclear reaction d+t to /sup 4/He+n takes place in a very short time. In this paper the processes following the nuclear reaction are studied. The probability of the muon sticking to the alpha -particle is found to be w=(1.2+or-0.1)*10/sup -2/. All the processes which can strip the ( mu alpha ) during the slowing down are taken into account. At the end of the slowing down the probability for the muon still to be bound to the alpha -particle is omega =9.1*10/sup -3/. Consequently the maximum number of d-t fusions one muon can catalyse is N/sub max/=1/w=110. The yields of K and L ( mu alpha ) lines are also calculated: K=0.60*10/sup -2/

L. Bracci and G. Fiorentini, "Mesic molecules and muon catalysed fusion," *Physics Reports*, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 169--216, 1982.

Abstract:The author discusses the energy spectrum of mesic molecules, reviewing the recent advances in the methods of calculations and in the measurements of the energy levels. They also present recent ideas concerning the possibility of using the muon catalysed fusion for energy production. (71 References).

L. Bracci and G. Fiorentini, "The muon attachment probability after prompt fission," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A423, no. 3, pp. 429--44, 1984.

Abstract:The authors calculate the attachment probability of muons to the fission fragments of /sup 238/U. The problem is reduced to a one-dimensional wave equation with an effective potential, which allows one to investigate the weight of several dynamical factors. They find that the attachment probability is rather insensitive to the fission time, the dominant roles being played by the final kinetic energy and the asymmetry of the fragments. The attachment probability to the light fragment in the most likely configuration (E/sub fin/=165 MeV, A/sub L//A/sub H/=0.83) is P/sub L/ approximately=0.10, in agreement with the experimental data. (17 References).

L. Bracci, C. Chiccoli, G. Fiorentini, P. Pasini, V. S. Melezhik, and J. Wozniak, "Collisions Between Isotopes of Muonic Hydrogen," in *Perspectives on Theoretical Nuclear Physics*, (L. Bracci, P. Christillin, A. Fabrocini, and others, eds.), (Pisa, Italy), pp. 29--33, 1988.

L. Bracci, J. Wozniak, C. Chiccoli, G. Fiorentini, P. Pasini, and V. S. Melezhik, "Collisions between muonic isotopes of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes," in *Proc. LXXIII Congresso Nazionale di Societa Italiana di Fisica*, (Napoli, Italy), pp. 149--150, 1987.

L. Bracci, C. Chiccoli, G. Fiorentini, P. Pasini, V. S. Melezhik, and J. Wozniak, "Collisions Between Hydrogen Isotopes and Their Muonic Counterparts," in *Proc. Int. Symp. on Muon and Pion Interactions with Matter*, pp. 295--301, 1987.

L. Bracci, C. Chiccoli, P. Pasini, G. Fiorentini, V. S. Melezhik, and J. Wozniak, "Spin flip rates in collisions between muonic atoms," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 214-16, 1988.

Abstract:The authors present the calculation of spin flip rates for a wide range of temperatures in the case of (d mu )-d, (p mu )-p and (t mu )-t collisions. The calculations have been performed in the framework of the adiabatic representation of the three-body problem. (11 References).

L. Bracci, C. Chiccoli, G. Fiorentini, V. S. Melezhik, P. Pasini, L. I. Ponomarev, and J. Wozniak, "The atlas of the cross sections of mesic atomic processes. I. The processes p mu +p, d mu +d and t mu +t," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 247--302, 1989.

Abstract:The elastic and inelastic cross sections for the processes p mu +p, d mu +d and t mu +t are calculated in a collision energy range 0.005[left angle bracket]or=E[left angle bracket]or=50 eV. In the calculations the adiabatic representation method for the Coulomb three-body problem was used. The results are given in tables and figures. (17 References).

L. Bracci and others, "Atomic effects in the determination of nuclear cross sections of astrophysical interest," *INFN Preprint IFUP--TH--60/89*, 1989.

L. Bracci, C. Chiccoli, P. Pasini, G. Fiorentini, V. S. Melezhik, and J. Wozniak, "Collision-induced spin flip in isotopes of muonic hydrogen," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 134, no. 7, pp. 435--9, 1989.

Abstract:The authors present results for spin flip processes in muonic atoms. The calculations are performed in the framework of the adiabatic representation of the three-body Coulomb problem. The contribution of back decay is taken into account and comparison with available experimental data is reported. (13 References).

L. Bracci, C. Chiccoli, G. Fiorentini, V. S. Melezhik, P. Pasini, and J. Wozniak, "Calculation of the elastic scattering cross sections for p mu +p and t mu +t collisions in adiabatic representation," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 149, no. 9, pp. 463--8, 1990.

Abstract:The authors present results for elastic scattering of p mu and t mu mesic atoms in ortho and para states on hydrogen and tritium corresponding to nuclei in the energy range interesting for muon catalyzed fusion experiments. The calculations are performed in the framework of the adiabatic representation of the three-body problem, with several hundreds of basis wave functions taken into account. (15 References).

L. Bracci and E. Zavattini, "Formation and disappearance rates of metastable muon- alpha levels in high-pressure helium targets," *Physical Review A*, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 2352--62, 1990.

Abstract:By considering the formation of excited muonic molecular ions (( mu /sup -/He)/sub 2S/+He)*/sup +/ in the triplet state a/sup 3/ Sigma /sup +/, it is possible to explain the presence of metastable muonic helium levels at late times, observed when negative muons are stopped in a high-pressure (p[right angle bracket]or=6 atm) helium-gas target at room temperature. A comparison of the different experimental results with the present idea is reported, and measurements to obtain independent checks of this scheme are proposed. (25 References).

L. Bracci, G. Fiorentini, and G. Mezzorani, "Nuclear fusion in molecular systems," *Journal of Physics G-Nuclear & Particle Physics*, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 83--98, 1990.

Abstract:The authors evaluate the nuclear fusion rates in molecular systems containing hydrogen isotopes. They discuss the case of molecular ions (XX'1) and molecules (XX'II) where X,X' are hydrogen isotopes and 1 is a negatively charged particle with arbitrary mass. They estimate the fusion rates in other molecular systems as a function of the equilibrium X-X' distance. They also discuss collective effects in the framework of an effective single-particle approximation, where the electron is given a momentum-dependent mass. (12 References).

L. Bracci, C. Chiccoli, G. Fiorentini, V. S. Melezhik, P. Pasini, L. I. Ponomarev, and J. Wozniak, "Recent progress in the theoretical description of the mesic atomic collision processes p mu +p, d mu +d and t mu +t," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 21--31, 1990.

Abstract:The results of previous theoretical investigations of the mesic atomic collision processes p mu +p, d mu +d and t mu +t are presented. The cross sections of these processes are obtained for energies from 0.005 eV up to tens of eV, where elastic scattering and spin-flip may occur. The calculations have been performed in the adiabatic representation of the three-body problem. The adiabatic expansion was so truncated that 52 components of the discrete spectrum and several hundred components of the continuous spectrum of the adiabatic basis were used. The mesic atomic cross sections on `bare` nuclei and corresponding phase shifts have been used as the input data for estimating the role of electron screening and molecular effects in the slowing down process of mesic atoms in the mixture where catalysis takes place. Applications of the obtained results to interpret the experimental data are discussed. (30 References).

L. Bracci and others, "Quantum mechanical calculation of the electron screening in d--D fusion," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 153, pp. 456--460, 1991.

L. Bracci, A. Vacchi, and E. Zavattini, "Laser induced transition 3D--3P muonic helium," *Zeitschrift Für Physik C*, vol. 56, pp. s74--s79, 1992.

L. Bracci, C. Chiccoli, P. Pasini, G. Fiorentini, V. S. Melezhik, and J. Wozniak, "About the boundary conditions for the three-body scattering problem in the adiabatic representation," *Nuovo Cimento B-General Physics Relativity Astronomy & Mathematical Physics & Methods*, vol. 105 B, no. 4, pp. 459--86, 1990.

Abstract:The authors investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the wave function of a three-particle Coulomb system (a, b, c; M/sub a/[right angle bracket]or=M/sub b/[right angle bracket]m/sub c/) in the adiabatic representation. They evaluate the effect of the basis truncation on its asymptotic dependence on the slow variable R (the coordinate of relative motion of nuclei a and b) in the region of break-up of the three-body system into subsystems (ac)/sub 1s/+b and a+(bc)/sub 1s/. A procedure for taking into account the truncation of the basis is presented, which is shown to converge in the case of the scattering problem. (9 References).

L. Bracci, C. Chiccoli, G. Fiorentini, V. S. Melezhik P. Pasini, and J. Wozniak, "Collisions of muonic atoms," in *Electromagnetic Cascade and Chemistry of Exotic Atoms*, (L. M. Simons, D. Horváth, and G. Torelli, eds.), (New York, USA), pp. 253--67, 1990.

J. N. Bradbury, M. Leon, H. Daniel, and JJ. Reidy, "Observation of the E2 nuclear resonance effect in pionic cadmium," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 303--6, 1975.

Abstract:The occurrence of the E2 nuclear resonance effect in hadronic atoms has been established for pionic cadmium by comparison of /sup 112/Cd and /sup 111/Cd pionic X-ray intensity ratios. (13 References).

JN. Bradbury, "Physics with muons at LAMPF," in

Abstract:Several important experiments are in progress at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) that make use of the intense beams of low-energy muons available there. (1) Measuring the recoil asymmetry in negative muon capture on /sup 3/He, resulting in a triton and a neutrino, provides a measure of the poorly known induced pseudoscalar form factor g/sub p/. (2) An ultra-high precision measurement is being assembled to determine the hyperfine structure interval in muonium to 10 ppb and the magnetic moment ratio mu /sub mu // mu /sub p/ to 50 ppb. This represents factors of 5 to 10 improvement over present values and an extremely stringent test of QED. (3) An innovative apparatus is now being commissioned to search for mu to e gamma at a branching ratio sensitivity of about 10/sup -13/, two orders of magnitude lower than the previous limit obtained at LAMPF. (4) An improved theoretical description of the observed (dt mu ) molecular formation rate, involving three-body effects, is now available. For the future, new physics will be accessible from a proposed pulsed lepton source, which will produce intense pulsed (0.25- mu sec) beams of muons and neutrinos. (2 References).

I. M. Brancus, B. Vulpescu, A. Bercuci, A. F. Badea, H. Bozdog, M. Duma, M. Petcu, J. Wentz, H. Rebel, A. Haungs, H-J Mathes, and M. Roth, "Measurements of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 465--70, 2000.

Abstract:The measurements of the muon charge ratio representing the ratio of positive to negative atmospheric muons are performed using a small compact device, WILLI, by detecting the lifetime of the muonic atoms. Avoiding the difficulties of measurements with magnetic spectrometers, this method gives precise results on muon charge ratio especially in the low energy range relevant for the atmospheric neutrino anomaly. The detector, the method and the results of the muon charge ratio for five energy ranges below 1 GeV are presented. The results can be used to improve hadronic interaction models. (10 References).

D'Oliveira A. Brandao, H. Daniel, and Egidy T. von, "A search for effects on chemical isomerism in muonic X-ray spectra of propyl alcohol," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 197-200, 1974.

Abstract:The intensities of muonic X-ray transitions in n-propyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol were measured. The experiment was performed at the muon channel of the 600 MeV synchrocyclotron at CERN. The spectra were evaluated by means of a standard computer program and by a technique to observe small differences between the propyl-alcohol spectra. No differences in the muonic spectra were observed within rather small experimental errors. (16 References).

d'Oliveira A. Brandao, H. Daniel, and Egidy T. von, "Coulomb capture and X-ray cascades of muons in metal halides," *Physical Review A*, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1772--7, 1976.

Abstract:X-ray yields following muon capture have been measured in sixteen metal halide molecules two of which were in liquid form. They are tabulated in detail. The ratio A(Z'/Z) for capture in the constituents Z' and Z of a binary chemical compound Z'/sub k/Z/sub m/ are derived from the measurements and compared with recent theoretical models. There is good qualitative agreement with the results of a calculation in which the muon is classically treated as a particle losing energy in the electron Fermi gas. Cascade calculations based on a modified statistical distribution of populations of the levels with n=20 do not give a good account of the observed intensities. (27 References).

d'Oliveira A. Brandao and Egidy T. von, "Energies of muonic transitions in Cd and Br and energies and intensities of nuclear transitions in /sup 78/Se and /sup 80/Se," *Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung Section A-A Journal of Physical Sciences*, vol. 31A, no. 2, 1976.

Abstract:The energies of the muonic 2-1 and 3-2 transitions in Cd and Br have been measured. The c-parameter of the (c,t) Fermi distribution was determined. Energies and intensities of nuclear gamma rays in Se are given. (9 References).

d'Oliveira A. Brandao, H. Daniel, Egidy T. von, and FJ. Hartmann, "A new determination of the pi /sup -/ rest mass," *Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung Section A-A Journal of Physical Sciences*, vol. 31A, no. 10, pp. 1150--4, 1976.

Abstract:The pi /sup -/ rest mass has been determined from measurements of X-ray transitions in pionic atoms using muonic transitions for the calibration, to the m/sub pi -/=139.571+or-0.010 MeV. A new upper limit for the mu -neutrino rest mass was deduced: m/sub v/[left angle bracket]0.78 MeV at 90 per cent confidence. (30 References).

MA. Braun, "Recoil corrections in a strong nuclear field," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 413--23, 1973.

Abstract:Corrections to atomic levels of the order of the reciprocal of the nuclear mass are considered for high nuclear charges and nuclear fields. This case involves the summation of an infinite sequence of Feynman diagrams describing the interaction of the electrons with the nucleus. For ordinary heavy atoms these corrections are small, but they may be substantial for more exotic bodies such as, for example, mesic atoms. A closed expression is derived for all corrections of order 1/M for a system consisting of a nucleus and a number of electrons interacting with a quantised electromagnetic field. These corrections can be associated with the Hamiltonian for a non-relativistic nucleus interacting with the electromagnetic field, and may be divided into four groups: recoil corrections, corrections for the nuclear magnetic moment, and corrections corresponding to the interaction of a spinless charged particle with the electromagnetic field, split into two parts one of which is linear in the field and the other quadratic in the field. (1 Reference).

M. Bregant, D. Chatellard, J-P Egger, P. Hauser, E. Jeannet, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, E. Milotti, C. Petitjean, L. M. Simons, D. Taqqu, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the K X-ray intensity ratios in muonic hydrogen at low gas densities," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 241, no. 6, pp. 344--50, 1998.

Abstract:Measurements of the K X-ray transitions of muonic hydrogen ( mu /sup -/p and mu /sup -/d) were performed at H/sub 2/ or D/sub 2/ gas pressures between 17 and 533 hPa (T approximately=293 K). The intensity ratios K/sub alpha //K/sub total/ and K/sub beta //K/sub total/ depend on the gas density because the strength of excited state collisional interactions increases at higher densities. The data are compared with the results of a cascade calculation. They are sensitive to the collisional Stark mixing rates at the main quantum levels n=4,...,8. (27 References).

S. E. Brener and AL. Zubarev, "Low-energy exchange reactions between hydrogen isotope mesoatoms," *Few-Body Systems*, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 33--40, 1987.

Abstract:In terms of the Faddeev-Hahn equations in the two-level approximation the exchange reactions in low-energy hydrogen isotope mesoatom collisions for the total momentum L=0 have been considered. Elastic and inelastic cross-sections of the scattering channels as well as the rates of the exchange reactions for the (d+p mu ) and (t+p mu ) collisions have been calculated. (23 References).

S. E. Brener and A. L. Zubarev, "Low-energy pµ + t collisions in the hydrogen isotope mixture," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 2, pp. 157--160, 1988.

SE. Brener, "Two-state approximation of the Faddeev-Hahn equations," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1623--35, 1994.

Abstract:To solve the Faddeev-Hahn integral equations in the two-state approximation different numerical schemes are developed. The peculiarities of the calculation of the cross sections and the rates of exchange reactions are considered on the basis of low-energy scattering of hydrogen isotope mesic atoms. (27 References).

A. Breskin, "CsI UV photocathodes: history and mystery," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods A*, vol. 371, pp. 116--136, 1996.

D. Breskman and A. Kanofsky, "Chemical shifts of the mu /sup +/," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 33B, no. 4, pp. 309--11, 1970.

Abstract:The differences in chemical shifts between a muon and a proton in simple diatomic halide molecules are calculated and shown to be about 2 ppm. A formula based on the shift of the mu /sup +/ precession frequency is presented for determining reaction rates for mu molecule formation. (10 References).

D. Breskman and A. Kanofsky, "Chemical shifts of the mu /sup +/," *Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica B-General Physics Relativity Astronomy & Mathematical Physics & Methods*, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 147--52, 1970.

Abstract:The determination of mu molecule formation by measurement of the mu /sup +/ precession frequency shifts in a magnetic field (due to chemical shifts) is proposed. The differences in chemical shifts between a muon and a proton in simple halide molecules are calculated and shown to be about 2 ppm. A formula, based on the shift of the mu /sup +/ precession frequency, is presented for determining reaction rates for mu molecule formation. (10 References).

T. Bressani and A. Molinari, "Isovector potential in /sup 208/Pb from partial muon capture," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 36B, no. 4, pp. 297--300, 1971.

Abstract:The isobaric analogue states of nuclear collective modes of vibrations have been excited via mu /sup -/ capture in light nuclei. In heavy nuclei one expects a damping of these excitations because of the blocking effect due to the large neutron excess. Direct evidence of the role played by the neutron excess might be seen in the absence of a J/sup pi /=1/sup -/ state which should lie at approximately 4 MeV in the spectrum of /sup 208/Tl. These considerations are used as the starting point for an estimate of the isovector potential in /sup 208/Pb. (16 References).

WH. Breunlich, "Muon capture," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A335, no. 1-2, pp. 137--46, 1980.

Abstract:Summarizes the most recent progress in the field as presented at this conference. Special attention is paid to information about the weak interaction form factors. (47 References).

WH. Breunlich, "Muon capture in hydrogen isotopes," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A353, no. 1-2, pp. 201c-14c, 1981.

Abstract:After a survey of the phenomenology of muonic hydrogen atoms and molecules recent experiments at SIN are discussed, dealing with muonic atoms and molecules in deuterium. These experiments could clarify the longstanding problem of hyperfine populations of muonic deuterium atoms. For the first time hyperfine transitions in muonic atoms and hyperfine effects in the resonant formation of muonic molecules have been observed. The implication of these new results on weak-interaction rates and the three-body Coulomb problem of muonic atoms are discussed. (25 References).

W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, P. Kammel, J. Marton, P. Pawlek, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, K. M. Crowe, J. Kurck, A. Janett, C. Petitjean, R. H. Sherman, H. Bossy, and W. Neumann, "Experimental study of muon-catalyzed fusion in low-density deuterium-tritium gas," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 1137--40, 1984.

Abstract:High rates for mesomolecular processes were found in a study of neutron spectra from muon-catalysed dt fusion in low-density D/T mixtures. An interpretation is given in terms of a reaction-kinetics model which includes hyperfine effects. The hyperfine components of the d mu t formation rates, first separated in this experiment, are large from 30 to 300K. An unexpected temperature dependence for the transition rate between mu t hyperfine states is found. (14 References).

W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, P. Kammel, J. Marton, P. Pawlek, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, K. M. Crowe, J. Kurck, R. H. Sherman, C. Petitjean, A. Janett, H. Bossy, and W. Neumann, "New experimental results on muon catalyzed fusion in low density deuterium-tritium gas," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, pp. 42-52, 1984.

Abstract:The authors present results of investigations of muon catalysis in deuterium/tritium mixtures. The first experimental observation of different components in the spectra of dt fusion neutrons at high tritium concentrations demonstrate the complexity of the muon induced fusion cycle. The results prove that low density experiments are essential if one is to understand the basic processes of muon catalysis. An interpretation of data in terms of a model including hyperfine effects is given. (17 References).

WH. Breunlich, "The development of mu CF studies at SIN," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 1, no. 1-4, pp. 29--49, 1987.

Abstract:The research program of the OeAW-SIN-LBL-LANL-TUM collaboration at SIN developed in the context of weak interaction studies. The high chemical activity of muonic hydrogen with a variety of interesting phenomena was already well known when the experiments at SIN started, e.g. thanks to the pioneering efforts of the Columbia group, the Chicago group, the CERN-Bologna group, the DUBNA group, and others. When the striking hyperfine effects in the formation of muonic D/sub 2//sup +/ were discovered experimentally at SIN in 1979, the picture of resonant formation of muonic molecules, developed by scientists in the USSR, was successfully completed. As a matter of fact, mu CF helped to accomplish the first direct observation of a hyperfine transition. The implications for the weak interaction of nuclear muon capture as well as the renewed interest in mu CF are discussed. Experiments in gaseous DT mixtures from 30 to 300 K and in liquid DT performed at SIN brought astonishing results. High rates for the catalytic DT cycle and low muon loss probabilities result in values well above 100 for the number of fusion processes catalyzed by a single muon. A comparison to the LAMPF results is given where possible. Surprisingly intense but fast vanishing components of the d mu t molecular formation could be analyzed quantitatively and triggered new ideas which eventually could imply even higher fusion yields at temperatures of the order of 1000 K or above. (82 References).

W. H. Breunlich and others, "Muon--Catalyzed D--T Fusion at Low Temperature," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 58, pp. 329--332, 1987.

W. H. Breunlich and others, "Muon--catalyzed $tt$ fusion," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 1, pp. 121--125, 1987.

W. H. Breunlich, M. Carnelli, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Nagele, P. Pawlek, A. Scrinzi, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, J. Bistirlich, K. M. Crowe, M. Justice, J. Kurck, C. Petitjean, R. H. Sherman, H. Bossy, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, W. Neumann, G. Schmidt, and Egidy T. von, "Recent results of mu CF experiments at SIN," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 1, no. 1-4, pp. 67--88, 1987.

Abstract:Important topics concerning muon catalyzed fusion were investigated in experiments at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN), including transient and steady-state rates for the main d mu t cycle as well as detailed information about the competing d mu d and t mu t fusion branches. The basic kinetic parameters were determined and striking features of the resonant d mu t formation process were revealed (density effect, epithermal behavior). DT sticking was measured with independent techniques, i.e. detection of fusion neutrons as well as mu He X-rays after fusion. Fusion yields per muon of 113+or-10 was observed at liquid conditions; yields exceeding 200 are anticipated for optimal conditions from the authors results. (43 References).

W. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, G. Chen, P. Guss, F. Hartmann, P. Kammel, J. Kraiman, J. Marton, C. Petitjean, J. Reidy, A. Scrinzi, R. Siegel, W. Vulcan, R. Welsh, H. Wolverton, A. Zehnder, and J. Zmeskal, "Diffusion of muonic hydrogen atoms," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 20, no. , pp. NL58-9, 1988.

Abstract:The purpose of the experiment is to study the diffusion of muonic hydrogen ( mu p or mu d) atoms formed when negative muons are stopped in H/sub 2/ or D/sub 2/ gas which fills the interstices of an array of planar foils placed in an Al target pressure vessel. The specific objective is to gain information on (a) the velocity spectrum of muonic hydrogen atoms when they reach the 1S state, and (b) the subsequent scattering of these atoms in the gas in which they are formed. (6 References).

WH. Breunlich, "Recent developments in experimental mu CF research," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 478, no. , pp. 769c-75, 1988.

Abstract:The author summarizes the progress of experimental research in the field of muon catalyzed fusion and indicates several of the open problems to be solved for a comprehensive understanding of the complicated kinetics in the deuterium-tritium system. (33 References).

W. H. Breunlich, P. Kammel, J. S. Cohen, and M. Leon, "Muon-catalyzed fusion," in *Annual review of nuclear and particle science*, vol. 39, no. (J. D. Jackson, H. E. Gove, V. Luth, and RF. Schwitters, eds.), pp. 311--56, 1989.

Abstract:The authors present: (i) the catalysis cycle; (ii) muonic atom processes; (iii) muonic molecule processes and mu CF cycles; (iv) nuclear fusion and sticking analysis. (141 References).

W. H. Breunlich, M. Cargnelli, P. Kammel, J. Marton, N. Nagele, A. Scrinzi, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, W. Bertl, and C. Petitjean, "Experiments on dd mu formation and hyperfine effects," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 149--61, 1990.

Abstract:In a series of experiments, muon catalyzed dd fusion was systematically investigated at low temperatures (23-150 K) using liquid and gaseous targets of pure D/sub 2/ by detecting neutrons from the fusion process dd mu to n+/sup 3/He+ mu . With this method, the time components due to the two d mu hyperfine states could be clearly resolved over a wide range of target conditions. The rates lambda /sub F/ for dd mu formation from these two hyperfine states as well as the hyperfine transition rates lambda /sub FF`/ were separated in a kinetic analysis of the observed time spectra. The results obtained allow precision tests of the theory of the muonic three-body Coulomb problems, provide information on nuclear fusion reactions at low energy, and clarify the conditions for basic experiments on nuclear muon capture in deuterium. (27 References).

WH. Breunlich, "Muon catalyzed fusion," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 508, no. , pp. 3c-16, 1990.

Abstract:Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding the mu CF cycle recently. Systematic experimental investigations of resonant formation of dd mu in pure deuterium have been carried out at different laboratories providing valuable insight in the complicated resonance mechanism. Furthermore, the dd mu system serves as a test case for the interpretation of experimental results in the far more complex dt mu system. For the dt mu system the high output of fusion reactions per single muon has been verified experimentally. However, the understanding of the processes involved in the catalytic cycle has encountered substantial problems, which call for further theoretical and experimental work. The broad spectrum of physics phenomena ranging from atomic and molecular physics to nuclear and particle physics, which has been outlined, provide a strong motivation for this kind of investigation. (51 References).

W. H. Breunlich, J.-P. Egger, and others, "Direct measurement of the muon transfer from hydrogen to helium," *PSI Proposal*, vol. R--94--03, 1994.

W. H. Breunlich, J.-E. Egger, and others, "Direct measurement of the muon transfer from hydrogen to helium," *Addendum to PSI Proposal*, vol. R--94--03, 1997.

J. H. Brewer, K. M. Crowe, R. F. Johnson, A. Schenck, and RW. Williams, "'fast' depolarization of positive muons in solution-the chemistry of atomic muonium," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 297--300, 1971.

Abstract:The initial magnitude and direction of the residual asymmetry in the decays of polarized positive muons stopped in solutions in transverse magnetic fields are observed to depend strongly upon the concentration of dissolved compounds. Such effects were seen in methanol solutions of I/sub 2/ and in aqueous solutions of FeCl/sub 3/ and Fe(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 3/. The underlying fast depolarization mechanism can be qualitatively and quantitatively understood by assuming muonium formation with subsequent chemical reaction of the atomic muonium with dissolved compounds. (16 References).

J. H. Brewer, K. M. Crowe, F. N. Gygax, R. F. Johnson, B. D. Patterson, D. G. Fleming, and A. Schenck, "Anomalous mu /sup +/ precession in silicon," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 143--6, 1973.

Abstract:Studies precession of polarized positive muons in quartz and silicon in transverse magnetic fields, via the asymmetric decay. Observes free muon precession and two-frequency muonium precession, as well as two anomalous precession frequencies apparent only in silicon. (11 References).

J. H. Brewer, F. N. Gygax, and DG. Fleming, "Mechanism for mu /sup +/ depolarization in liquids-muonium chemistry with radical formation," *Physical Review A*, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 77--86, 1973.

Abstract:The phenomenon of environment-dependent 'fast' depolarization of stopped positive muons is described in terms of a theoretical model. The formalism is similar to that developed by Ivanter and Smilga (1968) to describe the 'proper muonium mechanism,' but has been adapted and expanded to include situations involving more than one strongly depolarizing influence (i.e., muonium and a molecular radical). For a plausible situation in dilute solutions with transverse applied magnetic field, the exact time dependence of the muon polarization is derived formally, with the 'residual polarization' emerging as a limit. The result can be applied to the study of muonium chemistry. (17 References).

J. H. Brewer and KM. Crowe, "Advances in muon spin rotation," in *Annual review of nuclear and particle science*, vol. 28, no. (J. D. Jackson, H. E. Gove, and RF. Schwitters, eds.), pp. 239-326, 1978.

Abstract:Reviews the development of muon spin rotation from 1957 to 1975 and, in particular, more recent advances. The muon as a magnetic probe, relaxation and motion in metals, muonium chemistry, Knight shifts, and mu SR in antiferromagnets are considered. (140 References).

JH. Brewer, "Negative muon hyperfine transition rate in aluminium," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 19, no. 1-4, pp. 879--84, 1984.

Abstract:The residual polarization of the F/sup -/ hyperfine state of mu /sup -27/ Al has been investigated as a function of applied transverse magnetic field strength using standard TD- mu /sup -/SR techniques. The F/sup -/ precession frequency is -0.2623(5) (theoretical value: -0.2622) times that of the free muon in the same field. The observed muon decay electron asymmetry in the F/sup -/ state decreases with increasing magnetic field strength, due to initial precession in the opposite direction of the F/sup +/ state, which most muon initially populate, followed by a rapid transition to the F/sup -/ state. A fit of the data to this model indicates a transition rate R=41(9) mu s/sup -1/, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. This method can be used to determine R experimentally in other cases where it is to fast to be observed directly. (8 References).

JH. Brewer, "Negative muon precession in nuclei with spin," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 19, no. 1-4, pp. 873--8, 1984.

Abstract:Polarized negative muons were stopped in various materials containing nuclei with nonzero spin. The TF- mu SR precession signal of F/sup +/ hyperfine state (frequency nu /sub +/[right angle bracket]0) was pronounced for mu /sup -/Li and mu /sup -/Be, faint for mu /sup -/cl (in NiCl/sub 2/), and undetectable for mu /sup -/F (in CaF/sub 2/ or NiF/sub 2/) and mu /sup -/P. The F/sup -/ signal (frequency nu /sub -/[left angle bracket]0) was observed clearly for mu /sup -/Be, mu /sup -/Al and mu /sup -/Na, marginally for mu /sup -/K, mu /sup -/V and mu /sup -/Nb, and not at all for mu /sup -/Ga (at 4 kOe) or mu /sup 4/-Co (ferromagnetic, zero field). In the heavier elements the F/sup -/ signals is 'fed' by transitions from the F/sup +/ to the F/sup -/ state at a rate R, as long as R[right angle bracket][right angle bracket]( nu /sub +/- nu /sub -/). (7 References).

J. H. Brewer, S. R. Kreitzman, G. M. Luke, G. D. Morris, C. Niedermayer, T. M. Riseman, W. N. Hardy, E. P. Krasnoperov, E. E. Meilikhov, and VP. Smilga, "Muon relaxation in hydrogen isotopes HD and D/sub 2/," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 577--80, 1991.

Abstract:Experiments on muon relaxation in hydrogen isotopes in longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields have shown that there is a significant difference in the behavior of the muon and the muonium components. The relaxation rate of the muonium component increases with the nuclear magnetic moment, whereas the depolarization of the diamagnetic component ( mu /sup +/) is virtually independent of the isotopic composition. (10 References).

C. Briancon, V. B. Brudanin, J. Deutsch, V. G. Egorov, T. V. Filipova, R. Prieels, N. Severijns, C. Petitjean, Y. A. Shitov, V. Vorobel, T. Vylov, V. Wiaux, I. A. Yutlandov, and S. Zaparov, "Experiment AnCor: search for scalar interaction in beta decay and mu capture," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1395--402, 1998.

Abstract:Experiments devoted to the search for scalar interaction in nuclear beta decay and ordinary muon capture and based on the measurement of ( beta - nu ) and ( gamma - nu ) angular correlations are described. The idea of the measurement is to detect the Doppler shift of photons due to the recoil of the daughter nuclei by means of high precision semiconductor gamma spectroscopy. (31 References).

C. Briancon, V. Brudanin, J. Deutsch, V. Egorov, T. Filipova, M. Kudoyarov, V. Lobanov, T. Mamedov, A. Pasternak, R. Prieels, A. Salamatin, Y. Shitov, T. Vylov, I. Yutlandov, and S. Zaparov, "The spin-neutrino correlation revisited in /sup 28/Si muon capture: a new determination of the induced pseudoscalar coupling g/sub P//g/sub A/," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A671, no. 1-4, pp. 647--57, 2000.

Abstract:We describe an improved follow-up of our previous spin-neutrino correlation experiment, where the 1229 and 2171 keV gamma-rays emitted after the /sup 28/Si( mu , nu )/sup 28/Al(1/sup +/, 2202 keV) reaction were observed by high-resolution HPGe detectors at different angles with respect to the muon spin. In the experiment described here, a magnetic field was used both to select events according to the spin-gamma angle and to measure the residual muon polarization by the muSR method. We further increase the precision of our result making use of new experimental and theoretical information. We obtain for the parameter x identical to M(2)/M(-1) the value of x=0.239+or-0.029, which can be compared to our previous result (Brudanin et al. (1995)) x=0.254+or-0.034 and to the value x=0.315+or-0.080 obtained recently at TRIUMF with a different technique. The coupling-constant ratio g/sub P//g/sub A/ was deduced from the mean value x=0.247+or-0.027. Using renormalized transition operators calculated recently, we obtained for g/sub P//g/sub A/ the solution range of -1.0 to +1.3 to be compared to the value of 7 predicted by PCAC for the free nucleon. This result confirms the strong quenching of g/sub P//g/sub A/ reported earlier. (26 References).

J. S. Briggs, P. T. Greenland, and E. A. Solov'ev, "The capture of slow antiprotons in helium, neon, and argon," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, pp. 235--240, 1999.

E. V. Brilev and ChL. Kathat, "Neutrino mass effects on asymmetry in mu /sup -/ meson capture by /sup 12/C," *Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Fizicheskaya*, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 7--11, 1988.

Abstract:The authors study the m/sub upsilon / dependence for the asymmetry coefficient alpha /sub mu upsilon / in neutrino escape with respect to the muon spin orientation in mu /sup -/ capture by /sup 12/C in the ground state. For small transferred 4-momentum, the W boson propagator can be considered as constant and is approximately 1/M/sub W//sup 2/ (where M/sub W/ is the intermediate-boson mass), and all the calculations can be based on the current-current weak-interaction theory. (16 References).

D. I. Britton, G. A. Beer, J. A. Macdonald, G. R. Mason, T. Numao, A. Olin, P. R. Poffenberger, A. R. Kunselman, and BH. Olaniyi, "The pionic sodium 2p-1s transition," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A461, no. 3-4, pp. 571--8, 1987.

Abstract:The width and energy of the pionic sodium 2p-1s X-ray has been measured using a Compton suppressed germanium spectrometer. The resulting reduction of the continuum Compton back-ground has allowed a more detailed determination of the X-ray. The values obtained. The values obtained are: Energy=276.45(+or-0.27, +or-0.33) keV; Width=17.1 (+or-1.1, +or-1.2) keV. The measured widths is in better agreement with optical model predictions than previous measurements which gave anomalously narrow values. (14 References).

B. Brocklehurst and DB. Cook, "The muonium bond," *Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 329--33, 1987.

Abstract:Muonium is a light isotope of hydrogen, so light that in strong hydrogen bonds its zero-point energy is close to or above the energy barrier; this favours the formation of symmetrical muonium bonds. In water, muons will exist as Mu(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup +/ in contrast to H(H/sub 2/O)/sub 4//sup +/; the stability of this species will slow the exchange of Mu and H. With alkenes and alkynes, muons will preferentially form non-classical complexes because of their lower zero-point energy in weak bonds; in liquids, a muon will attach two molecules via a symmetrical muonium bond. (34 References).

R. Brockmann, W. Weise, and L. Tauscher, "Y* resonances and kaonic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A308, no. 3, pp. 365--80, 1978.

Abstract:The role of the Y/sub 0/* and Y/sub 1/* resonances in kaonic /sup 12/C and /sup 32/S is studied. Non-local effects due to propagation of the Y/sub 0/* are investigated together with the influence of possible changes in the Y/sub 0/* position and width. The most recent parametrizations of the K/sup -/N amplitude will be used. It is shown that the kaonic widths and shifts suggest systematically a repulsive shift and an increased width of the Y/sub 0/* inside a nucleus. (20 References).

J-C Brodovitch, S-K Leung, S. Sun-Mack, P. W. Percival, D. Yu, and SFJ. Cox, "Intramolecular motion in muonium-substituted radicals," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 65, no. 1-4, pp. 937--8, 1990.

Abstract:Values of hyperfine coupling constants (HFC) for the muon and other spin-labelled nuclei in muonium-substituted radicals can be obtained by a combination of conventional mu SR and mu LCR experiments. Variations with temperature of the HFCs may be interpreted in terms of intramolecular motion effects, offering clues to the nature of the motions and the conformations of the radical species. This approach has been used with success at TRIUMF for the ethyl, tert-butyl, and cyclohexadienyl radicals. To complete the tert-butyl study, the HFC of the /sup 13/C spin-labelled radical centre was measured as a function of temperature to obtain more direct information on the type of hybridization at this site. mu LCR experiments were performed on a /sup 13/C-labelled isobutene sample diluted in either isopentane or an isopentane/dodecane mixture to cover the temperature range 120-390 K in the liquid phase. Preliminary results have been obtained on the Mu-substituted isopropyl and n-propyl radicals formed by addition of Mu to propene, both in the gas and liquid phase. (5 References).

J-C Brodovitch, Ji Feng, P. W. Percival, A. L. Bischoff, B. M. Pinto, B. Addison-Jones, and S. Wlodek, "Conformational studies of thiyl and selenenyl radicals," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 87, no. 1-4, pp. 839--45, 1994.

Abstract:Muonium adds to the unsaturated bond in 1,3-dithiolane-2-thione or -2-selenone to form a chalcogen-centered radical. The muon hyperfine coupling constants (HFC) were measured for both compounds over a range of temperatures. In solution, the temperature dependence of the muon HFC indicates that for the thiyl radical the preferred conformation corresponds to the muon eclipsing the unpaired electron p/sub z/-orbital, while there is practically free rotation in the case of the selenenyl radical in the temperature range studied. In pure thione the HFC values show a remarkable discontinuity at the melting point. The two radical signals seen in the solid are interpreted as due to the presence of two dominant crystal orientations in the samples studied. In pure selenone data were obtained only in the solid. For both systems, the solid phase results show that interaction between the muon and the unpaired electron spin is enhanced compared to the liquid phase and/or the solution. (8 References).

J. C. Brodovitch, P. W. Percival, B. Addison-Jones, and F. Ji, "Intramolecular motion and isotope effects in muonium-substituted chloroalkyl radicals," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 106, no. 1-4, pp. 163--7, 1997.

Abstract:Muon irradiation of pure liquid 3-chloropropene, CH/sub 2/=CH-CH/sub 2/Cl, yields a primary radical, CH/sub 2/-CHMu-CH/sub 2/Cl, and a secondary radical, MuCH/sub 2/-CH-CH/sub 2/Cl. 2-methyl-3-chloropropene yields only the tertiary radical, MuCH/sub 2/-C(CH/sub 3/)-CH/sub 2/Cl. These three chloroalkyl radicals have been characterized by mu SR and mu LCR, and the hyperfine coupling constants (hfcs) have been determined over a range of temperatures, either in the pure liquid precursor or in concentrated solution. The temperature variation of the hfcs has been analyzed to obtain estimates of the barrier to internal rotation about the C/sub alpha /-C/sub beta / axis for various alkyl groups, and also their minimum energy conformations, i.e. their orientations with respect to the axis of the 2p/sub z/ orbital of the unpaired electron. The tertiary radical is particularly interesting because all three methyl-like groups, -CH/sub 3/, -CH/sub 2/Cl and -CH/sub 2/Mu, are represented. The results can be compared to electron spin resonance data for analogous radicals, to provide information on the effects of Mu substitution for H. (7 References).

SJ. Brodsky, "Quantum electrodynamics and exotic atomic phenomena of high Z-elements," *Comments on Atomic & Molecular Physics*, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 109--18, 1973.

Abstract:A review is given of the physics of the exotic atomic phenomena, especially positron autoionization, which can occur if the charge of the nucleus is increased beyond the critical value Z approximately 170. The adiabatic collision of two heavy ions can be used to study experimentally the problem of the Dirac electron in a Coulomb field beyond the critical value where pair production occurs. Various approaches to this phenomenon are discussed, including the possible complications of quantum electrodynamic corrections. A brief review of recent tests of quantum electrodynamics in high Z electronic and muonic atoms is also presented. (24 References).

J. Brodsky and G. Karl, "Parity violation in atoms," *Comments on Atomic & Molecular Physics*, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 63--9, 1976.

Abstract:Recent theoretical predictions for parity violating effects in atoms are reviewed. Order of magnitude estimates are given for the effect of weak neutral currents in various electronic and muonic atoms. The observation of any of these polarization effects will not only establish the existence of a parity violating interaction between charged leptons and the nucleus, but will also determine the sign of the coupling-an important constraint for theory. (14 References).

S. J. Brodsky and PJ. Mohr, "Quantum electrodynamics in strong and supercritical fields," in *Structure and collisions of ions and atoms*, no. (A. Sellin, ed.), pp. 3-67, 1978.

Abstract:Reviews recent work on the atomic spectra in high-Z electronic and muonic atoms including muonic helium, with emphasis on the Lamb shift and vacuum polarisation corrections which test strong field quantum electrodynamics (QED). The theoretical framework of the QED calculations for strong fields is discussed. The constraints on nonperturbative vacuum polarisation modifications and possible scalar particles are presented. Also reviews recent work on the QED heavy-ion collisions, particularly the dynamics of positron production. Reviews the phenomenology and calculational methods, the parameters for possible experiments, vacancy formation and background effects. Also mentions several new topics including coherent production of photons in heavy-ion collisions and the self-neutralization of charged matter. Discusses the relative importance of induced versus adiabatic pair production and the nature of radiative corrections in alpha to spontaneous pair production. (187 References).

MWJ Bromley and J. Mitroy, "Configuration-interaction calculations of positron binding to group-II elements," *Physical Review A*, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 62505--1--10, 2002.

Abstract:The configuration-interaction (CI) method is applied to the study of positronic magnesium (e/sup +/Mg), positronic calcium (e/sup +/Ca), and positronic strontium (e/sup +/Sr). The CI expansion was seen to converge slowly with respect to L/sub max/, the maximum angular momentum of any orbital used to construct the CI basis. Despite doing explicit calculations with L/sub max/=10, extrapolation corrections to the binding energies for the L/sub max/ to infinity limit were substantial in the case of e/sup +/Ca (25%) and e/sup +/Sr (50%). The extrapolated binding energies were 0.0162 hartree for e/sup +/Mg, 0.0165 hartree for e/sup +/Ca, and 0.0101 hartree for e/sup +/Sr. The static-dipole polarizabilities for the neutral parent atoms were computed as a by-product, giving 71.7a/sub 0//sup 3/, 162a/sub 0//sup 3/, and 204a/sub 0//sup 3/ for Mg, Ca, and Sr, respectively. (48 References).

F. D. Brooks and others, "Pulsed muons for µCF experiments at RAL," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 2, pp. 85--92, 1988.

L. S. Brown, R. N. Cahn, and LD. McLerran, "Analytic calculation to all orders in Z alpha of nuclear size effects in vacuum polarization," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 562--5, 1974.

Abstract:The energy shift of the 5g/sub 9/2/-4f/sub 7/2/ transition in muonic /sup 208/Pb due to a finite nuclear size correction is found to increase the discrepancy between observation and prediction by 5 eV. The analysis is restricted by setting the electron mass to zero and by retaining only the first term the Vehling potential, radius expansion. (10 References).

L. S. Brown, R. N. Cahn, and LD. McLerran, "Vacuum polarization in a strong Coulomb field. III. Nuclear size effects," *Physical Review D*, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 609--19, 1975.

Abstract:For pt.II see ibid., vol.12, p.596, 1975. The change in the vacuum polarization near a high-Z nucleus arising from the finite extent of the nuclear charge distribution is calculated analytically to all orders of Z alpha . As applications of this, the shifts of muonic energy levels are calculated to lowest order in the ratio of the nuclear to the muonic orbit radii, and comparisons with experimental data are made. (22 References).

L. S. Brown, R. N. Cahn, and LD. McLerran, "Vacuum polarization in a strong Coulomb field. II. Short-distance corrections," *Physical Review D*, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 596--608, 1975.

Abstract:For pt.I see ibid., vol.12, p.581, 1975. The coefficients of the r and r/sup 2 lambda / terms in the vacuum polarization potential induced by a point nuclear charge, are calculated analytically to all orders of Z alpha . The region near the nucleus is of importance for heavy muonic atoms. (12 References).

L. S. Brown, R. N. Cahn, and LD. McLerran, "Vacuum polarization in a strong Coulomb field. I. Induced point charge," *Physical Review D*, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 581--95, 1975.

Abstract:An expression, to all orders of Z alpha , is obtained for the polarization point charge induced by a point nuclear charge. The short distance behaviour of the vacuum polarization potential is important in the study of energy levels in heavy muonic atoms. (15 References).

V. Brudanin, V. Egorov, T. Filipova, T. Mamedov, A. Salamatin, Yu Shitov, I. Stekl, V. Vorobel, Ts Vylov, I. Yutlandov, Sh Zaparov, J. Deutsch, R. Prieels, L. Grenacs, and Ch. Briancon, "Investigation of spin-neutrino angular correlations in the capture of polarized muons by silicon nuclei," in *Yamada Conference XL IV. Proceedings of the IV International Symposium on Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei*, (H. Ejiri, T. Kishimoto, and T. Sato, eds.), pp. 390--3, 1995.

Abstract:In two experiments carried out in 1993-1994 in Dubna the specific shape of gamma -lines corresponding to the decay of the short-lived excited state at 2202 keV of the recoiling nucleus was precisely measured at different angles to the muon polarisation axis. The results of the analysis of two gamma -lines indicate a significant quenching of the g/sub P//g/sub A/ ratio with respect to the Goldberger-Treiman prediction using the PCAC-hypothesis. The model-dependence of this apparent quenching remains to be assessed. (16 References).

V. Brudanin, V. Egorov, T. Filipova, A. Kachalkin, V. Kovalenko, A. Salamatin, Yu Shitov, I. Stekl, S. Vassiliev, V. Vorobel, T. Vylov, I. Yutlandov, Sh Zaparov, J. Deutsch, R. Prieels, L. Grenacs, J. Rak, and C. Briancon, "Measurement of the induced pseudoscalar form factor in the capture of polarized muons by Si nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A587, no. 4, pp. 577--95, 1995.

Abstract:The observation with high-resolution Ge detectors of the 1229 and 2171 keV gamma-rays emitted after the /sup 28/Si( mu , nu )/sup 28/Al(1/sup +/, 2202 keV) reaction allowed us to determine the nuclear-amplitude ratio x identical to M(2)/M(-1) characteristic of this muon-capture reaction. Using the nuclear-structure dependent evaluation of various correction terms (model of Ciechanowicz), our result x=+0.254+or-0.034 provides for the induced pseudoscalar coupling g/sub P/ the ratio g/sub P//g/sub A/(0.848m/sup 2//sub mu /)=3.4+or-1.0, to be compared to the PCAC prediction of g/sub P//g/sub A/=7. The model dependence of this apparent quenching remains to be assessed. (59 References).

H. Bruggemeyer, V. Pfeufer, U. Nielsen, and J-F. Wyart, "Hyperfine structure in the configuration 4f/sup 11/5d6s/sup 2/ of Er I," *Zeitschrift fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules & Clusters*, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 269--81, 1986.

Abstract:Hyperfine constants of low lying levels of the configuration 4f/sup 11/5d6s/sup 2/ in Er I have been measured for the only stable odd isotope, /sup 167/Er, using high resolution laser-atomic-beam spectroscopy. Hyperfine parameters were evaluated from the experimental data using the effective tensor operator formalism. For this purpose eigenfunctions have been determined from an analysis of the fine structure energies of Er I as well as from ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. A comparison of calculated fine structure energies, Lande g/sub J/-factors and hyperfine constants with experimental data allowed a test of the reliability of the fine structure and multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock wavefunctions. Effective nuclear electric quadrupole moments for /sup 167/Er have been determined from the experimental hyperfine constants using both calculated relativistic electronic radial integrals and hyperfine parameters for the 4f and 5d electrons in the configuration 4f/sup 11/5d6s/sup 2/ in Er I. From a comparison with the nuclear quadrupole moment measured in the mesic atom Sternheimer shielding factors are calculated. Configuration-interaction contributions to the radial integrals (r/sup -3/)/sub nl//sup 01/ of the 4f and 5d electrons have been determined. (44 References).

D. A. Bryman, M. Blecher, K. Gotow, and RJ. Powers, "Search for the reaction mu /sup -/+Cu to e/sup +/+Co," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 1469--71, 1972.

Abstract:The authors have searched for the reaction mu /sup -/+Cu to e/sup +/+Co, which is allowed by the lepton conservation scheme that assigns the same lepton number to e/sup -/, mu /sup +/, nu /sub e/, and nu mu . One event has been observed which is consistent with the above reaction, while the expected background was approximately=0.02 events. Although they cannot be certain whether the process has been detected, but they can set an upper limit on the branching ratio relative to ordinary muon capture of r[left angle bracket]or=2.6*10/sup -8/(90% confidence level). (15 References).

D. A. Bryman, ETH Clifford, M. J. Leitch, I. Navon, T. Numao, P. Schlatter, M. S. Dixit, C. K. Hargrove, H. Mes, R. A. Burnham, M. Hasinoff, J-M Poutissou, J. A. Macdonald, J. Spuller, G. Azuelos, P. Depommier, J-P Martin, R. Poutissou, M. Blecher, K. Gotow, A. L. Carter, H. L. Anderson, and SC. Wright, "Search for mu -e conversion in Ti," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 465--8, 1985.

Abstract:A search has been performed for the lepton-flavor-nonconserving reaction mu /sup -/+Ti to e/sup -/+Ti using a time-projection chamber. No candidate events were observed, resulting in a limit of Gamma ( mu /sup -/+Ti to e/sup -/+Ti)/ Gamma ( mu /sup -/+Ti to capture)[left angle bracket]1.6*10/sup -11/ (90% CL) for this reaction relative to ordinary muon capture. (14 References).

D. A. Bryman, M. J. Leitch, I. Navon, T. Numao, P. Schlatter, M. S. Dixit, C. K. Hargrove, H. Mes, R. A. Burnham, M. Hasinoff, J-M Poutissou, J. A. Macdonald, J. Spuller, G. Azuelos, P. Depommier, J. P. Martin, R. Poutissou, M. Blecher, K. Gotow, A. L. Carter, H. L. Anderson, and SC. Wright, "Search for muon electron conversion mu /sup -/+Ti to e/sup -/+Ti," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 434, no. , pp. 469-74, 1985.

Abstract:A progress report on a search for the lepton flavor violating reaction mu /sup -/+Ti to e/sup -/+Ti is presented. No evidence for this process has yet been found leading to an upper limit [left angle bracket]2*10/sup -11/ (90% confidence level) relative to ordinary muon capture. (5 References).

M. Bubak, V. M. Bystritsky, A. Gula, and J. Wozniak, "Kinetics of muon catalyzed nuclear synthesis in media containing one hydrogen isotope and heavier element admixtures," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, 1984.

Abstract:Summary form only given. Kinetic formulae are derived describing the evolution in time of the processes leading to the muon-catalyzed nuclear synthesis in pure D/sub 2/ or T/sub 2/ targets containing possible admixtures of heavier elements. The formulae enable one to take into account any mu -molecular and mu -atomic processes in the muon-catalysis chain, and describe the time distributions of these processes in separate cycles with inclusion of the experimental detection efficiency. (2 References).

M. Bubak, V. M. Bystritsky, and A. Gu{\l}a, "Kinetic formulae for (D+D)µ and (T+T)µ muon--catalyzed nuclear synthesis," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. 16, pp. 575--588, 1985.

M. Bubak and V. M. Bystritsky, "Evaluation of the possibility for determining the parameters of the $t\mu$--atoms charge exchange on helium," *JINR Preprint E1--86--107*, 1986.

M. Bubak and M. P. Faifman, "Cross sections for hydrogen muonic atomic processes in two-level approximation of the adiabatic framework," *JINR Preprint E4--87--464*, 1987.

M. Bubak and VM. Bystritsky, "Cycle-by-cycle time distribution of muon catalyzed fusions disregarding events occurring in deadtime intervals," *Kerntechnik*, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 328--30, 1991.

Abstract:Cycle-by-cycle kinetic formulae are derived which describe the time distribution of muon catalyzed fusion events, disregarding events occurring in deadtime intervals. These theoretical time distributions are appropriate for any muon catalyzed fusion chain in any mixture of hydrogen isotopes. The approach enables analysis of experimental data excluding ambiguities connected with deadtime corrections. (13 References).

C. Bucci, G. Guidi, G. M. De'munari, M. Manfredi, P. Podini, R. Tedeschi, P. R. Crippa, and A. Vecli, "Direct evidence for muonium radicals in water solutions," *Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 41--4, 1978.

Abstract:The precession frequencies of muonium in a molecular radical state have been observed by mu SR technique in diluted solutions of 2,6-dihydroxy-5-methylpyrimidine (thymine) in water. The conditions for the observation of the radicals are discussed in terms of the interdependent roles played by the chemical reaction time for muonium and by the external magnetic field. A comparison with the known ESR data on solid thymine confirms that the observed product of the muonium's reaction is an adduct radical with an hyperfine interaction reduced by 7%+or-1% of the free muonium value. (5 References).

B. Budick, W. Y. Lee, S. Bernow, M. Y. Chen, S. C. Cheng, D. Hitlin, J. W. Kast, E. R. Macagno, A. M. Rushton, and CS. Wu, "Finite distribution of nuclear M1 and E2 moments in muonic /sup 115/In, /sup 133/Cs, and /sup 141/Pr," in *Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on high-energy physics and nuclear structure*, (S. Devons, ed.), pp. 203-4, 1970.

Abstract:The distribution of nuclear M1 and E2 moments in the nuclei /sup 115/In, /sup 133/Cs, and /sup 141/Pr have been investigated by observing the hfs of their muonic X-ray spectra. The nuclear magnetism arising from the orbital motions is concentrated closer to the center of the nucleus, while the spin magnetism is more highly localized at the positions of the individual nucleons and tends to be more uniform. The reductions of the values of A/sub 1/(Is/sub 1/2/) from their point-dipole values for all three nuclei studied are apparent.

B. Budick, S. C. Cheng, E. R. Macagno, A. M. Rushton, and CS. Wu, "Muon- and pion-induced fission of uranium isotopes," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 604--7, 1970.

Abstract:The authors have measured the energy distributions of fission fragments following formation of muonic and pionic /sup 233/U and /sup 235/U. They have confirmed earlier results on the mean lives for muon capture by /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U and extended the study to /sup 233/U, Additional data have also been obtained on the process whereby a muon induces fission by transferring its excitation energy to the nucleus in a radiationless transition to the 1s level.

B. Budick, J. R. Toraskar, and I. Yaghoobia, "Muonic X-rays from liquid hydrogen," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 34B, no. 6, pp. 539--41, 1971.

Abstract:The authors have observed Lyman radiation from the muonic atoms formed when a beam of muons stops in a liquid hydrogen target. Energies for these X-rays lie in the range 1.9-2.5 keV. Their results are consistent with a ratio of K/sub alpha // Sigma K=0.7+or-0.2. In addition, the authors searched for X-rays from pionic hydrogen by stopping negative pions in liquid hydrogen. No clear evidence for pionic X-rays was found.

B. Budick, "Muon-neutron interaction in heavy muonic atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 2267--9, 1974.

Abstract:The existence of a neutron halo in heavy muonic atoms could be detected as a shift in the energy levels. This is calculated on the assumption of a Foldy interaction of the anomalous moments of the neutron in the halo with the electrostatic charge of a muon. However, the calculated values for the 3d level of muonic barium and the 4f level of muonic lead is too small and in the wrong direction to account for the present discrepancy between the calculated and the measured values of the vacuum polarization corrections to these levels. (14 References).

B. Budick, R. Anigstein, and JW. Kast, "Isomer shifts of the octupole doublet in muonic /sup 207/Pb," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 94B, no. 3, pp. 339--42, 1980.

Abstract:Isomer shifts in the doublet 5/2/sup +/, 7/2/sup +/ levels in muonic /sup 207/Pb have been measured. The shifts are essentially the same as in the core 3/sup -/ collective state. They support the hypothesis that the octupole vibration does not conserve volume. (15 References).

B. Budick, R. Anigstein, and JW. Kast, "Prompt gamma -rays from /sup 206/Pb following neutron emission from muonic /sup 207/Pb," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A350, no. 3-4, pp. 265--77, 1980.

Abstract:The authors have measured the energies and intensities of prompt gamma -rays from /sup 206/Pb that follow neutron emission from muonic /sup 207/Pb. For the levels at 803, 1704 and 2648 keV they deduce muonic isomer shifts. By comparing the relative and absolute yields of the gamma -rays with the intensities of neutron groups observed in ( gamma ,n) reactions, they find that roughly 50% of the prompt neutrons from muonic /sup 207/Pb result from radiationless deexcitation of atomic levels with n[right angle bracket]or=4. (26 References).

B. Budick, R. Anigstein, and JW. Kast, "Neutronless muon capture on /sup 207/Pb," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 106B, no. 1-2, pp. 55--7, 1981.

Abstract:Muon capture on /sup 207/Pb to the first excited state of /sup 207/Tl has been detected in a delayed gamma ray experiment with a probability of 7.9+or-1.4% per mu capture. This experiment is the first to observe muon capture to an excited state of the isobar of a heavy nucleus. (16 References).

B. Budick, R. Anigstein, and JW. Kast, "Nuclear excitation in the reaction /sup 207/Pb( mu /sup -/, nu 6n)/sup 201/Tl," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 110B, no. 5, pp. 375--8, 1982.

Abstract:A probability of roughly 1% has been measured for the formation of the first excited state of /sup 201/Tl following muon capture on /sup 207/Pb. A probability of this magnitude for 6 neutron emission may indicate structure in the nuclear excitation function near 54 MeV. An alternative interpretation is provided by muon capture on a correlated np pair in analogy with pion absorption. (17 References).

B. Budick, R. Anigstein, and JW. Kast, "Delayed gamma rays from muon capture on /sup 207/Pb," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A393, no. 3, pp. 469--90, 1983.

Abstract:The authors have measured the energies and intensities of delayed gamma -rays from /sup 207-201/Tl following muon capture on /sup 207/Pb. Probabilities for the emission of 0-6 neutrons have been deduced. Measured and predicted neutron multiplicities (based on an impulse approximation model) are in reasonable agreement for multiplicities of 2, 3, 4 and 5. Experimental values for high and low multiplicities are not accounted for by the theory. High angular momentum states involving the h/sub 11/2/ proton hole are observed in several of the thallium daughters. Using a simple shell-model approach, the authors have correlated mu -capture on the h/sub 11/2/ proton shell with the energy spectrum of directly emitted neutrons. (46 References).

U. G. Budyashov, V. G. Zinov, A. D. Konin, and A. I. Mukhin, "Muon capture in gas mixtures," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 5, pp. 830--833, 1967.

U. G. Budyashov, P. F. Ermolov, V. G. Zinov, A. D. Konin, and A. I. Mukhin, "Structure of K series of argon in atomic capture of negative muons in the pure gas and in a mixture with hydrogen," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 5, pp. 599--602, 1967.

DV. Bugg, "pi -deuteron scattering," in *Conference on Few Body Problems in Nuclear and Particle Physics*, (R. J. Slobodrian, B. Cujec, and K. Ramavatram, eds.), pp. 267--86, 1975.

Abstract:The author discusses what happens in pi d scattering which cannot be understood directly from knowledge of pi N. Experimental data on total cross-sections and elastic scattering are reviewed from threshold to the GeV region, with particular attention to recent results. A new measurement of the scattering length, from the strong interaction shift in the ground state of the mesic atom, agrees with pi N scattering lengths and multiple scattering theory. Elastic scattering at high energy and small angles now agrees well with Glauber theory. However, the magnitude of the contribution of inelastic states to Glauber shadowing in the total cross-section is confused both experimentally and theoretically. (40 References).

AP. Bukhvostov, "Muon depolarization during mu -mesoatom production from nuclei with non-zero spin," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 107--13, 1969.

Abstract:Muon residual polarization at cascade transitions in mesoatoms for the nuclear spin from 0 to /sup 11///sub 2/ is calculated for specific values of initial orbital momentum. Hyperfine splitting of excited levels is assumed to be large as compared to their width. When calculating the polarization the possibility of the Auger transitions between sublevels in the hyperfine structure of the mesoatom K-shell is considered.

A. P. Bukhvostov and NP. Popov, "Time dependence of particle correlations in muon capture," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 385--400, 1970.

Abstract:The formulae for the correlations between the directions of the neutrino and gamma-ray momenta and the vector of muon polarization are obtained for muon capture with the excitation of a daughter nucleus. Time dependence of the particle correlations, which is caused by the conversion between the hyperfine K-shell sublevels, is analysed. Gamma-neutrino angular correlation is discussed in detail for muon capture by the /sup 14/N nucleus. (15 References).

A. P. Bukhvostov, V. A. Vartanyan, Z. Ozievich, N. P. Popov, and RA. Eramzhyan, "Recoil nuclei asymmetry in the capture of mu mesons by the /sup 11/B nucleus," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 820--4, 1971.

Abstract:The angular distribution of the recoil nuclei is calculated relative to the polarization vector of mu mesons in reaction mu /sup -/+/sup 11/B to /sup 11/*Be(/sup 1///sub 2//sup -/)+ nu . The asymmetry coefficient is analysed as a function of weak interaction constants, polarization parameters of mesoatom and nuclear matrix elements. The time dependence of the recoil nuclei asymmetry is analysed. The asymmetry coefficient has been found to be weakly dependent on the model parameters and g/sub P/, g/sub T/. The calculations show that the asymmetry coefficient is positive-definite in a wide range of possible values of the parameters calculated within the (V-A) theory.

A. P. Bukhvostov, A. M. Chatrchan, G. E. Dogotar, R. A. Eramzhyan, N. P. Popov, and VA. Vartanjan, "Partial transitions in muon capture by complex nuclei. I. The capture rate," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. B3, no. 3, pp. 375--83, 1972.

Abstract:The partial capture rates in muon capture by some light nuclei (/sup 9/Be, /sup 10/B, /sup 13/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 15/N and /sup 19/F) are calculated. The dependence of capture rates on nuclear structure is investigated. The possibility of deriving muon-nucleon coupling constants from data on light nuclei is discussed. (9 References).

A. P. Bukhvostov, S. Ciechanowicz, G. E. Dogotar, R. A. Eramzhyan, N. P. Popov, and VA. Vartanjan, "Partial transitions in muon capture by complex nuclei. II. The gamma-neutrino correlation," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. B4, no. 4, pp. 495--500, 1973.

Abstract:For part I, see abstr. A55983 of 1972. The gamma-neutrino directional angular distribution is calculated for the muon capture in /sup 10/B and in /sup 15/N. The dependence on nuclear structure and induced pseudoscalar coupling is investigated. A detailed analysis of the independent multipole amplitudes which describe the transition in /sup 15/N to the first excited level of /sup 15/C is also given. (6 References).

A. P. Bukhvostov and NP. Popov, "Depolarization of negative muons in hydrogen," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 23--33, 1982.

Abstract:The residual polarization of mu /sup -/-mesons slowing down in hydrogen (protium or deuterium) is calculated. The rates of Auger collisions between excited mesic atoms and atoms of the target are calculated in the eikonal approximation. The available data on muon depolarization in hydrogen are discussed. (30 References).

R. Bukowski and B. Jeziorski, "Nonrelativistic Lamb shift for a nonadiabatic many-particle system: an application to the dt mu ion," *Physical Review A*, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 5437--42, 1992.

Abstract:The soft-photon contribution to the Lamb shift of a bound state of a nonrelativistic many-particle system has been expressed by a general formula, which allows for the fully nonadiabatic treatment of the particles. This formula has been applied to estimate the radiative corrections to the binding energies of the S and P states of the dt mu molecule. The correction for the weakly bound P state has been found equal to 0.048 meV, and for the ground state the corresponding value is -1.184 meV. Simple adiabatic models for dt mu are examined and found to provide fairly accurate estimates of the Lamb shift for the two lowest states of this molecule. (27 References).

R. Bukowski and B. Jeziorski, "Nonrelativistic Lamb shift for muonic molecules," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 179--84, 1993.

Abstract:A recently developed formula (Bukowski and Jeziorski, 1992) has been applied to estimate the soft-photon Lamb shift contribution to the energies of the muonic molecules pp mu , dd mu , tt mu , pd mu , pt mu and dt mu . The corresponding corrections to the dissociation energies for the excited P states of dd mu and dt mu have been found to be almost identical and equal to 0.048 meV. The magnitude of this stabilizing effect is too small to affect seriously the formation rates predictions. (9 References).

L. Bulgarelli and others, "On the Ramsauer effect in the $d\mu +p \rightarrow d\mu + p$ cross section at $0.2$eV," *INFN Preprint /AE--66/4*, 1966.

G. G. Bunatian and YuS. Pol, "Slow pi -meson elastic scattering on nuclei," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, 1976.

Abstract:Reports calculations of the differential cross sections for pi /sup +/-/sup 4/He elastic scattering which described the interaction of pi mesons with nuclei in terms of an effective quasipotential analogous to the one used for the bound states of pi -mesic atoms and which also studied sensitivity to the different versions of the potential. (0 References).

G. G. Bunatyan, V. S. Evseev, L. N. Nikityuk, A. A. Nikolina, V. N. Pokrovskii, V. S. Roganov, L. M. Smirnova, and IA. Yutlandov, "Experimental determination of the ( mu /sup -/, nu ) probability on the Fe/sup 56/ nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 783--8, 1969.

Abstract:Probability of mu /sup -/-meson capture by the Fe/sup 56/ nucleus was measured by means of nuclear-chemical method and estimated theoretically using finite Fermi-system method. The probability of the process Fe /sup 56/ ( mu /sup -/ nu )Mn/sup 56/ measured is 0.16+or-0.025, theoretical estimate of this probability is 0.24+or-0.05. I t follows also from the calculations that in more than 50% of capture events in Mn/sup 56/, the 4.5 MeV level is excited. (19 References).

G. G. Bunatyan and YuS. Pol', "Energies and widths of the states of the pi atoms and distribution of nucleons in nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 827--32, 1977.

Abstract:The calculations and the data transition energies and widths of the levels of pionic atoms are analysed. The dependence of these quantities on the peculiarities of the nuclear density distribution is studied. It is shown that this dependence should be taken into account, although it gives no better fit to the data. (12 References).

EHS Burhop, D. H. Davis, J. Sacton, and G. Schorochoff, "K/sup -/ meson capture by nuclei and the existence of a neutron halo in heavy nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A132, no. 3, pp. 625--8, 1969.

Abstract:The evidence concerning the region of the nucleus in which the capture of K/sup -/ mesons in K mesonic atoms predominantly occurs is re-examined in the light of a recent criticism. It is concluded that capture in the extreme peripheral region where the nuclear density is of the order of 5 per cent of the central density and the existence of a neutron halo in heavy nuclei remain the most probable interpretation of the available data.

EHS. Burhop, "Exotic atoms," *Contemporary Physics*, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 335--58, 1970.

Abstract:Electrically charged elementary particles may be incorporated into atoms and molecules. A negatively charged particle may replace an electron while a positively charged particle may capture an electron forming an entity having many properties similar to those of an H atom. These unusual types of atom or molecule have many applications ranging from catalysing nuclear fusion, probing both the charge and nuclear matter distribution in a nucleus, providing accurate methods of measurement of fundamental constants and acting as tracing atoms for monitoring chemical reactions of atomic hydrogen. (17 References).

H. Burkhardt and J. Lowe, "Decays of the K/sup -/p atom and the Lambda (1405)," *Physical Review C*, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 607--14, 1991.

Abstract:To investigate differences between some recent calculations on the decays of the K/sup -/p atom, the authors calculate the pionic decays K/sup -/p to Lambda pi /sup 0/, Sigma /sup +/ pi /sup -/, Sigma /sup 0/ pi /sup 0/, and Sigma /sup -/ pi /sup +/ in an isobar model and compare them with experimental rates determined from measured branching ratios together with the imaginary part of the KN scattering amplitude. The comparison shows that the coupling constants at the strong-interaction vertices are reduced significantly from the on-shell values. These coupling constants are then applied to an isobar-model calculation of the radiative transition rates. Comparing these with results from a recent experiment gives values for the radiative decay widths of the Lambda (1405): Gamma ( Lambda (1405) to Lambda gamma )=27+or-8 keV and Gamma ( Lambda (1405) to Sigma/sup 0/+gamma)=10+or-4 or 23+or-7 keV. (41 References).

R. A. Burnstein, D. P. Novak, H. A. Rubin, and VR. Veirs, "Cascade time of negative K mesons in liquid deuterium," *Physical Review A*, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2102--5, 1973.

Abstract:The cascade time of K/sup -/ mesons have been measured in liquid deuterium using a deuterium-filled bubble chamber as the particle detector and absorber. The experimental result of T/sub cascade/ /sub D2/=6/sup +7//sub -6/*10/sup -12/ sec is consistent with results for liquid hydrogen and with the prediction that 'Stark-effect mixing' allow rapid capture for s states of high principal quantum number n. (15 References).

A. Buta, D. Dorcioman, N. Grama, V. Hulubei, L. Marinescu, M. Petrascu, Gh Voiculescu, and M. Omelianenco, "The mechanisms of Pu 239 fission by muons," *Revue Roumaine de Physique*, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 215--20, 1971.

Abstract:The time and pulse height distribution of the fissions induced by muons in Pu 239 was measured with a gas scintillation fission chamber. It has been experimentally established that the ratio of the radiationless fission probability to the mu /sup -/-capture fission probability for Pu 239 if 0.28+or-0.04. This large contribution of the radiationless transitions to the fission of Pu 239 is connected to the modification of the fission barrier due to the presence of the muon in the K shell of the mesic atom.

A. V. Butkevich, R. P. Kokoulin, G. V. Matushko, and S. P. Mikheyev, "Comments on multiple scattering of high-energy muons in thick layers," *Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip.*, vol. 488, pp. 282-294, 2002.

Abstract:We describe two independent methods to calculate the angular distribution of muons after traversing a thick scatterer due to multiple Coulomb scattering, Both methods take into account the nuclear size effect, We demonstrate a necessity to account for the nucleus extension as well as incoherent scattering on atomic electrons to describe the muon scattering at large angles in thick matter layers. The results of the two methods of calculations are in good agreement. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

V. S. Butsev, D. Chultem, YuK Gavrilov, Dz Ganzorig, YuV Norseev, and V. Presperin, "Negative pion capture in chemical compounds," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 63B, no. 1, pp. 47--9, 1976.

Abstract:The capture has been investigated of negative pions in LiI, NaI, KI, RbI and CsI. The capture probability is in agreement with the Z-law. (7 References).

D. Buttar, R. M. Macrae, B. C. Webster, and E. Roduner, "Solvent effects on the hyperfine coupling constant and barrier to internal rotation for the 2-muoxyprop-2-yl radical," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 65, no. 1-4, pp. 927--36, 1990.

Abstract:The muon-electron beta -hyperfine coupling constant is reported for the 2-muoxyprop-2-yl radical formed by positive muon ( mu /sup +/) implantation in propan-2-one and aqueous solutions of propan-2-one. Using the technique of muon spin rotation ( mu SR) spectroscopy the coupling constant was measured over a full temperature range in which the samples were in the liquid state. In all cases, the coupling constants were found to be small, and to show a positive temperature dependence. In the aqueous mixtures the presence of the water produces a slight lowering, at all temperatures, in the coupling constant with respect to the coupling in pure propan-2-one. An interpretation is given which relates the radical structure to the barrier hindering internal rotation and to solvent interactions. (10 References).

D. Buttar and BC. Webster, "Vibrationally averaged beta -hyperfine coupling constants for the muonium-substituted ethyl radical," *Journal of the Chemical Society-Faraday Transactions*, vol. 87, no. 18, pp. 2901--5, 1991.

Abstract:A variation-perturbation approach is applied to compute isotope-dependent zero-point vibrational corrections to the beta -hyperfine coupling constant of the ethyl radical. The corrections increase the coupling by ca. 5, 7 and 23% for the deuterium-, protium- and muonium-substituted radicals, respectively. The large vibrational correction to the muon beta -hyperfine coupling constant could explain the 'residual' isotope effect observed experimentally. (20 References).

S. Buttgenbach, "Magnetic hyperfine anomalies," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1--64, 1984.

Abstract:This study is concerned with the measurement and interpretation of magnetic hyperfine anomalies in electronic and muonic atoms, i.e. effects of the distribution of nuclear magnetization on the magnetic dipole hyperfine interaction. After a summary of the relevant theory and a review of experimental techniques, hyperfine anomaly results are discussed in terms of various nuclear models. The use of the anomaly for yielding information about the origin of magnetic hyperfine interactions is outlined. Experimental and theoretical hyperfine anomalies are tabulated. (159 References).

V. S. Buttsev, Zh Ganzorig, V. Kozhokaru, T. Krogul'ski, KhG Ortlepp, S. M. Polikanov, B. M. Sabirov, V. D. Fromm, U. Shmidt, and D. Chultem, "Intensity of meso-X-ray transitions in lead, thorium and uranium," *Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki, Pis'Ma V Redaktsiyu*, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 534-8, 1976.

Abstract:Measurements of the intensity of the main transitions in the muonic atoms of lead, thorium and uranium, were performed in two stages. First, the intensity of 6h to 5g to 4f transitions in Pb, Th and U were determined; then, the meso-X-ray spectra of all targets in the range of 150 keV to 7 MeV were measured over a long time, and the relative intensities of the transitions were determined. The final results are tabulated, indicating that the intensity of transitions for the lead and for the actinides differ appreciably. (8 References).

VS. Buttsev, "Absorption of slow pi /sup -/-mesons by deformed nuclei," *Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR Seriya Fizicheskaya*, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 131--40, 1979.

Abstract:The process of absorption of slow pi /sup -/-mesons by a nucleus begins with atomic pion capture on excited Bohr orbits. Then after emission of X-rays and Auger-electrons the pion descends to lower orbits and is absorbed by the nucleus. (21 References).

V. M. Bystritsky and others, *JINR Preprint 13--80--325*, 1980.

V. M. Bystritsky and others, *JINR Preprint 13--83--636*, 1983.

V. M. Bystriikii, V. P. Dzhelepov, K. O. Oganesyan, M. N. Omel'yanenko, SYu Porokhovoi, A. I. Rudenko, and VV. Fil'chenkov, "Investigation of the synthesis reaction d mu +d to He/sup 3/+n+ mu in gaseous deuterium. (dd mu mesomolecule formation)," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 61--7, 1974.

Abstract:The yield and time distribution of neutrons from the synthesis reaction in the dd mu mesomolecule are measured with a gaseous target containing ultrapure 41 atmosphere deuterium (content of impurities with Z[right angle bracket]1 is [left angle bracket]or approximately=10/sup -8/). The experiments are performed with the muon beam of the Dubna synchrocyclotron. The rate lambda /sub dd mu / of dd mu molecule formation in gaseous deuterium at T=300K and the rate lambda /sub f/ of the nuclear reaction in this mesomolecule are derived by analyzing the time distribution (918 events). The value obtained lambda /sub dd mu /=(0.73+or-0.07)*10/sup 6/ sec/sup -1/ and previous data for T=240K (obtained in experiments with a diffusion chamber) confirm the theoretically predicted existence of a mechanism of dd mu molecule formation which is in resonance with the d mu atom energy. Direct data on the magnitude of lambda /sub f/ are obtained. The experimental value lambda /sub f/[right angle bracket]1.8*10/sup 6/ sec/sup -1/ (with a probability of 90%) is in agreement with the theoretical results. (11 References).

V. M. Bystriikii, V. P. Dzhelepov, P. F. Ermolov, K. O. Oganesyan, M. N. Omel'yanenko, SYu Porokhovoi, V. S. Roganov, A. I. Rudenko, and VV. Fil'chenkov, "Measurement of the rate of muon capture in gaseous hydrogen," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 43--60, 1974.

Abstract:Muon capture by protons is investigated by employing a gaseous hydrogen target and the Dubna synchrocyclotron muon beam. 278+or-33 events of this type have been recorded. The measured capture rate is lambda /sub capt//sup p mu /=686+or-88 sec/sup -1/. The result obtained is in accordance with predictions of the universal four-fermion interaction theory and is a definite argument in favor of the V-A variant of the theory. (29 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, P. F. Ermolov, K. O. Oganesyan, M. N. Omel'yanenko, SYu Porokhovoi, and VV. Fil'chenkov, "Multichannel system for recording neutrons using a line with an electronic computer," *Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta*, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 65-9, 1972.

Abstract:A system of instruments is described which is designed to record neutrons having energies of 1 to 10 MeV in experiments involving the study of the interactions of muons with hydrogen and other nuclei. The detectors are scintillation counters with stilbene crystals. The purpose of the electronic blocks is to separate neutrons from gamma -quanta and assure that separate analysis of events with respect to neutron energy for each detector may be conducted. The entire handling process is achieved using an electronic computer and may be performed during the experiment. (4 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. I. Petrukhin, A. I. Rudenko, V. M. Suvorov, V. V. Filchenkov, G. Khemnits, N. N. Khovanskii, and BA. Khomenko, "A direct measurement of the rates of formation of pp mu and pd mu molecules in gaseous hydrogen," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 1167--77, 1976.

Abstract:The rates of formation of the pp mu and pd mu mesic molecules and also the ratios of muon transfer of xenon from a proton or deuteron are measured in experiments with a gas target filled with H/sub 2/, H/sub 2/+Xe, H/sub 2/+Xe+D/sub 2/. (xenon concentration 3.10/sup -5/, deuterium approximately=7%) at a pressure of 40 atm. The muon beam from the Dubna synchro-cyclotron was employed. The following values were obtained: lambda /sub pp mu /=(2.34+or-0.17).10/sup 6/ sec/sup -1/, lambda /sub pd mu / =(5.53+or-0.16).10/sup 6/ sec/sup -1/. B=1.62+or-0.05. (17 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. I. Petrukhin, A. I. Rudenko, V. M. Suvorov, V. V. Fil'chenkov, G. Khemnits, N. N. Khovanskii, and BA. Khomenko, "A study of the spin states of d mu atoms in gaseous hydrogen and measurement of the fusion rate in the pd mu molecule," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1680--8, 1976.

Abstract:The fusion reaction rate, lambda /sub F/, in the pd mu mesic molecule is measured in experiments performed with a gaseous target filled with a H/sub 2/+7% D/sub 2/ mixture at a pressure of 42 atm. exposed to the muon beam from the 680 MeV JINP synchrocyclotron. The upper limit of the transition rate, lambda /sub d/, between the levels of the d mu atom hyperfine structure in d mu (/sup 3///sub 2/)+d to d mu (/sup 1///sub 2/)+d collisions is also determined. From the estimate of lambda /sub d/ it follows that at low deuterium concentrations (of about several percent) the population of d mu atomic spin states in H/sub 2/+D/sub 2/ mixtures is, during nuclear capture by the deuteron, close to the statistical. (16 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. I. Petrukhin, A. I. Rudenko, L. N. Somov, V. M. Suvorov, V. V. Filchenkov, G. Hemnits, N. N. Khovanskii, B. A. Khomenko, and D. Horvath, "Resonance dependence of the rate of dd mu mesic molecule formation in gaseous deuterium," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 460--9, 1979.

Abstract:"The dependence of the rate lambda /sub dd mu / of dd mu mesic molecule formation on energy ( epsilon /sub d mu /) of the d mu atom is measured with the muon beam of the 680 MeV synchrocyclotron of the JINR Nuclear Problems Laboratory and a gaseous deuterium target at d mu atom energies in the 0.015 to 0.050 eV energy range (deuterium temperature 120-380K). The results prove the existence of the resonance mechanism of dd mu mesic molecule formation predicted by the theory. From an analysis of the experimental data the position of the resonance is determined, epsilon /sub d mu //sup 0/=0.050+or-0.003 eV and also the value of lambda /sub dd mu / at the peak of the curve lambda /sub dd mu /( epsilon /sub d mu //sup 0/)=(0.85+or-0.11)*10/sup 6/ sec/sup -1/. This yields with a high degree of accuracy the binding energy of the dd mu molecule in a state with quantum numbers L=1

V. M. Bystritskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, Z. V. Ershova, V. G. Zinov, V. K. Kapyshev, S. M. Mukhamet-Galeeva, V. S. Nadezhdin, L. A. Rivkis, A. I. Rudenko, V. I. Satarov, N. V. Sergeeva, L. N. Somov, V. A. Stolupin, and VV. Fil'chenkov, "Experimental investigation of muonic catalysis in the synthesis reaction of deuterium and tritium," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 249--53, 1980.

Abstract:Using a 680 MeV OIYaI synchrocyclotron muon beam, the authors measured neutron emission from the reaction dt mu to /sup 4/He+n+ mu /sup -/+17.6 MeV, due to negative muons in a D/sub 2/+T/sub 2/ gas mixture. On the basis of these results, the authors obtained muon capture speed of tritium from deuterium lambda dt=(2.7+or-0.9)*10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/ and the lower bound for the speed of formation of dt mu -molecules, mu /sub dt mu /[right angle bracket]10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/. (11 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. G. Zinov, A. I. Rudenko, L. N. Somov, and VV. Filchenkov, "Measurement of the residual polarization of negative muons in gaseous hydrogen," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 839--51, 1981.

Abstract:The residual polarization of negative muons in the ground states of the p mu - and d mu -atoms is measured. The 680 MeV synchrocyclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research produces the muon beam and a gas target consisting of ultrapure hydrogen at 40 atmospheres is employed. The values of residual polarization in protium P/sub mu /(H)=0.3+or-0.9% and deuterium P/sub mu /(D)=1.0+or-0.9% have been obtained. (28 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, V. K. Kapyshev, SSh Mukhamet-Galeeva, L. A. Rivkis, V. I. Satarov, and VA. Stolupin, "System for supplying gas to a target in experiments on muon catalysis on the (d+t) nuclear fusion reaction," *Pribory i Tekhnika Eksperimenta*, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 27--9, 1981.

Abstract:A system is developed for filling a target with a gaseous mixture of deuterium and tritium for experiments on muon catalysis of the (d+t) nuclear fusion reaction. The deuterium is purified using zeolite adsorbers. The tritium source was titanium tritide heated to 800 degrees C. The hydrogen isotopes were separated from the target by adsorbers saturated with TNT-4 titanium gas absorbers. The system yielded deuterium of purity 2.10/sup -7/ parts by volume; the impurity of the tritium was less than 10/sup -5/ parts by volume. (4 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. I. Petrukhin, A. I. Rudenko, V. M. Suvorov, V. V. Filchenkov, N. N. Khovanskii, and BA. Khomenko, "Muon transfer from hydrogen to helium," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 1257--65, 1983.

Abstract:It is found that mu /sup -/ mesons stopped in a gas mixture of hydrogen, helium, and xenon (hydrogen pressure about 20 atmospheres, helium and xenon densities relative to hydrogen 0.05-2 and approximately 10/sup -4/ respectively) are transferred from the p mu atoms in the ground state to helium atoms at a rate lambda /sub He/=(3.6+or-1.0).10/sup 8/ sec/sup -1/. The result is in good agreement with the calculations in which a novel mesic-molecular mechanism of p mu -atom charge exchange with helium nuclei is taken into account. The dependence of the probability for p mu -atom formation in the ground state on the helium density is measured. An analysis of this dependence and a comparison of it with the corresponding data for pi /sup -/ mesons indicate that muons can also be transferred from excited levels of p mu atoms at a rate higher than in the case of p pi atoms (transfer constant Lambda /sub mu /=3.8+or-0.3 compared with Lambda /sub pi /=1.84+or-0.09). (9 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. I. Petrukhin, A. I. Rudenko, V. M. Suvorov, V. V. Fil'chenkov, N. N. Khovanskii, and BA. Khomenko, "Measurement of the cross section for scattering of rho mu atoms in gaseous hydrogen," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 384--92, 1984.

Abstract:The muon beam of the synchrocyclotron at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has been used in an experiment with gaseous hydrogen at a pressure of 41 atm to measure the cross section for scattering of rho mu atoms by hydrogen molecules sigma ( rho mu +H/sub 2/)=(42+or-8)*10/sup -21/ cm/sup 2/, which corresponds to a cross section for scattering by free protons sigma ( rho mu +p)=(17.4+or-3.3)*10/sup -21/ cm/sup 2/. (21 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, A. V. Kravtsov, and NP. Popov, "Kinetics of excited muonic hydrogen in mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 73--7, 1990.

Abstract:The de-excitation cascade of excited muonic hydrogen in a mixture of hydrogen and helium isotopes is considered. A method is proposed for determining the rates of transfer of a muon from excited muonic hydrogen to helium, and also the probability of direct atomic capture of a muon into isotopes of hydrogens. (20 References).

V. M. Bystritskii, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. G. Zinov, N. Ilieva-Sokolinova, A. D. Konin, L. Marczis, D. G. Merkulov, A. I. Rudenko, L. N. Somov, V. A. Stolupin, and VV. Fil'chenkov, "Muon transfer from d/sub m/ atoms to /sup 4/He nuclei in a deuterium-helium mixture at 1350 atmospheres," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 1514--19, 1990.

Abstract:An experiment has been performed to measure the parameters of charge exchange of d mu atoms on /sup 4/He nuclei in a D/sub 2/+/sup 4/He mixture at a pressure P=1350 atm. The helium concentration was varied in the range 5*10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -2/. The rate of transfer of muons from d mu atoms in the ground state to /sup 4/He nuclei turned out to be (2.75+or-0.22)*10/sup 8/ sec/sup -1/. Lower-limit estimates were obtained for the population of the ground state of d/sub mu / atoms at minimal and maximal helium concentrations, which amounted respectively to 0.96 and 0.90. (18 References).

V. M. Bystritskii and VA. Stolupin, "Experimental determination of the parameters of charge exchange of mu -mesic atoms of hydrogen isotopes on He nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1005--11, 1991.

Abstract:The kinetics of mu -atom and mu -molecule processes that take place in a mixture of hydrogen isotopes with helium is considered. Expressions are obtained for determining the parameters of muon transfer from the mu -atoms of the hydrogen isotopes to the He nuclei using various experimental methods. (18 References).

VM. Bystritskii, "Measurement of cross sections for the scattering of p mu and d mu atoms on hydrogen and deuterium," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 688--94, 1995.

Abstract:A brief review is given of all experiments on measurement of cross sections for the scattering of p mu atoms on hydrogen and for the scattering of d mu atoms on hydrogen and deuterium. The experimental results are analyzed and compared both with one another and with the results of calculations. In order to clarify the nature of discrepancies between the results of certain experiments and to obtain more precise information about the cross sections for the above processes, a program is proposed for further experimental investigation of the scattering of muon atoms by hydrogen isotopes. (23 References).

VM. Bystritskii, "Muon transfer from muonic atoms of hydrogen isotopes to He nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 808--16, 1995.

Abstract:The entire body of experimental results on muon transfer from mu atoms of hydrogen isotopes to helium nuclei is discussed and subjected to comparative analysis. A program of further investigations aimed at obtaining more precise and detailed information about the characteristics of mu -atomic and mu -molecular processes in mixtures of hydrogen isotopes and helium is proposed. (34 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, V. P. Dzhelepov, Z. V. Ershova, V. V. Filchenkov, V. K. Kapyshev, S. M. Mukhamet-Galeeva, V. S. Nadezhdin, L. A. Rivkis, A. I. Rudenko, V. I. Satarov, N. V. Sergeeva, L. N. Somov, V. A. Stolupin, and VG. Zinov, "Experimental detection and investigation of muon catalyzed fusion of deuterium and tritium," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 94B, no. 4, pp. 476--9, 1980.

Abstract:Measurement of the neutron yield of the reaction dt mu to /sup 4/He+n+ mu /sup -/+17.6 MeV, induced by negative muons in a mixture of gaseous D/sub 2/ and T/sub 2/, has shown that the rate of muon transfer from deuterium to tritium is lambda /sub dt/=(2.7+or-0.9)*10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/ and that the lower limit of the formation rate of dt/sub mu / molecules is lambda /sub dt mu /[right angle bracket]10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/. (11 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, V. P. Dzhelepov, Z. V. Yershova, V. G. Zinov, V. K. Kapyshev, SSh Mukhamet-Galeyeva, V. S. Nadezhdin, L. A. Rivkis, A. I. Rudenko, V. I. Satarov, N. V. Sergeyeva, L. N. Somov, V. A. Stolupin, and VV. Filchenkov, "Experimental investigation of muon catalysis of the fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 1700--14, 1981.

Abstract:The yield and time distributions of the neutrons produced in the fusion of the dt mu mesic molecule are measured with a gas target filled to various pressures with pure deuterium and tritium and the muon beam from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research synchrocyclotron. The experiments are performed at several concentrations of tritium and in the 93 to 613K temperature range. The lower limit for dt mu molecule formation lambda /sub dt mu /[right angle bracket]10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/ and the rate of muon transfer from deuterium to tritium lambda /sub dt/=(2.9+or-0.4)*10/sup 8/ s/sup -1/ are determined on the basis of these data. The value found for the lower limit of the dt mu molecule formation rate confirms the existence of the theoretically predicted mechanism of formation of the molecule which involves a resonance with respect to the t mu atom energy. The value of the transfer rate lambda /sub dt/ is also in good agreement with the theoretical value. (24 References).

V. M. Bystritsky and others, "Determination of optimal conditions for the experimental investigation of muon catalysis of nuclear reaction: t+t $\rightarrow$ $^4$He + 2n," *JINR Preprint E1--83--690*, 1983.

V. M. Bystritsky, A. Gula, and J. Wozniak, "Cycle-by-cycle analysis of muon-catalysed fusion in a one-component medium," *Atomkernenergie Kerntechnik*, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 197--9, 1984.

Abstract:The formulae describing the separate cycles of muon catalysed nuclear synthesis of hydrogen isotopes in a one-component medium (pure deuterium or tritium) are derived and discussed. (9 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, J. Wo{\'z}niak, and V. G. Zinov, "Characteristics of the large-volume NE--213 neutron counters for muon catalyzed fusion investigation," *JINR Preprint E1--84--735*, 1984.

V. M. Bystritsky, V. P. Dzhelepov, A. Gula, J. Wozniak, and VG. Zinov, "Calculation of neutron registration efficiency for experimental investigation of tt mu to /sup 4/He+2n+ mu /sup -/ and dt mu to /sup 4/He+n+ mu /sup -/ muon-catalysed fusion reactions," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. B15, no. 7, pp. 689--97, 1984.

Abstract:Neutron registration efficiency in experiments on muon-catalysed fusion reaction tt mu to /sup 4/He+2n+ mu /sup -/ and dt mu to 4He+n+ mu - is calculated. The dependence of light output response of the detectors on energy threshold of the registration apparatus is obtained. For fusion reaction in the tt mu molecule the values of registration efficiency are determined for several types of final-state interaction between the reaction products. (18 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, V. P. Dzhelepov, A. Gula, V. A. Stolupin, and J. Wozniak, "Determination of optimal conditions for the experimental investigation of muon catalysis of nuclear reaction: t+t to /sup 4/He+2n," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. B15, no. 7, pp. 699--713, 1984.

Abstract:Formulae describing the kinetics of muon-catalysed fusion t+t to /sup 4/He+2n in pure tritium are analysed with the aim of establishing optimum conditions for the experimental investigation of tt mu -fusion. It is shown that to determine the parameters characterizing tt mu -fusion in an experiment with a pure tritium target data have to be taken at different target densities. The range of variation of target density required to cover the region of parameter values predicted theoretically is determined. In particular, it is shown that temperature variation of the density of liquid tritium in a rather small range above the temperature of liquid hydrogen (20.4K) is sufficient in this kind of experiment. (13 References).

V. N. Bystritsky, V. P. Dzhelepov, A. Gula, V. P. Kapyshev, A. D. Konin, M. D. Malek, SSh Mukhamet-Galeeva, E. Lacki, L. A. Rivkis, V. A. Stolupin, S. G. Shamsutdinov, V. A. Utkin, J. Wozniak, and VG. Zinov, "Liquid tritium target with variation of temperature for the investigation of muon-catalyzed fusion: t+t to /sup 4/He+2n," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, 1984.

Abstract:Summary form only given. The design of the liquid tritium target for the experimental investigation of the muon-catalysed nuclear fusion t+t to /sup 4/He+2n is described. The temperature of liquid tritium in the target can be varied between 20.6 and 40K. Tritium cooling and temperature stabilization are secured by liquid or gaseous hydrogen at varying pressures which itself is cooled by liquid hydrogen at atmospheric pressure. The system of target filling and tritium removal is also presented. The activity of tritium for which the system is designed is 8.5*10/sup 4/ Cu. (3 References).

V. N. Bystritsky, J. Wozniak, A. Gula, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. P. Kapyshev, M. D. Malek, S. S. Mukhamet-Galeeva, L. A. Rivkis, V. A. Stolupin, V. A. Utkin, and S. G. Shamsutdinov, "Gas Filling System of the Liquid Tritium Target with 35 cc Active Volume," *Pribory & Tekhnika Eksperimenta*, vol. 4, 1984.

V. N. Bystritsky, J. Wozniak, V. G. Granovski, V. P. Dzhelepov, A. P. Zakharov, V. G. Zinov, I. Kanaiev, E. Lacki, Y. P. Melnik, V. A. Stolupin, and V. A. Sharapov, "Penetration of hydrogen in the steel tubes in high temperature and pressure conditions," *Atomnaya Energia*, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 395--9, 1988.

V. N. Bystritsky, J. Wozniak, V. G. Granovski, V. P. Dzhelepov, A. P. Zakharov, V. G. Zinov, I. Kanaiev, V. A. Kuc, E. Lacki, Y. P. Melnik, V. A. Stolupin, and V. A. Sharapov, "Investigation of hydrogen penetration in the gold covered steel tubes in high temperature and pressure conditions," *Atomnaya Energia*, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 422--3, 1988.

V. M. Bystritsky, J. Wozniak, and VG. Zinov, "Characteristics of large volume NE213 neutron counters for muon catalyzed fusion investigations,"

Abstract:The Monte Carlo method is used to establish the properties and feasibility of a large volume NE213 scintillator as an efficient neutron detector. The recoil proton spectra, calculated efficiencies for different detection thresholds and scintillator sizes are presented for neutron energies up to 15 MeV. The time characteristics, e.g. time resolution, are discussed. It is also shown that no strong influence of light attenuation by the scintillator itself on the calculated efficiencies is observed when the gamma-calibration technique is used. A detector volume of approximately 100 1 is suggested for application in investigations of mu -atom and mu -molecular processes. (20 References).

V. M. Bystritsky and J. Wo{\'z}niak, "Use of a large--volume NE--213 scintillator for investigations of the $tt\mu \to ^4He + 2n + \mu^-$ reaction," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. 17, pp. 309--312, 1986.

V. M. Bystritsky, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. V. Filchenkov, A. I. Gilev, V. B. Granovsky, Don Ir Han, N. Ilieva-Sokolieva, A. D. Konin, L. Marczis, D. G. Merkulov, A. I. Rudenko, A. B. Selikov, L. N. Somov, V. A. Stolupin, and VG. Zinov, "The measurement of dd mu -molecule formation rate at high deuterium pressure (0.4-1.5 kbar)," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 17-22, 1988.

Abstract:The dd mu -molecule formation rate has been measured in gaseous deuterium at pressures of 390, 825 and 1490 bar. The measurements have been performed on the muon channel of the JINR phasotron with the use of a gas target and a full-absorption neutron detector. (6 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. G. Zinov, N. Ilieva-Sokolinova, A. D. Konin, L. Marczis, D. G. Merkulov, A. I. Rudenko, L. N. Somov, V. A. Stolupin, V. V. Filchenkov, and Don Ir. Han, "Measurement of the temperature dependence of the dd mu molecule formation rate in gaseous deuterium at pressures of 1.5 and 0.4 kbar," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 141--7, 1990.

Abstract:In an experiment with a gaseous deuterium target of high pressure on the muon beam of the JINR phasotron, the temperature dependence of the dd mu molecule formation rate ( lambda /sub dd mu /) has been studied. Measurements have been performed with liquid deuterium at a temperature T=20.3 K and with gaseous deuterium at pressures of 1500 and 400 bar in the temperature region T=49-300 K. The value lambda /sub dd mu / does not depend on the deuterium density for each temperature. The obtained results are in fairly good agreement with theory and with the data of other experiments made with deuterium of sufficiently (one-two order) lower density. (22 References).

V. M. Bystritsky and V. A. Stolupin, "On the problem of experimental determination of parameters of charge exchange of hydrogen isotope $\mu^-$ atoms on He nuclei," *Preprint*, 1990.

V. M. Bystritsky, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, F. Mulhauser, J. Wozniak, V. A. Stolupin, W. Czaplinski, M. Filipowicz, A. Adamczak, A. R. Kunselman, C. Petitjean, T. M. Huber, L. A. Rivkis, V. E. Markushin, G. M. Marshall, A. Olin, and P. Knowles, G. A. Beer, P. Kammel, M. C. Fujiwara, and J. Zmeskal, "Scattering of Muonic Hydrogen Isotopes. Experiment E742," *Triumf Proposal*, 1994.

V. M. Bystritsky, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, F. Mulhauser, M. Maier, A. Adamczak, J. Wozniak, M. Filipowicz, V. A. Stolupin, A. R. Kunselman, C. Petitjean, T. M. Huber, V. E. Markushin, G. M. Marshall, A. Olin, P. Knowles, G. A. Beer, P. Kammel, S. K. Kim, M. C. Fujiwara, T. A. Porcelli, and J. Zmeskal, "Scattering of Muonic Hydrogen Isotopes. Experiment E742," *Triumf Progress Report 1996*, 1996.

V. M. Bystritsky, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, F. Mulhauser, A. Adamczak, G. A. Beer, M. Filipowicz, M. C. Fujiwara, T. M. Huber, P. Kammel, S. K. Kim, P. Knowles, A. R. Kunselman, M. Maier, V. E. Markushin, G. M. Marshall, A. Olin, C. Petitjean, T. A. Porcelli, V. A. Stolupin, J. Wozniak, and J. Zmeskal, "E 742: Scattering of muonic hydrogen isotopes," in *Triumf Annual Report. Scientific Activities 1996*, 1997.

V. M. Bystritsky, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, F. Mulhauser, and J. Wozniak, "Experiment 742. Scattering of muonic hydrogen isotopes," in *Triumf Annual Report. Scientific Activities 1997*, pp. 62--63, 1998.

V. M. Bystritsky, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, and F. Mulhauser, "Experiment 742. Scattering of muonic hydrogen isotopes," in *Triumf Annual Report. Scientific Activities 1998*, pp. 52--56, 1999.

V. M. Bystritsky, A. V. Kravtsov, and NP. Popov, "Kinetics of mesic hydrogen in hydrogen-helium mixtures," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 487--90, 1991.

Abstract:A method is proposed which allows one to determine the rates of muon-transfer from excited muonic hydrogen to helium nuclei, as well as the probability of muon atomic capture by nuclei. (20 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, A. V. Kravtsov, and J. Rak, "Experimental determination of the rates of the excited muonic hydrogen charge exchange on helium," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 119--24, 1993.

Abstract:The data of the experiment with the H/sub 2/+/sup 4/He mixture are analyzed in order to estimate muon transfer rates from the excited states of p mu atoms to helium. Experimental data turned out to be insensible to the transfer rates from the metastable 2s state. The rates for n=3, 4, 5 were found to be: lambda /sup (3)/=(2+or-7)*10/sup 10/s/sup -1/, lambda /sup (4)/=(16+or-13)*10/sup 11/ s/sup -1/, lambda /sup (5)/=(75+or-60)*10/sup 11/s/sup -1/, respectively. (25 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, A. V. Kravtsov, and J. Rak, "Experimental estimates of rates of muon transfer from excited p mu -atoms to helium nuclei," *Kerntechnik*, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 185--7, 1993.

Abstract:Data of previous experiments with hydrogen-helium mixtures are analyzed in order to estimate rates of muon transfer from excited states of p mu -atoms to helium-4 nuclei. A program for further investigations of mu -atomic and mu -molecular processes in mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes is outlined and discussed. (25 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, "On measurement of cross sections for scattering of µp and µd atoms in hydrogen and deuterium," *JINR Preprint E1--93--450*, 1993.

V. M. Bystritsky, "Muon transfer from muonic atoms of hydrogen isotopes to He nuclei," *JINR Preprint E1--93--451*, 1993.

V. M. Bystritsky and others, "Negative results on the verification of reported ``cold fusion'' phenomena in $Na_x WO_3 / (D,D-T)$ system," *JINR Preprint D15--94--499*, 1994.

V. M. Bystritsky and others, "Negative results on the verification of hypothesis for existence of ``cold'' and ``hot'' fusion in $Ti/(D-T)$ and $ZrNbV/(D-T)$ systems," *JINR Preprint D15--94--498*, 1994.

VM. Bystritsky, "Muon transfer from muon atoms of hydrogen isotopes to He nuclei. Status and proposals," *Nukleonika*, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 51--63, 1995.

Abstract:All experimental data on muon transfer from mu -atoms of hydrogen isotopes to helium nuclei are discussed and compared. The programme of further investigations is proposed so as to get more accurate and detailed information on characteristics of mu -atomic and mu -molecular processes in mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes. (34 References).

V. M. Bystritsky and others, "The setup to investigate rare processes with neutron producing," *JINR Preprint D13--95--243*, 1995.

VM. Bystritsky, "The scattering of p mu - and d mu -atoms in hydrogen and deuterium," *Nukleonika*, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 37--50, 1995.

Abstract:The paper is a brief review of all experiments on measurement of cross sections for scattering of p mu -atoms in hydrogen and deuterium. The experimental results are analysed and compared both with one another and with calculated results. A programme for further investigation of scattering of muonic atoms of hydrogen isotopes is proposed in order to clarify the nature of discrepancies between some experimental results and to get more precise information about the above processes. (24 References).

V. Bystritsky, W. Czaplinski, J. Wozniak, E. Gula, A. Kravtsov, A. Mikhailov, and N. Popov, "Elastic scattering of excited muonic hydrogen," *Physical Review A*, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 4169--75, 1996.

Abstract:Total elastic and transport cross sections for the (p mu )/sub n/*+p, (d mu )/sub n/*+d, and (t mu )/sub n/*+t systems (n is the principal quantum number) are calculated in the energy range 0.04[left angle bracket]or=E[left angle bracket]or=10 eV using the classical and quasiclassical approach. Electron screening is taken into account. The obtained elastic cross sections are large, especially for small E. The experimental methods of measuring these cross sections are discussed. (32 References).

V. M. Bystritsky and others, "Measurements of $d + d \to ^3He + n$ cross section at ultra low energies using z-pinch," *JINR Preprint D15--96--11*, 1996.

VM. Bystritsky, "Experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed fusion in mixtures of hydrogen isotopes," in *Current Trends in International Fusion Research. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Evaluation of Current Trends in Fusion Research*, (E. Panarella, ed.), pp. 401--19, 1997.

Abstract:The brief review of experimental investigations devoted to study of mu-atomic and mu-molecular processes in the hydrogen isotope mixture is given. The open question in the muon catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) field requiring explanations or further investigations are discussed. One of the possible mu CF applications to energy production is considered. A tentative programme of further investigations of mu-atomic and mu-molecular processes in Russian research centers is given. (89 References).

V. M. Bystritsky and others, "Measuring $\mu d^3He$ fusion," *PSI Proposal*, vol. R--98--02, 1998.

V. Bystritsky, W. Czaplinski, and N. Popov, "Dynamics of muonic atom cascade in hydrogen-helium mixtures," *European Physical Journal D*, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 185--91, 1999.

Abstract:The deexcitation of excited muonic protium and deuterium in the mixture of hydrogen and helium isotopes is considered. Methods of experimental determination of the probability of direct atomic muon capture by hydrogen and muon transfer rates from excited muonic hydrogen to helium are proposed. Theoretical results for the population of the muonic atoms in the ground state, q/sub 1s//sup He/, are compared with the existing experimental data. Results obtained for D/sub 2/+/sup 3,4/He mixtures are of interest for investigation of nuclear fusion in d mu /sup 3,4/He muonic molecules. (27 References).

V. Bystritsky, W. Czaplinski, M. Filipowicz, E. Gula, and N. Popov, "Muonic atom cascade processes in the mixture of hydrogen and helium isotopes," *Kerntechnik*, vol. 64, no. 5-6, pp. 294--9, 1999.

Abstract:The time-dependence of populations of muonic hydrogen states in hydrogen-helium mixtures, q/sub n//sup He/, is calculated for the principal quantum number, n, the target density, phi , and the helium concentration, C/sub He/. The number of muons transferred to the helium nuclei, N/sub n//sup tr/, is also determined. The dependence of the population of the ground state of muonic hydrogen, q/sub 1s//sup He/, on target density and helium concentration is in agreement with recent experimental data. The comparison of the calculated yield of K lines of X-ray in pure hydrogen and deuterium with experimental data indicates an essential role of Coulomb deexcitation processes. (24 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, M. Filipowicz, and FM. Pen'kov, "Medium density variation as a method for investigating properties of mesomolecular resonances," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, no. 1-4, pp. 369--71, 1999.

Abstract:The present paper proposes a method for experimental measurement of the partial nuclear fusion reaction rates in D mu /sup 3/He molecules in the states with J=0 and J=1 (J is the orbital moment of the system) together with determination of the mechanism of transition between J=1 and J=0. (9 References).

V. M. Bystritsky and FM. Pen'kov, "Method for experimentally determining the features of nuclear fusion from mu -molecular resonance states," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 316--25, 1999.

Abstract:Charge-asymmetric deuterium-helium muonic complexes (d mu He) have been studied. A method is proposed for experimentally determining the rates of nuclear fusion in the J=0 and J=1 states of d mu He molecules (J is the orbital angular momentum of the system) and the partial rates of the radiative decays of the above complexes in those states. It is suggested that the corresponding experimental program will be performed at meson factories with gas and cryogenic targets filled with a mixture of deuterium and helium. (48 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, M. Filipowicz, and FM. Pen'kov, "Method of investigation of nuclear reactions in charge-nonsymmetrical muonic complexes,"

Abstract:A method for experimental determination of the nuclear fusion rates in the d mu He molecules in the states with J=0 and J=1 (J is the orbital moment of the system) and of the effective rate of transition between these states (rotational transition 1-0) is proposed. It is shown that information on the desired characteristics can be found from joint analysis of the time distribution and yield of products of nuclear fusion reactions in deuterium-helium muonic molecules and muonic X-ray obtained in experiments with the D/sub 2/+He mixture at three (and more) appreciably different densities. The planned experiments with the D/sub 2/+He mixture at the meson facility PSI (Switzerland) are optimized to gain more accurate information about the desired parameters on the assumption that different mechanisms for the 1-0 transition of the d mu He complex are realized. (24 References).

V. Bystritsky, W. Czaplinski, M. Filipowicz, E. Gula, and N. Popov, "Time-evolution of cascade processes of muonic atoms in hydrogen-helium mixtures," *European Physical Journal D*, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 75--83, 2000.

Abstract:The time-dependence of the population of muonic hydrogen states in hydrogen-helium mixtures is calculated for principal quantum number n. The number of muons transferred to helium nuclei is also determined. The dependence of the population of the ground state of muonic hydrogen q/sub 1s//sup He/ on time and target density and the helium concentration is also considered. The results are in agreement with recent experimental data. The comparison of the calculated yield of K lines of X-ray in pure hydrogen and deuterium with experimental data indicates the essential role of the Coulomb deexcitation process. Possible Stark mixing is also analysed. (24 References).

V. M. Bystritsky, A. Adamczak, G. A. Beer, M. Filipowicz, M. C. Fujiwara, T. M. Huber, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, P. Kammel, S. K. Kim, P. Knowles, A. R. Kunselman, M. Maier, V. E. Markushin, G. M. Marshall, F. Mulhauser, A. Olin, C. Petitjean, T. A. Porcelli, V. A. Stolupin, J. Wozniak, and J. Zmeskal, "Generation of the ultracold muonic hydrogen flux," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 47--53, 2001.

Abstract:We present the study of mu p atom scattering in solid hydrogen. Anomalously large emission of E/sub p mu /[left angle bracket]or=1.9 meV mu p's from a solid H/sub 2/ layer was observed for the first time. This three times greater mu p atom yield is due to non-elastic phonon scattering. As a result, it becomes possible to generate an ultracold flux of mu p atoms. The recent calculations of the total and differential cross sections agree with all experimental results of mu p atom scattering in solid H/sub 2/. (11 References).

V. M. Bystritsky and V. V. Gerasimov, "Method of determination of muon catalyzed fusion parameters in H-T mixture," *Eur. Phys. J. D*, vol. 26, pp. 131-139, 2003.

Abstract:A method for measurement of the muon catalyzed fusion parameters muCF in the H-T mixture is proposed. The kinetics of the mu-atomic and mu-molecular processes preceding the pt reaction in the ptmu molecule is described. Analytical expressions are obtained for the yields and time distributions of gamma quanta and conversion muons formed in nuclear fusion reactions in ptmu molecules. It is shown that information on the desired parameters can be found from the joint analysis of the time distributions of gamma quanta and conversion muons to be obtained in experiments with the H-T mixture at three (and more) appreciable different atomic concentrations of tritium. The experiments with the H-T mixture at the meson facility PSI (Switzerland) are planned to be optimized to gain the precise information about the desired muCF parameters.

V. M. Bystritsky, A. V. Kravtsov, and N. P. Popov, "Kinetics of mesic hydrogen in hydrogen--helium mixture," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5/6, pp. 487--490, 1990/91.

V. M. Bystritsky, V. F. Boreiko, W. Czapliski, M. Filipowicz, V. V. Gerasimov, O. Huot, P. E. Knowles, F. Mulhauser, V. N. Pavlov, N. P. Popov, L. A. Schaller, H. Schneuwly, V. G. Sandukovsky, V. A. Stolupin, V. P. Volnykh J., and Wo{\'z}niak, "Experimental study of µ--atomic and µ--molecular processes in pure helium and deuterium--helium mixtures," *arXiv, nucl-ex/0312018*, no. , 2003.

Abstract:We present experimental results of µ--atomic and µ--molecular processes induced by negative muons in pure helium and helium--deuterium mixtures. The experiment was performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). We measured muonic x--ray $K$ series transitions relative intensities in $(\mu{}^{3,4}\mathrm{He})^*$ atoms in pure helium as well as in helium--deuterium mixture. The muon stopping powers ratio between helium and deuterium atoms and the $d \mu{}^3 \mathrm{He}$ radiative decay probability of for two different helium densities in $\mathrm{D}_2 + {}^3\mathrm{He}$ mixture were also determined. Finally, the $\mathrm{q}_{1s}^{\mathrm{He}}$ probability for a $d\mu$ atom formed in an excited state to reach the ground state was measured and compared with theoretical calculations using a simple cascade model

V. M. Bystritsky, V. F. Boreiko, M. Filipowicz, V. V. Gerasimov, O. Huot, P. E. Knowles, F. Mulhauser, V. N. Pavlov, L. A. Schaller, H. Schneuwly, V. G. Sandukovsky, V. A. Stolupin, V. P. Volnykh, and J. Wo{\'z}niak, "Muon capture by 3He nuclei followed by proton and deuteron production," *Physical Review A*, vol. 69, no. 1, 2004.

Abstract:The paper describes an experiment aimed at studying muon capture by 3He nuclei in pure 3He and D2+3He mixtures at various densities. Energy distributions of protons and deuterons produced are measured for the energy intervals 10-49 MeV and 13-49 MeV, respectively. Muon capture rates are obtained using two different analysis methods. The experimental differential capture rates are compared with theoretical calculations performed using the plane-wave impulse approximation with the realistic nearest-neighbor interaction Bonn B potential. Extrapolation to the full energy range yields total proton and deuteron capture rates in good agreement with former results

R. Cabrera-Trujillo, "Projectile isotope effects on electronic stopping power: Harmonic Oscillator approach," *Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B-Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms*, vol. 149, pp. 228-232, 1999.

Abstract:As kinematic momentum transfer in a collision depends on the projectile mass M-1, the electronic stopping cross section of materials for swift ions should show an isotope effect The effect is larger for large isotope mass differences and for high mean excitation energy of the target at low velocities, as long as the first Born approximation is still valid. The magnitude of the projectile isotope effect is evaluated using an harmonic oscillator approach in the first Born approximation for the stopping power, and is found to account for a difference of 1% between the stopping of protons and muons on He and Ne; and 0.7%, on Al at a projectile energy of around 25 keV/amu. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

A. J. Caffrey, A. N. Anderson, Siclen CDeW Van, K. D. Watts, J. N. Bradbury, PAM Gram, M. Leon, H. R. Maltrud, M. A. Paciotti, and SE. Jones, "Muon-catalyzed fusion experiments at LAMPF," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 1, no. 1-4, pp. 53--66, 1987.

Abstract:The collaboration has conducted a series of muon-catalysis experiments over broad temperature and density ranges at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos. The authors have discovered surprising effects on the normalized muon-catalysis cycling rate lambda /sub c/ and the apparent alpha-particle sticking coefficient omega /sub s/ that depend on the d-t mixture density. This paper reviews the experimental approach, analysis methods, and results for tests with targets varying in density from 0.12 to 1.30, normalized to liquid hydrogen density, and in temperature from 15 to 800 K. In particular, results are presented on the cycling rate, sticking coefficient, and /sup 3/He scavenging rate, as functions of temperature, mixture density, or tritium concentration. (18 References).

P. A. Cahill, R. A. Anderson, and ME. Riley, "Antiproton storage materials: response of neon, argon, and benzene to a negative particle," *Physical Review A*, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 2315--21, 1990.

Abstract:The energies of systems composed of a point negative charge (e.g. antiproton, p, or negative muon, mu /sup -/) and an atom or small molecule (He, Ne, Ar, C/sub 6/H/sub 6/) have been calculated using large-basis-set, correlated ab initio electronic-structure methods. By invoking the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, these energies are used to generate potential surfaces for the interaction of a negative particle with an atom or small molecule. The results indicate that the particle-induced polarizations are significant even at 10-bohr separations in neon. Unusual behavior of the dipole moments of both argon and neon was calculated to occur as a function of separation. The molecular-orbital approach used here may also be useful in analyzing recent ionization behavior in low-energy p-inert-gas scattering experiments. Furthermore, the calculated large degree of polarization further constrains the design of materials for long-term normal matter storage of antiprotons for advanced energy sources. (24 References).

Chong-hai Cai and Yi-zhong. Zhuo, "Calculation of muon final probabilities after the prompt fission of a muonic atom," *Chinese Physics*, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 942--54, 1983.

Abstract:Based on the variational method and using two classes (exponential and square) of nuclear charge distributions and two classes (Gaussian and exponential) of trial wave functions, the 1s and 2p energy levels of muonic atoms are calculated and compared with the exact calculation. The authors then use the method of LCAO (linear combination of atomic orbitals) to calculate the four energy levels of the muon in the two-center extended Coulombian potential of the nuclei, and use the method of PSS (perturbation of stationary states) to solve the time-dependent Schrodinger equation to obtain the final muon probabilities in these four states. They find that, after the prompt fission of muonic atom, the muon is attached mainly to the 1s state of the heavy fragment, but with only 3.8-5.1% attached to the 1s state of the light fragment, and 0.7-0.9% and 0.1% to the 2p states of the heavy fragment and the light fragment respectively. These results are in agreement with those of Ma et al. (1980, 1982), and also in accordance with the experimental results within experimental errors. (12 References).

Chong-hai Cai and Yi-zhong. Zhuo, "Calculation of muon final probabilities after the prompt fission of a muonic atom," *Physica Energiae Fortis et Physica Nuclearis*, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 203--16, 1983.

Abstract:Based on the variational method and using two classes (exponential and square) of nuclear charge distributions and two classes (Gaussian and exponential) of trial wave functions, the 1s and 2p energy levels of muonic atoms are calculated and compared with an accurate calculation. Then the authors use LCAO (Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals) to calculate the four energy levels of muons in the two centre nuclear extended Coulombian potential and use the PSS (Perturbation of Stationary States) to solve the time-dependent Schrodinger equation and obtain the final muon probabilities for these four states. They find that after the prompt fission of muonic atom. Muon is mainly attached on the 1s state of the heavy fragment, only 3.8-5.1% of the probabilities are attached on 1s state of the light fragment, and 0.7-0.9% and approximately 0.1% on the 2p states of the heavy fragment and the light fragment respectively. (12 References).

R. Callies, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, and W. Neumann, "Detection of muonic Auger electron lines from silver," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 91A, no. 9, pp. 441--3, 1982.

Abstract:Muonic K- and L-Auger transitions in Ag have been measured with cooled Si p-n junction detectors of high resolution. The experimental Auger intensity ratios are compared with calculated values. (6 References).

R. Callies, H. Daniel, Egidy T. von, H. Hagn, F. J. Hartmann, and W. Neumann, "Measurement of Auger electron energies and intensities from muonic transitions in silver," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 15, no. , pp. 73-4, 1983.

Abstract:There is now general agreement that Coulomb capture of mesonic particles and deexcitation of the formed exotic atom must be accompanied by Auger electron emission. Auger electrons from a thin silver foil were counted by Si-pn-junction detectors with a thin dead layer. Lines could be resolved and intensity ratios determined. Two types of experiments were performed simultaneously, (I) with the slow-muon telescope in coincidence with any e/sup -/ detector of the array and (II) as above but with an additional Ag X-ray coincidence from a Ge(Li) detector placed close to the target. (4 References).

J. Calmet and DA. Owen, "Vacuum polarization potential in muonic atoms and alpha (Z alpha )/sup 3/ correction to energy level shifts," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 284, no. 4, pp. 371--7, 1978.

Abstract:The problem of the vacuum polarization potential in muonic atoms is systematically formulated in a framework of quantum electrodynamics. The alpha (Z alpha )/sup 3/ contribution is calculated for a point charge and a Yukawa distribution. A logarithmic asymptotic behaviour is found for large values of the momentum. Although this behaviour differs from such previous calculations the energy shifts for /sup 208/Pb are not significantly changed. Henceforth experimental and theoretical results remain in agreement. (28 References).

J. Calmet and DA. Owen, "On the alpha /sup 2/(Z alpha )/sup 2/-vacuum polarisation contribution to the muonic atom energy levels," *Journal of Physics B (Atomic & Molecular Physics)*, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 169--76, 1979.

Abstract:A derivation of the relativistic, quantum electrodynamical expression for the alpha /sup 2/(Z alpha )/sup 2/-vacuum polarisation correction to muonic energy levels is presented. Using this derivation based on the bound-state interaction picture, the expression for the other radiative corrections such as the Lamb shift alpha (Z alpha )/sup 3/-vacuum polarisation, etc are obtained. This shows that the resulting expression for the alpha /sup 2/(Z alpha )/sup 2/-vacuum polarisation contribution is consistent with those used in other calculations which are rigorously based on quantum electrodynamics. Furthermore, this approach avoids the problem of double counting. (11 References).

M. Camani, "Formation of muonic helium atoms," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 46, no. 1, 1973.

Abstract:Because of the possibility of measuring the hyperfine structure interval of muonic helium (He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/e/sup -/) and the magnetic moment of mu /sup -/ it is interesting to consider the formation of this atom. Stopped muons are captured in helium gas, thus forming He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/ ions. During the capture of mu /sup -/ and the subsequent cascade leading to the basic He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/ condition, both electrons of the helium atom are emitted. For energy reasons, the electrons of the other He atoms cannot be captured by thermal He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/ ions. But if xenon atoms are present, the capture of electrons and formation of He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/e/sup -/ from He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/ is possible as an exothermic reaction. The effective cross-section for electron capture can be quite large, in particular if the Xe/sup +/ ion is left in the excited /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ condition. The atomic processes important for the formation of He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/e/sup -/ are discussed.

M. Camani and A. Schenck, "Study of muonic helium atoms," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 83--4, 1974.

Abstract:The identification of polarized neutral muonic helium atoms is the first important step towards the formation of precision resonance experiments in which the hyperfine structure of muonic systems can be measured. In liquid helium studies, the muons of He/sup ++/ mu /sup -/e/sup -/ have so far given negative results about spin rotation. Furthermore, decaying muons in liquid He show very little rest polarization. Electron and muon capture processes are discussed. (6 References).

E. Campani, "On the 2P-2S energy difference in mu -mesic hydrogen," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 512--14, 1970.

Abstract:In a recent paper di Giacomo (1969) calculated the 2S-2P energy difference in mu -mesic hydrogen atom, using a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the mu -p system. In this paper the limit of accuracy was determined by the natural width of the 2P-1S transition line, i.e. Gamma =0.6.10/sup -3/ alpha /sup 2/ Ryd. The author has independently studied the same problem by a different approach and his results confirm this, apart from two small contributions which were neglected, although they can be obtained using the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The two contributions are respectively: (1) a term of the order of ( mu /m/sub p/)/sup 2/ alpha /sup 2/ Ryd in the hyperfine structure, arising from the proton anomalous magnetic moment; its magnitude is of the order of (1/3) Gamma ; (2) a fine-structure term due to the electron vacuum polarization; its magnitude is of the order of 0.7 Gamma .

E. Campani, "Lamb shift in muonic helium ions," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 4, no. 21, pp. 982--4, 1970.

Abstract:The implications of a Lamb-shift measurement of the 2S-2P energy difference of muonic hydrogen have been recently examined, in view of testing Q.E.D. However, the experiment seems to be very difficult, because of the depopulation of the metastable 2S state by collisions with neighbouring hydrogen atoms. Since this phenomenon is practically absent for charged systems, (/sup 3/He, mu )/sup +/ and (/sup 4/He, mu )/sup +/ ions are good candidates for the experiment. Here the author adapts the results for muonic hydrogen to those systems. (13 References).

X. Campi, J. Martorell, and D. Sprung, "Self consistent description of isotone shifts," in *International Conference on Nuclear Structure and Spectroscopy, Part I*, (H. P. Blok and AEL. Dieperink, eds.), 1974.

Abstract:The authors present results for the shift between pairs of isotones. The model employed is a H.F. calculation using a density dependent effective interaction equivalent to the G-matrix in nuclear matter for Reid's potential. For open shell nuclei, BCS pairing effects are included.

X. Campi, "Nuclear density distributions," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 374, no. , pp. 435c-43, 1982.

Abstract:Some specific topics of the extremely versatile field of nuclear particles, magnetization and momentum density distributions are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the extraction of nuclear structure information from new experimental data. The review is devoted to some aspects of muonic atoms, electron and hadron scattering which provide nuclear density distributions. (51 References).

D. Candea, G. Constantinescu, and M. Ivascu, "Modified oscillator nuclear charge distribution differences," in *Proceedings of the International Nuclear Physics Conference*, (J. L. Durrell, J. M. Irvine, and GC. Morrison, eds.), 1987.

Abstract:Nuclear charge distributions are quite well known from model independent analysis of electron elastic scattering and muonic atom data. A sensitive test of a single particle potential is the description of the nuclear charge distribution differences as this experimental quantity can be obtained more accurately than the individual charge distributions. The authors have calculated the nuclear charge distribution differences as the difference between the sum of the absolute squares of the wave functions of the states of protons weighted by the occupation probability. They used a modified harmonic oscillator potential with zero deformation and parameters pi and mu have been varied with oscillator major shells. The harmonic oscillator parameter was taken as alpha =1 A/sup 1/6/ fm. (2 References).

F. Cannata, R. Leonardi, and Clot M. Rosa, "Breakdown of SU/sub 4/ invariance and total muon capture rates: /sup 4/He, /sup 12/C, /sup 16/O, /sup 40/Ca," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 32B, no. 1, pp. 6--8, 1970.

Abstract:The authors study the energy dependence of the first forbidden Fermi and Gamow Teller matrix elements, using sum rule techniques which give one a simple tool for the evaluation of the SU(4) breaking effect. A satisfactory agreement with experimental data is obtained. (11 References).

F. Cannata, "Muon capture, radiative pion capture and photoproduction of charged pions in double-closed-shell nuclei," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 75--9, 1970.

Abstract:The consequence of SU/sub 4/ breaking for muon capture total rates in double-closed-shell nuclei are analysed with sum rule techniques and compared with the quasi-particle theory of Migdal. The analysis is then extended to photoproduction of charged pions in double-closed-shell nuclei where Migdal's theory is not consistent with experimental data. It is shown that sum rule techniques, at variance with Migdal's method, bring theoretical calculations with impulse approximation and Butler surface model production in agreement with experiments up to about 20%.

F. Cannata and J. Ros, "Spin-dependent effects in giant-resonance excitation of doubly-closed-shell nuclei," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 466-70, 1973.

Abstract:It was pointed out in an earlier paper (Cannata, 1970) that spin-dependent effects, which in muon capture on doubly-closed-shell nuclei act as a reduction factor for the axial matrix elements relative to the vector ones (M/sub A//sup 2//M/sub V//sup 2/[left angle bracket]1), have by no means the same behaviour in other reactions exciting the giant-resonance analogue states of doubly-closed-shell nuclei. Some numerical estimates are now given in the particle-hole framework, especially for muon capture, photoproduction of charged pion and scattering of pions on /sup 16/O. Comments are made for neutrino-induced reactions and radiative pion capture. It is noted that, in order to have M/sub A//sup 2//M/sub V//sup 2/[left angle bracket]1 in muon capture one has to use a repulsive Bartlett potential which may be justified by calculations of binding energies of closed-shell nuclei by Miller and Green, where the Bartlett potential is given predominately by omega exchange. (11 References).

F. Cannata and J-I. Fujita, "Exchange effects and SU/sub 4/ invariance in electromagnetic and weak transitions," *Progress of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 811--22, 1974.

Abstract:The consequences of SU/sub 4/ symmetry are studied using the hypothesis that the SU/sub 4/ algebra is generated by 15 operators: T/sup alpha /= integral V/sub 4//sup alpha /(x)dx, Y/sub k//sup alpha /= integral A/sub k//sup alpha /(x)dx, S/sub k/= integral A/sub k//sup 0/(x)dx. Here V and A denote the vector and axial vector hadronic currents, with the upper index referring to isospin and the lower one to Lorentz space (k=1, 2 and 3). Particular emphasis is given to the treatment of muon capture. The equality between the vector and axial vector matrix elements and the connection of the vector matrix elements to the photoabsorption cross section are discussed for this process. Some conclusions are drawn about many-body effects in electromagnetic and weak nuclear transitions from the current algebra and SU/sub 4/ invariance for the nuclear Hamiltonian. (25 References).

F. Cannata and C. Werntz, "Isospin breaking in the reactions /sup 3/H+/sup 9/Be to /sup 6/Li+/sup 6/He, /sup 6/Li*+/sup 6/He," *Physical Review C*, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 782--3, 1974.

Abstract:The significant deviations of the cross section leading to the isospin multiplet channel, /sup 6/He+/sup 6/Li*(3.56), from symmetry about 90 degrees are interpreted as arising from the difference between /sup 6/He and /sup 6/Li* radial wave functions, and not from a higher mixture of isospin states. The comparison between electron scattering and muon capture in /sup 6/Li supports this explanation. (9 References).

F. Cannata and NC. Mukhopadhyay, "Mean excitation energies in the nuclear muon capture," *Physical Review C*, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 379--82, 1974.

Abstract:The mean excitation energy E, proposed by Crystalline, Dellafiore and Rosa-Clot (see abstr. A74540 of 1973) as the most natural parametrization of the total muon capture rate, is shown to ignore the importance of allowed strength in light nuclei and to completely disagree with observed giant resonant energies in heavy nuclei. Their assumption that the Hamiltonian contains no exchange or spin orbit terms is exceedingly inaccurate and it is concluded that the problem of interpretation of the measured total capture rate is still open. (21 References).

F. Cannata, "Giant dipole resonance in nuclear muon capture," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 319-22, 1975.

Abstract:Muon capture by nondoubly closed shell nuclei with N[right angle bracket]or=Z is studied, in particular the importance of the giant dipole resonance in light nuclei. Total muon capture rates compared with dipole capture rates are included for /sup 9/Be, /sup 14/N, /sup 19/F, /sup 24/Mg, /sup 27/Al and /sup 28/Si. (20 References).

F. Cannata, R. Graves, and H. Uberall, "The capture of muons by complex nuclei," *Rivista del Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 133-86, 1977.

Abstract:The suggestion that the three known elementary weak interactions, (1) mu /sup -/+p to n+ nu /sub mu / which is manifested in the complex nuclear target reaction mu /sup -/+(A,Z) to (A,Z-1)+ nu /sub mu /, i.e. muon capture, (2) n to p+e/sup -/+ nu /sub e/ manifested as (A,Z-1) to (A,Z)+e/sup -/+ nu /sub e/, i.e. beta decay, and (3) mu /sup -/ to e/sup -/+ nu /sub e/+ nu /sub mu /, i.e. muon decay, are all part of a universal Fermi interaction is discussed in terms of the universal V-A interaction. It is concluded that the muon capture may be used to study the structure and universality of the weak Hamiltonian, and is a valuable tool for exploring the properties of excited nuclear levels. (209 References).

F. Cannata and H. Uberall, "Giant resonance phenomena in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions," in *Giant resonance phenomena in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions*, no. pp. 1-110, 1980.

Abstract:The authors adopt the viewpoint of a multi-reaction approach for the study of giant resonance phenomena. A unified treatment is possible for the latter, because although excitation processes such as neutrino-induced reactions and muon capture have a different SU/sub 4/ geometry, the amplitudes are the same as, e.g. for electroexcitation processes and photo-reactions. The forms of the nuclear interactions for these various processes are discussed as well as the classification of the various giant resonance components based on certain nuclear models. (227 References).

G. Carboni, "Lamb shift in muonic deuterium," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 160-2, 1973.

Abstract:The author has calculated the various contributions to 2s-2p splitting for muonic deuterium. An instantaneous potential is constructed between the muon and the nucleus. Except for the Coulomb potential, all the remaining terms are treated as a perturbation. The effects taken into account are fine structure, magnetic and electric hyperfine structure, muonic Lamb shift, vacuum polarisation, nuclear polarisation and nuclear size. (11 References).

G. Carboni, A. Placci, E. Zavattini, U. Gastaldi, G. Gorini, O. Pitzurra, G. Neri, E. Polacco, G. Torelli, J. Duclos, J. Picard, and A. Vitale, "Measurement of the Auger effect in the ( mu /sup 4/He)/sub 2s//sup +/ ionic system," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 233-7, 1973.

Abstract:The authors present some results of an experimental study which was performed to evaluate the contribution of the external Auger effect on the de-excitation of the ( mu /sup 4/He)/sub 2s//sup +/ system. Such a metastable system is formed when negative muons are slowed down in a helium target; the muons, initially captured in highly excited levels, promptly (in a time of 10/sup -11/s and through an electromagnetic cascade) reach either the fundamental level 1s or, with a small probability, the 2s level. In addition to the Auger effect, the muonic atom, once formed, can also disappear through other channels. (3 References).

G. Carboni and O. Pitzurra, "Radiative collisional quenching of the metastable muonic-helium ion mu He/sup +/(2S),"

Abstract:The calculations, based on the distorted wave approximation, demonstrate that the most important effect leading to destruction of the metastable ion is the formation of a bound molecule ( mu He/sup +/(2P)He); once this molecule is formed, the muon undergoes an electromagnetic transition to the ground state in a very short time ( approximately 5*10/sup -13/ s). The results of the calculation are strongly dependent upon the form of the short-range interaction between the muonic ion and the He atoms, suggesting that precision measurements of the lifetime of the metastable 2S-level in muonic helium could yield useful information about the form of this interaction. (27 References).

G. Carboni, U. Gastaldi, G. Neri, O. Pitzurra, E. Polacco, G. Torelli, A. Bertin, G. Gorini, A. Placci, E. Zavattini, A. Vitale, J. Duclos, and J. Picard, "Measurement of the 2S/sub 1/2/-2P/sub 3/2/ level splitting in muonic helium: a test of quantum electrodynamics predictions on electronic vacuum polarization," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 34A, no. 4, pp. 493-514, 1976.

Abstract:The results of a measurement of the 2S/sub 1/2/-2P/sub 3/2/ energy difference in the ( mu /sup 4/He) muonic system are presented. Full account of the experimental method as well as an up-to-date review of the pertaining theoretical predictions are given. The obtained results show a good agreement with QED predictions; the electronic vacuum polarization term of order alpha is checked with a relative accuracy of 5.10/sup -3/. (26 References).

G. Carboni and G. Fiorentini, "On the collision quenching of the 2S-state of muonic hydrogen,"

Abstract:The inelastic and transport cross-sections for mu p(2S) scattering from H/sub 2/ molecules are calculated by the distorted-wave method. It is found that, if the mu p(2S) is formed at energy T[left angle bracket]or approximately=1.3 eV, the slowing-down process is fast enough to let a sizable fraction of atoms pass below the inelastic threshold (T/sub 0/=0.31 eV) without undergoing the 2S to 2P transition; therefore, the strong quenching effect due to the reaction mu p(2S)+H/sub 2/ to mu p(2P)+H/sub 2/, mu p(2P) to mu p(1S)+h nu can be suppressed due to the competition with the slowing-down process. (17 References).

G. Carboni, G. Gorini, G. Torelli, L. Palffy, F. Palmonari, and E. Zavattini, "Precise measurement of the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ splitting in the ( mu /sup -4/He)/sup +/ muonic ion," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A278, no. 3, pp. 381--6, 1977.

Abstract:The results of a new measurement of the 2S/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ splittings S/sup 1/ in the muonic ion ( mu /sup -4/He)/sup +/ are presented. Using the new, recently determined, value of the RMS charge radius for /sup 4/He the difference D, between S/sub exp//sup 1/ and the corresponding theoretical prediction is obtained and directly confirms, assuming mu -e universality, the QED vacuum polarization prediction to 0.25%. (7 References).

G. Carboni, G. Gorini, G. Torelli, E. Iacopini, L. Palffy, and F. Palmonari, "Measurement of the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ splitting in the ( mu /sup -4/He)/sup +/ muonic ion," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 73B, no. 2, pp. 229--31, 1978.

Abstract:The measurement of the 2S/sub 1/2/ to 2P/sub 1/2/ energy transition in muonic helium is presented. The energy S/sup 1/ is found to be S/sub exp//sup 1/=1381.3+or-0.5 meV. This result agrees with the expected value S/sup 1/=1381.2+or-0.3 meV obtained assuming the previously measured value for the 2S/sub 1/2/ to 2P/sub 3/2/ energy difference. (7 References).

G. Carboni, G. Gorini, G. Torelli, V. Trobbiani, and E. Jacopini, "Muonic X-rays and muon capture in low-pressure argon," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 96B, no. 1-2, pp. 206--8, 1980.

Abstract:The authors have measured the spectrum of the K X-rays produced by muons stopping in low-pressure argon gas doped with 5% of propane. They report a new value for the nuclear capture rate of negative muons in argon: Lambda /sub c/(Ar)=(1.41+or-0.11)*10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/. (5 References).

M. Cargnelli, W. H. Breunlich, H. Fuhrmann, P. Kammel, J. Marton, P. Pawlek, C. Petitjean, J. Werner, and J. Zmeskal, "Measurement of muon-deuteron nuclear capture," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 16, no. , pp. 57-60, 1984.

Abstract:The authors have measured the neutron yield from the reaction mu /sup -/+d to 2n+ nu /sub mu / using a cryogenic pure-deuterium gas-target. The experimental value of the rate Lambda /sub d/ of muon capture in deuterium is 420+or-60 sec/sup -1/. In obtaining this value corrections had to be made for background neutron sources. (4 References).

A. S. Carnoy, J. Deutsch, J. Egger, H. Kaspar, S. Lontie, Cl Petitjean, R. Prieels, and B. Tasiaux, "Search for massive nu in mu /sup -/-capture on /sup 3/He," *Psi Nuclear & Particle Physics Newsletter*, no. , pp. 17-18, 1990.

Abstract:In the authors' previous analysis of the September 1987 run they studied the integral information on the secondary light produced by the track electrons of the stopped muon and the charged particle emitted after the mu -capture on /sup 3/He. They improved this analysis by studying the time-dependent behavior of the same secondary scintillation, making use of 6 times 1024 amplitude sampling recorded at 20 MHz. (1 Reference).

BP. Carter, "Muonic-molecule calculations by variation of functions," *Journal of Computational Physics*, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 325--46, 1969.

Abstract:The adiabatic method is generalized by a trial function psi containing products of arbitrary functions, each of which depends on the internuclear distance and on one ellipsoidal coordinate. The arbitrary functions are varied to optimize psi . Numerical examples include several S- and P- states of muonic molecules. (19 References).

BP. Carter, "S-state matrix elements for muonic molecules," *Journal of Computational Physics*, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 54--66, 1969.

Abstract:Coordinates xi , eta , theta are introduced, one of which is the internuclear distance, and all of which are linear combinations of interparticle distances in a molecular three-body system. Each matrix element of the Hamiltonian or unity is shown to be the sum of a few products of reduced matrix elements, which are one- or two-dimensional integrals, provided that each basis function is thr product of a function of xi and eta times a function of theta . For basis functions which are products of mononomials times exponentials in xi , eta , theta , the reduced matrix elements are presented as linear combinations of basic integrals, for which closed-form or recursive expressions are derived.

A. L. Carter, M. S. Dixit, M. K. Sundaresan, J. S. Wadden, PJS Watson, G. K. Hargrove, E. P. Hincks, R. J. McKee, H. Mes, H. L. Anderson, and A. Zehnder, "New determination of the pi /sup -/ mass from pionic-atom transition energies," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 37, no. 21, pp. 1380--3, 1976.

Abstract:Pionic-atom transitions in the elements Ag, Cd, Sn, I, Ba, Au, Tl and Pb have been measured with a view to determining M/sub pi /. The use of the Klein-Gordon equation with corrections gave a value of 139568.6+or-2.0 keV/c? (12 References).

A. L. Carter, C. R. Cox, M. S. Dixit, G. W. Dodson, M. Eckhause, C. K. Hargrove, E. P. Hincks, J. R. Kane, H. Mes, A. M. Rushton, R. T. Siegel, and RE. Welsh, "Search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 124B, no. 6, pp. 465--8, 1983.

Abstract:A search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms has been made. Intrinsic Ge detectors were positioned around targets of Li, Be, B, or their hydrides, or a vessel containing B/sub 2/H/sub 6/, N/sub 2/, or O/sub 2/. Upper limits on the fraction of stopping muons which formed metastable 2S states range from approximately=10/sup -3/ to 10/sup i/-/sup 5/. (8 References).

B. P. Carter and Hu. Chi-yu, "Ground-state dt mu fusion rate and sticking probability using perimetric coordinates," *Physical Review A*, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 6509--11, 1990.

Abstract:The ground-state energy, fusion rate, and sticking probability are calculated using a Laguerre polynomial basis. The results are compared with previous calculations, and the advantages are pointed out. (12 References).

R. Casalbuoni, Curtis S. De, Bartolomeo N. Di, F. Feruglio, and R. Gatto, "Parity violation in muonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 273, no. 4, pp. 528--32, 1991.

Abstract:The authors discuss parity-violation experiments in muonic atoms to assess their implicit information in comparison to the presently available weak-interaction data. They find that an important role is played in the analysis by the introduction of the results from the EMC experiment, which drastically change the naive expectations from the axial quark term of the effective parity violating interaction. They again stress the important role of atomic physics experiments in providing information which is not contained in LEP1 Z physics. (13 References).

R. Casalbuoni, Curtis S. De, Bartolomeo N. Di, F. Feruglio, and R. Gatto, "Photon-electron directional correlation in muonic atoms and weak-interaction models," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A540, no. 3-4, pp. 577--98, 1992.

Abstract:Measurements of photon-electron directional correlation in muonic atoms may provide useful information on the low-energy neutral-current effective interaction of charged leptons with light quarks, significantly complementing the information obtainable from other low-energy parity-violation experiments. The authors calculate the expectations for the correlation coefficients in conventional extended gauge models, such as to test for possible deviations with respect to the standard model. They discuss sources of uncertainty in the estimate of such deviations. The physical relevance of this analysis is exhibited in a number of graphs which illustrate how such experiments, at presumably attainable precision, would significantly improve the bounds of the effective lagrangian as obtained from other sets of data (including LEP). (26 References).

T. Case, H. Bossy, K. M. Crowe, K. Lou, C. Petitjean, P. Ackerbauer, W. H. Breunlich, M. Fuchs, S. Fussy, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, J. Marton, J. Werner, J. Zmeskal, D. V. Balin, V. N. Baturin, YuS Grigoriev, A. I. Ilyin, E. M. Maev, G. E. Petrov, G. G. Semenchuk, A. A. Vorobyov, P. Baumann, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, P. Hofmann, R. Huber, R. Lipowsky, and P. Wojciechowski, "Neutron analysis of the 1989 PSI sticking experiment," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 327--32, 1990.

Abstract:An experiment to directly measure dt sticking using an ionization chamber (IC) was at PSI with an HDT mixture at 161 bar. The IC was surrounded by twenty thick neutron counters covering about 40% solid angle. These neutron counters are used to eliminate dd fusion background and to evaluate the time distribution of dt fusions that would contribute to double fusion pileup events which are a major background. Also, because of the different track lengths of alpha /sup 2+/ and stuck mu alpha /sup +/, the fiducial volumes for the two events are slightly different and must be corrected using knowledge of the event geometry and angular response of the neutron detectors. (5 References).

T. A. Case, "A direct measurement of the final sticking probability in muon catalyzed deuterium--tritium fusion and associated neutron--detection measurements", 1993.

T. Case, K. M. Crowe, K. Lou, C. Petitjean, W. H. Breunlich, M. Jeitler, P. Kammel, B. Lauss, J. Marton, W. Prymas, J. Zmeskal, D. V. Balin, V. N. Baturin, YuS Grigoriev, A. I. Ilyin, E. M. Maev, G. E. Petrov, G. G. Semenchuk, YuV Smirenin, A. A. Vorobyov, N. I. Voropaev, P. Baumann, H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, M. Muhlbauer, W. Schott, and P. Wojciechowski, "Systematic analysis of the PSI experiment to directly measure the sticking probability omega /sub s/ in dt fusion," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 295--302, 1993.

Abstract:Starting in 1989 an experiment was run at PSI to directly measure the final sticking probability in muon catalyzed dt fusion. This experiment was based on an 'active-target' ionization chamber (IC) built at Gatchina, Russia, and an array of plastic neutron counters. In three runs approximately 5*10/sup 6/ isolated alpha signals were recorded with around one half of these occurring in the inner chamber region where we have more complete understanding of the systematic errors. Particularly from a long run in 1992 we were able to obtain a very clean sticking peak of some 5000 mu alpha events. However, to reach an accurate value of sticking, all systematic effects and several major backgrounds had to be understood in detail. To this end a Monte Carlo code was written to simulate the full electrostatic environment of the IC and to recreate completely each signal type including the actual tritium decay noise from the live experiment. A slightly model dependent value of approx. 0.56+or-0.04% is obtained for final sticking. (12 References).

T. Case, D. V. Balin, W. H. Breunlich, K. M. Crowe, H. Daniel, B. Gartner, F. J. Hartmann, P. Kammel, B. Lauss, E. M. Maev, V. E. Markushin, M. Muhlbauer, C. Petitjean, G. E. Petrov, W. Prymas, G. N. Schapkin, W. Schott, G. G. Semenchuk, YuV Smirenin, A. A. Vasiliev, A. A. Vorobyov, N. I. Voropaev, and J. Zmeskal, "Insights on d mu t sticking from d mu d stripping and mu /sup 3/He capture," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, no. 1-4, pp. 197--202, 1999.

Abstract:Data from the recent PSI high statistics experiment on d mu d fusion are used to measure the stripping process in d mu d to n+ mu /sup 3/He and test current calculations of the stripping process. The PSI results in mu /sup 3/He capture are also used to remove a troubling background from this measurement. Combination of these results with the old d mu t sticking analysis slightly raise and improve that result to omega /sub s/=(0.58+or-0.04)% and indicate that theory and experiment can meet if theoretical stripping is increased only at the beginning of the track. This conclusion is in accord with the new stripping calculations where excited state stripping is increased significantly. (10 References).

C. M. Castelli and G. W. Fraser, "A novel high energy x--ray detector concept using CCDs," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods A*, vol. 376, pp. 298--300, 1996.

J. J. Castro and CA. Dominguez, "Upper bound for the induced pseudoscalar form factor in muon capture," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 440--2, 1977.

Abstract:An upper bound to the induced pseudoscalar form factor is obtained taking into account corrections to the nuclear Goldberger-Treiman relations and the partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis. (4 References).

M. Castro, J. Keller, and A. Schenck, "The isotope chemical shift of mu /sup +/ in HBr," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 439--42, 1979.

Abstract:The isotopic change of the magnetic shielding for a mu /sup +/ in HBr is computed from first principles, using a cellular cluster multiple scattering method, for condensed matter and for the free molecules. The isotope shift and the chemical shift in liquid Br/sub 2/ is evaluated with the obtained eigenfunctions and eigenvalues using Ramsey formalism. The computed isotope chemical shifts are comparable with the results of Breskman and Kanofsky and of Williams and the solvent effect has the correct sign and order of magnitude. (6 References).

P. Cavaliere, G. Ferrante, R. Geracitano, and L. LoCascio, "New-type correlated wavefunctions for three-body systems with Coulomb interaction," *Journal of Chemical Physics*, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 624--7, 1975.

Abstract:A general correlated wavefunction is used to generate a number of wavefunctions for the ground state of three Coulombic systems viz. the positronium negative ion, e/sup -/e/sup +/e/sup -/; H/sup -/; and the mesic molecular ion p mu p. This wavefunction includes the correlation between two particles with the same charge sign and its optimizes exponential variational parameters. The calculated ground state energy values thus calculated show very good agreement with experimental data. (28 References).

A. Cecal and C. Hatnean, "Some aspects of muonium atom chemistry," *Studii Si Cercetari de Fizica*, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 567--76, 1983.

Abstract:Consists of a theoretical study on the formation and deceleration of penetrons, penetron strains and penetron atoms, followed by several examples of chemical transformations induced by these unstable atoms when interacting with atoms and molecules of substances in different states of aggregation. (23 References).

F. E. Cecil and F. J. Wilkinson III, "Measurement of the ground--state gamma--ray branching ratio of the $dt$ reaction at low energies," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 53, pp. 767--770, 1984.

F. E. Cecil, J. F. Wilkinson III, R. Aristinen, and R. Rieppo, "Experimental determination of absolute efficiency and energy resolution for NaI(Tl) and germanium gamma ray detectors at energies from 2.6 to 16.1 MeV," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods A*, vol. 234, pp. 479--482, 1985.

F. E. Cecil, D. M. Cole, J. F. Wilkinson III, and S. S. Medley, "Measurement and application of DD$_\gamma$, D$_\gamma$ and D$^3$He$_\gamma$ reactions at low energy," *Nuclear Instruments and Methods B*, vol. 10/11, pp. 411--414, 1985.

F. E. Cecil, D. M. Cole, R. Philbin, N. Jarmie, and R. E. Brown, "Reaction $^2$H($^3$He,$\gamma$)$^5$Li at center-of-mass energies between 25 and 60 keV," *Physical Review C*, vol. 32, pp. 690--693, 1985.

D. Ceperley and BJ. Alder, "Muon-alpha-particle sticking probability in muon-catalyzed fusion," *Physical Review A*, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1999--2004, 1985.

Abstract:The Green's-function Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the ground-state wave function of the muonic-molecular ion composed of a negative muon bound to a deuteron and a triton. Using the sudden approximation, the probability that the muon will remain bound to the escaping alpha particle after fusion occurs is found to be 0.90%, about 25% smaller than previous estimates based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The numerical method for determining the wave function is discussed in detail. (14 References).

M. C. Chan and T. Oka, "Observation of the U$_{1\leftarrow 0}$(1) transition of solid deuterium," *Journal of Chemistry and Physics*, vol. 93, pp. 979--982, 1990.

M. C. Chan and others, "High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of solid hydrogen," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 66, pp. 2060--2063, 1991.

M. C. Chan and others, "Laser spectroscopic studies of the pure rotational U$_0$(0) and W$_0$(0) transitions of solid parahydrogen," *Journal of Chemistry and Physics*, vol. 95, pp. 88--96, 1991.

Hong-Mo. Chan, "Experimental implications of the dual colour solution to the generation puzzle," in *OCPA 2000: Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of Chinese Physicists Worldwide. Commemorating the Past and Looking Towards the Future*, (N-P Chang, K. Yong, H. M. Lai, and C-Y. Wong, eds.), pp. 179--81, 2002.

Abstract:Apart from offering explanations not only for the distinctive fermion mass and mixing patterns but also for the actual values of the mass and mixing parameters, the dual colour solution to the generation puzzle gives numerous detailed predictions ranging from rare FCNC meson decays and mu -e conversion in nuclei at low energies to cosmic ray air showers with energies beyond 10/sup 20/ eV at the extreme end of the experimental range. Besides, it predicts a new class of flavour-violating phenomena (called transmutations) due to the rotating fermion mass matrix which are unambiguously calculable. Comparison with experiment of these many {"}parameter-free{"} predictions reveals no violation of existing bounds but identifies several striking effects which can be tested with present experimental sensitivity. (15 References).

D. Chang and A. Zee, "Radiatively induced neutrino Majorana masses and oscillation," *Physical Review D*, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 071303/1-5, 2000.

Abstract:We review and remark on models of radiatively induced neutrino Majorana masses and oscillations. It is pointed out that while the models are capable of accounting for the observed solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillations, some of them can also induce neutrinoless double beta decay and mu /sup -/-e/sup +/ conversion in nuclei large enough to be potentially observable in the near future. (20 References).

Lee Chang-Hwan, Jung Hong, Min Dong-Pil, and Rho. Mannque, "Kaon-nucleon scattering from chiral Lagrangians," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 326, no. 1-2, pp. 14--20, 1994.

Abstract:The s-wave K/sup +or-/N scattering amplitude is computed up to one-loop order corresponding to next-to-next-to-leading order (or N/sup 2/LO in short) in chiral perturbation with a heavy-baryon effective chiral Lagrangian. Constraining the low-energy constants by on-shell scattering lengths, we predict the off-shell s-wave K/sup -/N scattering amplitudes relevant to kaonic atoms and K/sup -/ condensation in {"}nuclear star{"} matter. The crossing-even one-loop corrections are found to play an important role in determining the higher-order chiral corrections. (26 References).

GF. Chapline, "Muon production using colliding beams," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, pp. 163-75, 1984.

Abstract:The economics of fusion-fission breeders will probably require Q[right angle bracket]3, which implies that the muons required for fusion catalysis must be produced using colliding beams rather than fixed targets. The author describes a scheme for muon production using two intersecting storage rings for triton beams. Because of space charge limitations the production of useful numbers of muons will require storage rings with rather large but attainable emittances. It is shown that the storage rings can be filled in a manner consistent with Liouville's theorem using currently available ion sources. An alternate scheme involving injection of tritons into an imploding magnetic mirror system is also discussed. (0 References).

G. Chapline and R. Moir, "Some thoughts on the production of muons for fusion catalysis," *Journal of Fusion Energy*, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 191--200, 1986.

Abstract:For muon-catalyzed fusion to be of practical interest, a very efficient means of producing muons must be found. The authors describe some schemes for producing muons that may be more energy efficient than any heretofore proposed. There are, in particular, some potential advantages of creating muons from collisions of high-energy tritons confined in a magnetic mirror configuration. If one could catalyze 200 fusions per muon and employ a uranium blanket that would multiply the neutron energy by a factor of ten, one might produce electricity with an overall plant efficiency (ratio of electric energy produced to nuclear energy released) approaching 30%. (12 References).

G. F. Chapline and RW. Moir, "Production of muons for fusion catalysis using a migma configuration,"

Abstract:Muon-catalyzed fusion requires a very efficient means of producing muons. The authors describe a muon-producing magnetic-mirror scheme with triton migma that may be more energy efficient than any heretofore proposed. If one could catalyze 200 fusions per muon and employ a uranium blanket that would multiply the neutron energy by a factor of 10, one might produce electricity with an overall plant efficiency (ratio of electric energy produced to nuclear energy released) approaching 30%. The self-colliding arrangement of triton orbits will result in many pi /sup -/'s being produced near the axis of the magnetic mirror. The pions quickly decay into muons, which are transported into a small (few cm diameter) reactor chamber producing approximately 1 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron flux on the chamber walls. (5 References).

S. Charalambus, "Nuclear transmutation by negative stopped muons and the activity induced by the cosmic-ray muons," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A166, no. 2, pp. 145--61, 1971.

Abstract:Nuclear transmutation and the involved factors when negative muons are stopped in matter are discussed. Some uncertainties about the atomic capture of muons in compounds and about the neutron emission probability following muon capture still exist. The stopping rate of negative cosmic-ray muons in the atmosphere and in the lithosphere up to large depths is reviewed. The activities of some radioisotopes induced by stopped negative muons in the atmosphere and in the lithosphere are calculated and compared with measurements and other calculations. (72 References).

D. Chatellard and others, "Laser Spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen," in *Muonic Atoms and Molecules*, (L. A. Schaller and C. Petitjean, eds.), (CH--4010, Basel), pp. 53--66, 1993.

D. Chatellard, "Etude expérimentale de l'atome de deutérium pionique", 1995.

D. Chatellard and others, "X--ray spectroscopy of the pionic deuterium atom," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. 625, pp. 855--872, 1997.

D. Chattarji and P. Ghosh, "K/sup -/-meson absorption in nuclei with below-threshold effects," *Physical Review C*, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 2115--19, 1973.

Abstract:The Klein-Gordan equation for the K/sup -/ meson in a potential which includes the effects of the Y/sub 0/*(1405) quasibound state below threshold and the momentum distribution of nucleons in the nucleus is solved by an iterative procedure. Results for the energy level widths and level shifts for the mesonic atomic levels preceding capture for /sup 10/B, /sup 11/B, /sup 12/C, /sup 31/P, /sup 32/S and /sup 35/Cl are compared to previous theoretical predictions and agree quite well with the experimental values of Backenstross et al. (1970). (13 References).

L. Chatterjee, "Energy levels of a muonic atom," *Annalen der Physik*, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 148--60, 1979.

Abstract:The energy levels of a muonic atom, taking electron screening into account are determined by directly solving the Dirac equation in a screened Coulomb potential of the Allis-Morse type (1931). The non-relativistic limit of the result agrees with the values obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation for a muon in such a potential. The deviation from the Coulomb case is of the form 3 exp (-xZm/m/sub e/), where x approximately=2 to 7 for the 1S/sub 1/2/ state and is thus small if values of a/sub 1/ are taken from the tables of Allis and Morse. However, these values, fitted to electron-scattering experiments may not be relevant for muonic atoms so that experimental determination of a/sub 1/ for muonic atoms is required. If a/sub 1/ should be smaller, the perturbation of the Coulomb levels would be greater, especially for the outer shells, and one could vary the parameter a/sub 1/ to fit the results with experiments. (7 References).

L. Chatterjee, "Mesomolecule formation studied quantum electrodynamically," in *Electronic and Atomic Collisions. 13th International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Int. Conference on the Phys. Electron. & Atomic Collisions*, (J. Eichler, W. Fritsch, I. V. Hertel, N. Stolterfoht, and U. Wille, eds.), 1983.

Abstract:Mesomolecule formation is of crucial importance in the investigation of sub-barrier fusion of light nuclei by muon catalysis. Experiments determining the fusion yield involve the various meso-molecule formation rates in a highly mixed form. The resonance effects found experimentally and theoretically for some of the heavier hydrogen isotopes of exotic molecules provided the main motivation for investigating this phenomenon from a different angle. The authors have calculated mesomolecule formation in the framework of QED using a field theoretic formalism, and working in coulomb gauge. They consider the specific process of (p mu /sup -/d)/sup +/ formation from atomic hydrogen (d mu /sup -/)+H to (p mu /sup -/d)/sup +/+e. The free electron carries away the energy released. The interaction of the proton of hydrogen with the deuteron and muon of the incoming muonic atom are considered. (3 References).

L. Chatterjee and S. Bhattacharyya, "(p mu /sup -/d)/sup +/ formation studied quantum electrodynamically," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 93A, no. 7, pp. 360--2, 1983.

Abstract:Formation rates of mesic molecules influence greatly the rate of muon catalysed fusion of the relevant nuclei. The authors have calculated the rate of formation of (p mu /sup -/d)/sup +/ at thermal equilibrium, using quantum electrodynamics, and their value is in agreement with existing experimental and theoretical results. (9 References).

L. Chatterjee and S. Bhattacharyya, "Muon decay from (d mu /sup -/d)/sup +/ system," *Physica Scripta*, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 205--6, 1984.

Abstract:Nuclear fusion by muon catalysis is dependent on the muon lifetime. The authors report here the first theoretical investigation of the decay of the negative muon bound in the (d mu /sup -/d)/sup +/ molecular ion. The results are consistent with physical expectations. (11 References).

L. Chatterjee, "Physics of mu CF-extensions and hopes," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, pp. 98-108, 1984.

Abstract:The author discusses: the possibilities of enhancing fusion using host molecules other than D/sub 2/ or DT; QED investigation of muonic molecule formation; photo-reactivation of the muon once fusion has occurred; the possibilities of using heavier leptons such as the tau to initiate fusion. (18 References).

L. Chatterjee and S. Bhattacharyya, "Auger formation of (p mu d)/sup +/ muo-molecular ion," in *Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Fourteenth International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Abstracts of Contributed Papers*, (M. J. Coggiola, D. L. Huestis, and RP. Saxon, eds.), 1985.

Abstract:"The (p mu d)/sup +/ Auger formation rate is calculated for the V=0

L. Chatterjee and VP. Gautam, "Fusion characteristics in exotic catalyzed systems," *Fusion Technology*, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 423--5, 1985.

Abstract:Muon catalyzed fusion represents a potential long-term approach to fusion power. The sensitivity of the fusion properties of muonic molecules to the choice of wave function describing the system is studied. The need for an improved understanding of the problem and correct evaluation of nonadiabatic effects is stressed, and the discrepancy between fusion rates from Born-Oppenheimer- and Hylleraas-type wave functions is pointed out. (13 References).

L. Chatterjee, S. Bhattacharyya, and K. Basuchoudhury, "Auger formation of the (p mu d) muonic molecular ion," *Physica B & C*, vol. 138B+C, no. 3, pp. 331--4, 1986.

Abstract:The formation of the (p mu d) muonic molecular ion by the interaction of d mu atoms with hydrogen has been studied. The formation rate is calculated and compared with existing values. (14 References).

L. Chatterjee, "Alternate channels for electromagnetic muon capture," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 1, no. 1-4, pp. 253--6, 1987.

Abstract:Alternate channels in the muon electromagnetic capture process are proposed. The probability Gamma /sub A/ for a free muon to be captured into a 'large' molecular state is found to be larger than the probability Gamma /sub Ai/ for capture into high n atomic states. Subsequent cascade to a direct molecular state is proposed as an extra channel for muomolecule formation. (2 References).

L. Chatterjee, "On muon production for muon catalyzed fusion," *Fusion Technology*, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 444--8, 1987.

Abstract:Efficient pion production is the first requisite for efficient muon production. The maximum number of negative pions that can be obtained in a particular projectile-target combination is studied as a function of operating energy. Tertiary pions produced in secondary collisions are included. Possibilities of reducing muon production costs are suggested and discussed. (16 References).

L. Chatterjee, D. Ghosh, and SD. Verma, "On heavy ion collisions as a muon source," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 435-7, 1988.

Abstract:The authors explore the possibility of heavy ion collisions providing an efficient pion, and eventually muon source for research purposes and for ultimate utilisation of muon catalysed fusion. (5 References).

L. Chatterjee, "Branching ratio for sticking in muon catalysed fusion," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 137, no. 1-2, pp. 4--6, 1989.

Abstract:A proper evaluation of the sticking factor as the branching ratio W/sub s/ of stuck to all possible final states results in a reduction of the intrinsic sticking w/sub s//sup 0/ as conventionally calculated. This establishes that phase space effects influence the rates and cause significant corrections that must be considered for contact with experiment. Numerically the percentage sticking is reduced by 0.2 for fusion in (dt mu ), and for the (dd mu ) case the value obtained for W/sub s/ is in agreement with experiment and other theories. (9 References).

L. Chatterjee, "Muon loss in catalysed fusion," in *Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems 1989, ICENES '89*, (Mollendorff U. von and B. Goel, eds.), pp. 276--8, 1989.

Abstract:The chief source of muon loss in muon catalysed fusion ( mu cf) is sticking, whereby the muon leaves the fusion scene coulombically attached to the charged fusion product. Unless it is reactivated, it is lost to the catalytic chain and poses a major hindrance to utilisation of cold fusion. Other sources of muon loss are scavenging by the fusion products even if there is no initial sticking, loss to impurities and of course muon decay and weak capture. The modifications of the muon decay rate due to Coulomb binding are of order alpha /sup 2/ and thus the free muon decay rate can be used in the catalysis cycle calculations. (8 References).

L. Chatterjee, "Muon production for energy applications: cold fusion," *Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics*, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 787--90, 1989.

Abstract:Efficient muon production is an essential requisite for muon catalysed cold fusion. The problem of reducing costs of accelerator produced muon beams is studied from the point of view of higher projectile energies and rescattering effects. (10 References).

L. Chatterjee and A. Bandyopadhyay, "Angular constraints in cold d-t fusion catalysed by negative muons," *Indian Journal of Physics, Part A*, vol. 64A, no. 2, pp. 160-4, 1990.

Abstract:The authors demonstrate in this note that the conservation delta functions introduced angular constraints on the accessible phase space for the non-stuck fusion modes. These could be easily detectable in experiments of the type in progress to find direct sticking (Paciotti et al., 1988; Davis et al., 1988). (11 References).

L. Chatterjee, "Muon sticking revisited," *Hadronic Journal*, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 361--73, 1990.

Abstract:The author questions the credibility of the intrinsic sticking coefficient w/sub s//sup 0/ as used in existing theory for sticking. The approximations and resulting errors involved are critically assessed. Possible techniques for improving w/sub s//sup 0/ and their efficacy are discussed. (9 References).

L. Chatterjee and G. Das, "Beam depletion before thermalisation," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 491--3, 1991.

Abstract:Radiative capture of epithermal muons into deep stable orbits is computed without approximating the photon wave function to unity. The importance of resulting recoil effects is demonstrated. (4 References).

L. Chatterjee, "Muon catalysed fusion-the present status," *Indian Journal of Physics, Part A*, vol. 65A, no. 3, pp. 175-203, 1991.

Abstract:Reviews the present status of the challenging field of muon catalysed fusion, by which fusion of light nuclei can be catalysed at low temperatures by muon binding. The study of this intriguing phenomenon encompasses different disciplines of physics, including particle, nuclear, atomic, molecular, accelerator and reactor physics. Starting with the intrinsic characteristics of the muon, the review highlights the physics of the negative muon in matter that culminates in the fusion act. The post-fusion scenario and the dynamics of the reactions and associated physics are considered. (164 References).

L. Chatterjee and G. Das, "Sub-barrier nuclear fusion of amuonic and muonic flavour," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 154, no. 1-2, pp. 5--8, 1991.

Abstract:Sub-barrier nuclear d-d fusion has been investigated for low energies, using the Allis-Morse cut-off type screening potential. It is found that cut-off parameters smaller than 0.1 AA are required to explain the new experimental results for cold fusion in condensed matter. Possible theoretical bases for realising such anomalous screening conditions are explored. The study is extended to collisional muon catalysed fusion as well. (17 References).

L. Chatterjee, G. Das, and A. Chakraborty, "Radiative muon capture-beyond the soft-photon limit," *Europhysics Letters*, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 145--50, 1992.

Abstract:Radiative muon capture into ground hydrogenic states has been computed without the soft-photon approximation, for muons of energy above 1 keV. The process can be interpreted as the 'stochastic' component of the continuum-to-bound transition as it comprises sudden events analogous to bremsstrahlung. The results are compared with other calculations. Experimental signals and possible implications are discussed. (12 References).

L. Chatterjee, G. Das, A. Chakravorty, R. Goswami, and SK. Mondal, "Formation of fast exotic atoms by radiative Coulomb capture," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 143--8, 1993.

Abstract:Interesting surprises in some exotic atom kinetics have been reported recently. These involve muonic atom transfer cross sections, nuclear pion capture and the q 1s effect in mu CF. These can be explained if the exotic atom population contains a contributing fast component. Such fast atoms can be formed by radiative continuum to bound transitions of fast (keV) muons or pions. Cross sections for formation of such fast pionic and muonic atoms and their velocity distributions are reported. The possibility of these processes competing with the thermalisation channels and contributing effectively to the exotic atom population is discussed. (5 References).

L. Chatterjee, D. Ghosh, and T. Murphy, "The muon as deep nuclear probe," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, pp. 495--499, 1993.

L. Chatterjee, A. Chakraborty, and S. Mondal, "Weak and nucleoweak decays of muonic molecules," *Physical Review A*, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 4124--9, 1993.

Abstract:Weak decay of the negative muon in hydrogenic media is generally routed through muonic molecular or atomic states. The distortions to the free-muon decay rate due to the muon's Coulomb dressing is computed for all isotopic combinations for muonic molecular states in hydrogen and compared with the atomic case in light media. The nucleoweak channels corresponding to nuclear fusion accompanying the weak decay of the muon from a molecular environment are also investigated. (9 References).

L. Chatterjee, G. Das, and R. Goswami, "Stochastic continuum to bound transitions of the negative muon in the nuclear Coulomb field," *Zeitschrift fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules & Clusters*, vol. 32, no. 1-2, pp. 73--8, 1994.

Abstract:Cross sections for radiative Coulomb capture of muons in hydrogen are shown to be enhanced by two orders of magnitude for muon energies in the neighbourhood of 2.8 keV. This effect has not been recognised earlier and has important consequences for negative muon physics as shown. (16 References).

L. Chatterjee and A. Chakrabarty, "Weak capture of negative muons in hydrogenic media," *Physical Review A*, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 2754--7, 1994.

Abstract:The weak capture of negative muons on protons has been calculated in the local V-A theory in the correct spinor representation for mu p atoms and p mu p molecules. The neutrino-mass effects have been explored. The results obtained by this formal theory are compared with earlier calculations, and their importance is discussed in the light of the experiments. (12 References).

L. G. Chatterjee and SK. Mandal, "Can we increase the application prospects of muon-catalyzed fusion?," *Fusion Technology*, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 246--52, 1997.

Abstract:Possibilities of improving the prospects of utilizing muon-catalyzed fusion are explored from several angles. Specifically, the use of photons to artificially enhance stripping by taking advantage of an enhanced stripping mechanism is suggested. On the muon production side, the use of heavy ions for the production of the parent pions is investigated. (20 References).

L. G. Chatterjee, "Electrolysis in thin-film nickel coatings: Mimicking supernova physics?," *Fusion Technol.*, vol. 34, pp. 147-150, 1998.

Abstract:Physics similar to the r-process mechanism of forming heavy elements in core-collapse supernovas is invoked to explain the recent observation of nuclear transmutations in thin-film nickel coatings during electrolysis. It is suggested that electrolysis could catalyze weak interactions of the electron capture type in thin films, resulting in an enhanced rate for the weak capture of electrons by protons to form real or virtual neutrons. These could subsequently be absorbed by the nuclei in the metal, and the neutrinos created to satisfy conservation laws would escape detection. The neutron-rich nuclei could stabilize by various beta decay channels similar to the r-process, and this model could explain the observed transmuted elements as well as the absence of radiation.

Ming Ko Che and PJ. Siemens, "Production of the pionic atom in heavy-ion collisions," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A367, no. 3, pp. 496--508, 1981.

Abstract:The authors estimate the production cross section of negative pions from the target in heavy-ion reactions into the atomic orbits of the projectile's Coulomb field. The cross sections is appreciable for high-energy heavy-ion collisions with heavy projectiles and targets. It favors production of pions in the lower atomic orbits with the target nucleus excited collectively. They argue that it is very likely that these pions will be ionized by the target's Coulomb field, leading to a peak of the pi /sup -/ spectrum near the projectile velocity. For those pions which remain in the orbits, correlation measurements of the pionic X-rays and the projectile residue could also signal the existence of the process. They point out that both the pion condensate mode and the isovector magnetic dipole mode of the target nucleus could be excited via this process. This investigation, therefore, offers interesting possibilities for studying these excitations. (8 References).

Ming Ko. Che, "Exotic pionic atoms in heavy-ion collisions," *Physical Review C*, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 333--4, 1984.

Abstract:Estimates are given for the cross section of producing pionic atoms of exotic nuclei in heavy-ion collisions. The production cross section for exotic nuclear fragments is determined by the abrasion-ablation model, while the number of pions and their momentum distributions are obtained from the fireball model. The radiative capture probability of the pion into the atomic orbits of the nuclear fragment is estimated and is found to be very small. Alternative capture mechanisms are suggested. (6 References).

Ming Ko. Che, "Mesonic atoms from heavy-ion collisions," *Physical Review C*, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1778--80, 1985.

Abstract:The cross section for creating, in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, a negatively charged meson such as pi /sup -/ or K/sup -/ in the atomic orbits of the nuclear fragments is evaluated in the participant-spectator model. Its magnitude depends sensitively on the lifetime of the source. For a lifetime comparable to the collision time, the cross section is appreciable. (8 References).

Y. K. Chen and W. Pieper, "Muonic atoms with odd-mass nuclei," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 185--98, 1969.

Abstract:The effect of the single particle excitations on the spectra of muonic atoms with odd-mass nuclei is studied in the framework of the unified model. The theoretical spectra are compared with the experimental ones and the excitation strengths of the nuclear states as well as the nuclear polarization due to the muon are calculated. (14 References).

M-Y. Chen, "Nuclear polarization in muonic atoms of deformed nuclei," *Physical Review C*, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1176--83, 1970.

Abstract:The analysis of muonic X-ray in deformed nuclei was carried out in the past by diagonalizing the electric quadrupole interaction between the spin doublets (2p/sub 3/2/, 2p/sub 1/2/), (3d/sub 5/2/, 3d/sub 3/2/) and the lowest rotational band of the nucleus. With the present experimental accuracy, this procedure is no longer adequate. To take into account the muonic and nuclear states not included in the diagonalization, we renormalize the electric quadrupole interaction by virtual excitations into these states. The authors find that the renormalization correction amounts to a few percent of the quadrupole matrix elements. This explains the systematic tendency for the intrinsic quadrupole moments obtained from the traditional analysis to be a few percent larger than the values deduced from Coulomb excitation experiments.

M-Y. Chen, "Nuclear polarization in muonic atoms of spherical nuclei," *Physical Review C*, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1167--75, 1970.

Abstract:The nuclear polarization effect in muonic atoms is calculated for /sup 208/Pb and /sup 40/Ca. The nuclear intermediate states of /sup 208/Pb are collective particle-hole states calculated from realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. The total effect is an increase of binding of 6.0+or-0.6 keV for the 1s level, 1.9+or-0.2 keV for the 2p level, and 1.2+or-0.2 keV for the 2s level. The authors are able to set the uncertainties of the calculation at the relatively small values given above for the following reasons: The muonic intermediate states are treated exactly with the reference-spectrum method; the energies of nuclear intermediate states of l[right angle bracket]2 turn out to be small compared with muonic intermediate state energies; the nuclear dipole states have been well studied experimentally and theoretically; and the nuclear monopole polarization calculated from the particle-hole states has been checked with a Thomas-Fermi theory which gives the observed surface thickness and the surface energy. (12 References).

L. C. Chen, J. Guo, and JE. Russell, "Structure of neutral mesonic atoms formed in liquid helium. III. More accurate treatment of the electron wavefunction," *Journal of Mathematical Physics*, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1906--13, 1971.

Abstract:For Pt. II see abstr. A15254 of 1971. The ground-state energy of a spinless nonrelativistic electron in the field of two fixed spinless nuclei with charges +2 and -1 is computed exactly for a large number of values of the internuclear separation. The results of this calculation are then used to estimate values, for a few highly excited states of alpha pi /sup -/e/sup -/ and alpha K/sup -/e/sup -/ atoms, of a correction to a previous calculation of the binding energy. For alpha K/sup -/e/sup -/ atoms with n=27 and 29, the energy corrections cause the calculated energy difference between a circular and a nearly circular orbit with the same principal quantum number to be between 15 and 30% smaller than had been estimated previously. Two other corrections are estimated and are found to be probably negligible. One of these corrections is the inaccuracy in the calculated binding energy of a heliumlike mesonic atom. The other correction is the change in the computed value of the mean meson orbital radius which occurs when the interactions responsible for the electron-meson angular correlation are taken into account.

M. Y. Chen, S. C. Cheng, W. Y. Lee, A. M. Rushton, and CS. Wu, "Resonance processes and nuclear excitation in muonic /sup 205/Tl," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A181, no. 1, pp. 25--32, 1972.

Abstract:The L and K X-rays of muonic /sup 205/Tl have been measured with an enriched (99.8%) /sup 205/Tl target. Two sets of resonance processes were included in the analysis, which led to satisfactory fits to the experimental spectra, and explain the anomalous intensity ratios between the fine structure components of the muonic L and K X-rays. At the same time, the M1 hyperfine structure constants, which show the finite distribution of the nuclear M1 moment, were determined. Also determined were the static nuclear E2 and M1 moments of the excited states. (14 References).

M. Y. Chen, Y. Asano, S. C. Cheng, G. Dugan, E. Hu, L. Lidofsky, W. Patton, C. S. Wu, V. Hughes, and D. Lu, "E2 dynamic mixing in p and K/sup -/ atoms of /sup 238/U," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A254, no. 2, pp. 413--21, 1975.

Abstract:The energies of the lower atomic transitions of the p and the K/sup -/ atoms of /sup 238/U have been measured. The measured values are significantly higher than the energies calculated from the electromagnetic interactions with the ground state of the /sup 238/U nucleus. It is shown that the dynamic mixing of the first excited quadrupole state can explain such shifts. (7 References).

Zheng Chen and Xiao-tong. Song, "The formation cross section for (d mu ) atom in radiative capture process," *Physica Energiae Fortis et Physica Nuclearis*, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 647--55, 1986.

Abstract:Under the ladder approximation, the B-S equation for (d mu ) atom is derived and the approximate solutions for l=0 are obtained. By using these solutions, the formation cross sections for the (d mu ) atom in the radiative capture process are calculated. (11 References).

M. Chen, S. G. Steadman, MPJ Gaudreau, S. C. Luckhardt, R. R. Parker, D. Albagli, V. Cammarata, M. Schloh, M. S. Wrighton, K. Kwok, C. Thieme, D. I. Lowenstein, and JJ. Reilly, "Measurements of neutron emission induced by muons stopped in metal deuteride targets," *Journal of Fusion Energy*, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 155--9, 1990.

Abstract:An 80-MeV/c negative muon beam from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to investigate the stopping of muons inside Pd, Ti, and Y targets saturated with deuterium. Neutron emission from the targets was measured with an array of /sup 3/He detectors, and in some runs, the temperature of the target was monitored as a function of time, with and without a flux of muons on the target. The neutron rates were also measured for Pd cathodes in an active electrochemical cell similar in design to those used in so-called 'cold fusion' experiments, and the electrolyte solution was analyzed for excess tritium. No evidence was found for muon-catalyzed fusion at rates consistent with those claimed in 'cold fusion' experiments. Neutron production from catalyzed fusion due to the presence of deuterium in palladium deuteride, PdD/sub 0.7/, exposed to muons was determined to be 0.0+or-0.03 (stat.)+or-0.25 (syst.) neutrons per stopped muon. (14 References).

C. X. Chen, G. Papini, N. Mobed, G. Lambiase, and G. Scarpetta, "Maximal acceleration corrections to the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen,"

Abstract:The maximal acceleration corrections to the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen are calculated by using the relativistic Dirac wave functions. The correction for the 2S-2P transition is ~0.38 meV and is higher than the accuracy of present QED calculations and of the expected accuracy of experiments in preparation. (19 References).

S. C. Cheng, M. Y. Chen, J. W. Kast, W. Y. Lee, E. R. Macagno, A. M. Rushton, and CS. Wu, "Magnetic dipole hyperfine structure in muonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 34B, no. 7, pp. 615--17, 1971.

Abstract:The nuclear finite-size effect in the M1 hyperfine structure of muonic atoms of /sup 93/Nb and /sup 139/La has been studied experimentally. Systematic differences of the finite-size effect between nuclei in which the spin and the orbital angular momentum of the odd proton are parallel or antiparallel are discussed.

S. C. Cheng, Y. Asano, M. Y. Chen, G. Dugan, E. Hu, L. Lidofsky, W. Patton, C. S. Wu, V. Hughes, and D. Lu, "K/sup -/ mass from kaonic atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A254, no. 2, pp. 381--95, 1975.

Abstract:The energies of the six circular transitions (n=13 to n=12 through n=8 to n=7) of the K/sup -/Pb exotic atom have been measured to high precision (typically approximately=50 ppm) using Ge(Li) spectrometers. The data acquisition system was computer controlled and stabilized, the energy calibration spectrum was taken simultaneously with the data spectrum. The experimental energies of the six transitions were corrected for ADC nonlinearities and data-calibration spectrum shifts, as well as the presence of unresolved noncircular transition contaminants. The energies of five of the transitions (13 to 12 through 9 to 8) were computed from quantum electrodynamics, including all significant orders of vacuum polarization, electron screening and nuclear polarization. The mass of the K/sup -/ was adjusted to achieve a best fit with the experimental energies: the result was m/sub K-/=493.657+or-0.020 MeV. (13 References).

K. T. Cheng, W. D. Sepp, W. R. Johnson, and B. Fricke, "Self-energy corrections in heavy muonic atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 489--92, 1978.

Abstract:These numerical evaluations of the renormalized self-energy use the method of Brown, Langer and Schaefer (1959) which allows for the finite size of the nucleus in the interaction potential, when nuclear and muonic radii are comparable. Of the three terms contributing to the self-energy correction, two involve simple integrations that can be calculated with high accuracy. The principal source of inaccuracy (5%) is the estimate of the truncation remainders in the third term which involves a sum over photon partial waves and integration over photon frequency. The present values for the 1s/sub 1/2/ levels are 10% larger than previous results, giving Lamb shift data accurate to 5%. (19 References).

S. C. Cheng, A. Shor, B. Olaniyi, G. Dugan, W. Patton, C. S. Wu, and MY. Chen, "The study of quadrupole hyperfine interactions in pionic atoms of /sup 181/Ta and /sup 165/Ho," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 145--50, 1978.

Abstract:The results on the study of the quadrupole hyperfine structure in pionic atoms are presented. Quadrupole moments of /sup 165/Ho and /sup 181/Ta nuclei were extracted from the data. (7 References).

W. K. Cheng, B. Lorazo, and B. Goulard, "Interplay between mesonic-exchange corrections and nuclear structure in the weak transitions /sup 16/O(0/sup +/) to or from /sup 16/N(0/sup -/)," *Physical Review C*, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 374--83, 1980.

Abstract:The ratio of the muon-capture rate to the beta-decay rate in the weak transitions /sup 16/O(0/sup +/; ground state) to or from /sup 16/N(0/sup -/; 120 keV) is analyzed in terms of the interplay between mesonic-exchange currents and configuration mixing. It is shown that, up to date, various approaches are too preliminary to yield a quantitative conclusion on the role of mesonic-exchange currents contribution. (30 References).

W. K. Cheng and B. Goulard, "Axial meson-exchange currents in nuclear weak interactions," *Physical Review C*, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 869--72, 1981.

Abstract:On symmetry grounds and by a systematic analysis of one-meson exchange diagrams, the authors obtain the two-body axial meson-exchange current operator which is needed for computing meson-exchange corrections in nuclear systems. Special attention is given to the time-component of this operator and the experimental evidence of its importance. (10 References).

K. T. Cheng and WJ. Childs, "Ab initio calculation of 4f/sup N/6s/sup 2/ hyperfine structure in neutral rare-earth atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 2775--84, 1985.

Abstract:The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method is used to calculate excitation energies, Lande g values, and hyperfine-structure (HFS) constants for the lowest multiplets of the 4f/sup N/6s/sup 2/ configurations of neutral rare-earth atoms. Although no adjustable parameters are used, the results are in rather good agreement with experiment. The calculated excitation energies and dipole HFS constants (using the known moment values) differ from experiment by typically 5%, and the g values by 0.1%. Relative to quadrupole moment values determined from muonic-atom HFS or Coulomb excitation, the calculated electric-quadrupole HFS is typically (30+or-2)% too large, consistent with a Sternheimer shielding factor (not included in the MCDF calculations) of R/sub 4f/=+0.23. The calculated J dependence for all four observables is generally in good agreement with experiment for the ground multiplets. Particular cases where the MCDF results are less accurate are identified and discussed. (50 References).

M. K. Cheoun and I. T. Cheon, "An analysis of the models for the radiative muon capture on a proton," *J. Phys. G-Nucl. Part. Phys.*, vol. 29, pp. 293-301, 2003.

Abstract:The recent TRIUMF experiment for mu(-)p --> nv(mu)gamma gave a surprising result that the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant g(p) was larger than the value obtained from mu(-)p -- > nv(mu) experiment by as much as 44%. Subsequent debates on the result gave rise to many theoretical calculations. Most of them were skeptical for the enlarged coupling constant g(p). Therefore, one needs to reexamine the theoretical analysis of the matrix element of Beder and Fearing which was exploited for the extraction of the value in the experiment. In this report we analyse the matrix element from the viewpoint of electromagnetic coupling schemes and suggest an additional term. This additional term plays an important role in restoring the standard value of g(p).

M. K. Cheoun, K. S. Kim, and T. K. Choi, "Radiative muon capture and induced pseudoscalar coupling constant in nuclear matter," *J. Phys. G-Nucl. Part. Phys.*, vol. 29, pp. 2099-2105, 2003.

Abstract:Radiative muon capture is studied to investigate the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant g(P) in nuclear matter. According to the recent TRIUMF experiment for mu(-)p --> nupsilon(mu)gamma, the g(P) was surprisingly larger than the value obtained from mu(-)p --> nupsilon(mu) experiment by as much as 44%. The result may affect seriously theoretical interpretations of the experimental results for the radiative muon captures in finite nuclei. In view of the recent TRIUMF result, the radiative muon capture in nuclear matter is revisited in a framework of the relativistic mean field theory.

A. P. Cheplakov and others, "General characteristics of $\pi ^-$--mesons produced in dC and $\alpha$C interactions at 1 GeV/N and 3.3 GeV/N," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, pp. 399--408, 1989.

A. P. Cheplakov and others, "$\pi ^-$--mesons production in interactions of deuterons with extended carbon and beryllium targets at 1 GeV/Nucleon," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 7, pp. 231--243, 1992.

A. P. Cheplakov and others, "$\pi ^-$--mesons production in interactions of deuterons and $\alpha$--particles with extended carbon and beryllium targets at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.3 GeV/Nucleon," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 7, pp. 375--385, 1992.

A. P. Cheplakov, N. G. Fedeev, A. P. Nagaitsev, M. I. Soloviev, and NM. Viryasov, "pi /sup -/-meson production in interactions of deuterons and alpha -particles with the extended carbon and beryllium targets at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.3 GeV/nucleon," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 375--85, 1992.

Abstract:The yields, momentum and angular distributions of pi /sup -/-mesons produced in the interaction of deuterons and alpha -particles at 1.0 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon with thick carbon and beryllium targets have been obtained. The targets (about 30 cm along the beam direction) were placed inside a two-metre propane bubble chamber. The data were compared with those obtained for a propane target at 1.0 and 3.3 GeV/nucleon. The estimate of the energy amount needed to produce one negative pion in DBe, DC, alpha Be, alpha C interactions at 1.0, 2.0, 3.3 GeV/nucleon is presented. (10 References).

E. V. Cherednikova, R. N. Faustov, and AP. Martynenko, "Proton polarizability contribution to the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A703, no. 1-2, pp. 365--77, 2002.

Abstract:The contribution of the proton polarizability to the ground-state hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen is evaluated on the basis of modem experimental and theoretical results on the proton polarized structure functions. The value of this correction is equal to 4.6(8) * 10/sup -4/ times the Fermi splitting. (53 References).

N. A. Cherepkov and LV. Chernysheva, "Capture of mu /sup -/ mesons by He atoms," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 709--19, 1980.

Abstract:Cross sections of the Auger capture, elastic and inelastic mu /sup -/-meson scattering by He atoms have been found for the muon energies of 1 to 175 eV. The atom and knocked-out electrons are described by the Hartree-Fock wave functions. For the muon in the initial and final states Hartree wave functions in the field of the 'frozen' atom and ion, respectively, are used. The distributions of probabilities of muon decay into states with different principal and orbital quantum numbers n, l are calculated. It is shown that the muons are predominantly captured at energies equal to the ionization potential of the atom. (27 References).

L. V. Chernysheva and V. L. Yakhontov, "Two-program package to calculate the ground and excited state wave functions in the Hartree-Fock-Dirac approximation," *Comput. Phys. Commun.*, vol. 119, pp. 232-255, 1999.

Abstract:Algorithms and computer codes to calculate the ground and excited (discrete and continuum) state wave functions of many- electron atoms and ions, including those containing positive/negative muons, in the Hartree-Fock-Dirac (HFD) approximation are reported. In contrast to the usual technique, the system of 2S self-consistent first order integrodifferential equations of the HFD is solved by reducing it first to a system of S second order ones. The Latter is then treated numerically by means of successive iterative refinement of both the orbital wave functions and the one-electron energies. Some improvements are incorporated into the codes to speed up the convergence process in the cases of large exchange coefficients, as well as to take nuclear size effects into account. The program enables one to find the self-consistent solution of the problem in the form of a single determinant or a linear combination of such determinants constructed from the one-electron orbitals corresponding to the specific configuration and the term of the atom/ion. The code is written in Fortran and can be run on any platform for which the corresponding compiler is available. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

NH. Cherry, "The pionic atom in the theory of the generalized gravitational potential,"

Abstract:A general-relativistic scalar field theory in the complex Weyl space is applied to the pionic atom. In particular the wave equation of the pion for stationary states is derived and from this equation the radial equation for these states is obtained. The radial equation is then used in an approximation method for Z[left angle bracket]or approximately=12 to obtain the difference in energy between that predicted by the present theory and that predicted by Klein-Gordon theory for the pi -mesonic X-rays. This energy difference is then compared to the energy difference obtained between experiment and Klein-Gordon theory and the nucleon core radius as predicted by this theory is thus obtained. The theory is found to predict a repulsive nuclear force, a nucleon core radius of (0.76-0.78) fm and to correlate well with experiment for the low-Z isotopes considered.

B. T. Chertok, C. Sheffield, JW Jr Lightbody, S. Penner, and D. Blum, "Low-q/sup 2/ electron scattering from the 15.109-MeV state of /sup 12/C and the conserved-vector-current test," *Physical Review C*, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 23--36, 1973.

Abstract:High-precision electron scattering measurements from the 15.109-MeV 1/sup +/ state in /sup 12/C are made at theta =75 and 110 degrees with 35[left angle bracket]or=E[left angle bracket]or=55 MeV. From the measurements B(M1) is extrapolated to the photon point and the radiative width is determined, Gamma /sub gamma /=37.0+or-1.1 eV. The corresponding weak magnetism results for beta decay and mu capture are given. (36 References).

K. M. Cheung, "Muon anomalous magnetic moment and leptoquark solutions," *Phys. Rev. D*, vol. 6403, pp. art. no.-033001, 2001.

Abstract:The recent measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment a(mu) shows a 2.6 sigma deviation from the standard model value. We show that it puts an interesting bound on the mass of the second generation leptoquarks. To account for the data the leptoquark must have both leftand right-handed couplings to the muon. Assuming that the couplings have electromagnetic strength, the mass is restricted in the range 0.7 TeV<M-LQ<2.2 TeV at 95% C.L. We also discuss constraints coming from other low energy and high energy experiments. If first-second- generation universality is assumed, constraints come from atomic-parity violation and charged-current universality. We show that the coexistence with other leptoquarks can satisfy these additional constraints and at the same time does not affect a(<mu>).

H. C. Chiang, E. Oset, and de Cordoba P. Fernandez, "Muon capture revisited," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A510, no. 4, pp. 591--608, 1990.

Abstract:The problem of inclusive muon capture in nuclei is studied by calculating the capture rate in asymmetric infinite nuclear matter and using the local density approximation to evaluate the capture rates in nuclei. It is shown that the method is rather reliable and allows one to improve on approximations used in the past. The need for a strong nuclear renormalization is shown, reducing the capture rates by about a factor two in medium and heavy nuclei. By using standard effective interactions in the spin-isospin channel one can account for this renormalization and one finds a remarkable overall agreement with the measured capture rates for a large list of nuclei through the periodic table. (38 References).

Huan Ching Chiang and E. Oset, "Neutron densities from muon capture," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A532, no. 3-4, pp. 647--56, 1991.

Abstract:The authors show that, because of Pauli blocking and renormalization of the weak currents in nuclei, the muon capture rates are rather sensitive to the neutron distributions. They also show that, because of intrinsic theoretical uncertainties, neutron radii cannot be determined with precision but some reasonable limits can be given. However, the ratio of capture rates in different isotopes serves to determine the neutron radii of the isotopes provided the neutron density distribution for one of them is known. (26 References).

Huan Ching Chiang and Oset. Eulogio, "tau /sup -/ capture in nuclei," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 259, no. 3, pp. 239--42, 1991.

Abstract:The authors determine the capture rate of a tau /sup -/ from inner atomic orbits in medium and heavy nuclei through the reaction tau /sup -/p to n nu /sub tau /. The capture rates are of the order of 2*10/sup 9/ s/sup -1/, a factor 150 larger than the muon capture rates in heavy nuclei, and three orders of magnitude smaller than the ordinary free tau /sup -/ width. The investigation of this and related tau /sup -/ capture channels would allow the exploration of the nuclear excitation mechanisms in an unusual regime of momentum transfer and would provide valuable information on the axial form factor of the nucleon at large momentum transfers. (18 References).

H. C. Chiang, E. Oset, T. S. Kosmas, A. Faessler, and JD. Vergados, "Coherent and incoherent ( mu /sup -/, e/sup -/) conversion in nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A559, no. 4, pp. 526--42, 1993.

Abstract:Coherent and incoherent ( mu /sup -/, e/sup -/) conversion in nuclei is studied within the framework of several theories which violate flavour lepton number. A useful approach is followed which allows a factorization of the conversion widths into nuclear factors and other factors which depend only on the elementary process. The nuclear factors are evaluated in a wide range of nuclei allowing simple calculations of the conversion rates throughout the periodic table for a given theory with a minimum of work in the elementary sector. The coherent conversion is found to dominate the process. The results obtained modify appreciable previous results in the literature, particularly in the incoherent process. (21 References).

C. Chiccoli, V. I. Korobov, V. S. Melezhik, P. Pasini, L. I. Ponomarev, and J. Wozniak, "The atlas of the cross sections of mesic atomic processes. III. The processes p mu +(d,t),d mu +(p,t) and t mu +(p,d)," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 7, no. 1-2, pp. 87--153, 1992.

Abstract:For pt.II see Adamczak et al., ibid., vol.4, p.303 (1989). The mesic atomic cross sections for elastic scattering (a mu +b to a mu +b) and isotopic exchange processes (a mu +b to b mu +a) in asymmetric collisions of p mu , d mu and t mu atoms with bare p, d and t nuclei are presented. They have been calculated in the collision energy range 0.001[left angle bracket]or=E[left angle bracket]or=50 eV using the multichannel adiabatic representation for the Coulomb three-body problem. The results are given in tables and figures. (27 References).

W. J. Childs and KT. Cheng, "Semiempirical Sternheimer shielding factors for the atomic 4f and 5d shells," *Physical Review A*, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 677--82, 1984.

Abstract:Sternheimer shielding factors are often obtained empirically by comparing nuclear electric quadrupole moment values derived from the hyperfine structure (HFS) of many-electron atoms with those determined by Coulomb-excitation or mesic-atom measurements. A large scatter in the resulting shielding factors arises from the lack of consistency in the approaches used in the analyses of the HFS. In the present work the radial HFS integrals are evaluated with a consistent configuration-average Dirac-Fock method. The scatter in the shielding factors obtained is reduced substantially and the results are in reasonable agreement with Sternheimer's original estimates. (35 References).

Hu. Chi-Yu, "Variational calculation of the energy levels of the (dt mu )/sup +/ molecule," *Physical Review A*, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 1245--8, 1985.

Abstract:The ground and the excited states of both the s and p states of the (dt mu )/sup +/ molecule are calculated using the variational method of moments. The author's best energy values are -319.117 and -34.766 eV for the s states, and -232.436 and -0.628 eV for the p states. (4 References).

Hu. Chi-Yu, "Variational calculation of the muon-alpha-particle sticking probabilities in the muon-catalyzed fusion dt mu to mu /sup 4/He+n," *Physical Review A*, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 2536--9, 1986.

Abstract:"mu - alpha sticking probabilities have been calculated for the S state and the P state, using a high-precision three-body variational wave function. The 0.90% S-state sticking probability agrees with previous works using other methods. It is necessary to calculate two sets of sticking probabilities and fusion rates for the J=1

Hu. Chi-yu, "Variational calculations of the excited-state fusion parameters of the (dt mu ) system," *Physical Review A*, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 4135--8, 1987.

Abstract:"The energies, muon-alpha particle sticking probabilities, and the fusion rates have been calculated for the J=0

Hu Chi-Yu and AK. Bhatia, "Three-body resonances in ta mu and da mu," *Physical Review A*, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 5769--72, 1990.

Abstract:Resonances in muonic systems ta mu and da mu have been predicted for J=0 and 1 using the complex-rotation method. This method has the advantage that the resonance position and total width are calculated at the same time. These resonances are found to be below the n=4 threshold of a mu and are of Feshbach type. They decay to t mu +a and d mu +a and therefore could be of importance in the reactivation of mu from a mu in the fusion of t and d in the presence of a muon (muon-catalyzed fusion). The channel (a mu )/sub n=3/+t or d could be followed by multiple scattering resulting in stripping of the muon. This process is highly density dependent. (13 References).

Hu Chi-Yu and AK. Bhatia, "Resonances in muonic systems," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 439--44, 1991.

Abstract:Resonances in muonic systems t alpha mu , d alpha mu , t(/sup 3/He) mu , and d(/sup 3/He) mu have been predicted for J=0 and 1 using the complex-rotation method. This method has the advantage that the resonance position and total width are calculated at the same time. These resonances are found to be below the n=4 thresholds of alpha mu and (/sup 3/He mu ) and are of Feshbach type. The resonances in t alpha mu and d alpha mu are of particular interest. They decay to t mu + alpha and d mu + alpha , and therefore could be of importance in the reactivation of mu from alpha mu in the fusion of t and d in the presence of a muon (muon-catalyzed fusion). The channel ( alpha mu )/sub n=3/+t or d could be followed by multiple scattering, resulting in stripping of the muon. This process is highly density dependent. (10 References).

Hu Chi-Yu and AA. Kvitsinsky, "Solution of the Faddeev equations for Coulombic systems," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 59--72, 1993.

Abstract:Many important processes in muon catalyzed fusion cycle involve the reaction of three charged particles. Solving the Faddeev equations is one of the most direct approaches to the scattering of these charged particles. Difficulties encountered previously in solving such problems have been resolved. The authors report here a number of their initial calculations for bound as well as low energy scattering states. (16 References).

Hu Chi-Yu, G. M. Hale, and JS. Cohen, "Variational calculations for the dt mu molecule including nuclear effects on sticking by means of the Bloch operator," *Physical Review A*, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 4481--8, 1994.

Abstract:We investigate the effects of nuclear forces on the eigenvalues and sticking fractions of the ground and excited J=0 states of the dt mu molecule using a variational R-matrix approach. The nuclear boundary condition is imposed on the entire variational wave function, rather than on the individual elements of the basis, by means of the Bloch operator. This formulation results in rigorously symmetric variational matrix elements and improved flexibility of the basis at small d-t separations. Our results for the fusion rates and initial sticking fractions are lambda /sub f/=1.25*10/sup 12/ sec/sup -1/ and omega /sub s//sup 0/=0.912% for the nu =0 state and lambda /sub f/=1.05*10/sup 12/ sec/sup -1/ and omega /sub s//sup 0/=0.912% for the nu =1 state. (26 References).

Hu Chi-Yu, A. A. Kvitsinsky, and JS. Cohen, "Faddeev calculations of p mu +p collisions: effect of hyperfine splitting on the cross sections," *Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics*, vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 3629--41, 1995.

Abstract:The Faddeev equations, modified to remove long-range coupling between different channels, are solved in the total-angular-momentum representation for p mu +p collisions. S-wave elastic and hyperfine-transition cross sections are calculated with and without explicit inclusion of the hyperfine splitting Delta E. For hyperfine quenching the simpler approach without hyperfine splitting is found to be adequate at collision energies above about Delta E, but for elastic scattering it does not become adequate until somewhat higher energies. The present cross sections tend to fall in between earlier calculations performed using a large standard adiabatic expansion and those performed using a two-state improved adiabatic expansion, but are closer to the former. (18 References).

CF. Cho, "The energy levels of pi-muonium (produced in K/sup 0//sub l/ decay)," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 23A, no. 3, pp. 557-80, 1974.

Abstract:An experiment was recently proposed and planned to measure the energy levels of the pi - mu atom (pi-muonium). Expressions are obtained for all QED contributions to the 2S/sub 1/2/, 2P/sub 1/2/ and 2P/sub 3/2/ level shifts of pi-muonium accurate to 10/sup -4/ eV. Detailed discussions are given for the recoil corrections to the spinor-scalar system by means of an effective potential method. The contributions of the total hadronic vacuum polarization and the weak interaction are also discussed. The pi -e and the pi - pi atoms which are also produced in K decay, are discussed briefly. (32 References).

R. E. Chrien, S. Bart, P. Pile, R. Sutter, N. Tsoupas, H. O. Funsten, J. M. Finn, C. Lyndon, V. Punjabi, C. F. Perdrisat, B. J. Lieb, T. Kishimoto, L. C. Liu, R. Estep, B. Dropesky, C. E. Stronach, and RL. Stearns, "Search for bound states of the eta meson in light nuclei," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 60, no. 25, pp. 2595--8, 1988.

Abstract:A search for nuclear-bound states of the eta meson has been carried out. Targets of lithium, carbon, oxygen, and aluminum were placed in a pi /sup +/ beam at 800 MeV/c. A predicted eta bound state in /sup 15/O* (E/sub x/ approximately=540 MeV) with a width of approximately=9 MeV was not observed. A bound state of a size /sup 1///sub 3/ of the predicted cross section would have been seen in this experiment at a confidence level of 3 sigma (P[right angle bracket]0.9987). (12 References).

P. Christillin and M. Rosa-Clot, "Nonlocal Hamiltonian and radiative-muon capture," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1-4, 1972.

Abstract:Discusses improvements in the approximations made in the theoretical treatment of radiative muon capture in order to reduce the discrepancy with experimental results.

P. Christillin and M. Rosa-Clot, "Isovector current-current processes in nuclear physics," *Physical Review C*, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 44--50, 1973.

Abstract:Processes involving two vertices are analyzed in nuclear physics. By means of an appropriate isospin analysis, corrections to the usual single-particle Hamiltonian arising from nuclear correlations are explicitly given for Compton scattering and muon and pion radiative capture. In particular the Delta T=2 channel is seen to play a fundamental role in radiative muon capture for medium and heavy nuclei where its contribution to the rate amounts to approximately 10% for /sup 40/Ca and affects sensitively the estimates of g/sub p/. (16 References).

P. Christillin, A. Dellafiore, and M. Rosa-Clot, "Nuclear excitation energy in muon capture," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 1012--15, 1973.

Abstract:Sum-rule techniques are used to evaluate total mu -capture rates. They turn out to be strongly dependent on the mean nuclear excitation energy, whose behavior along the nuclear table is discussed. (11 References).

P. Christillin, A. Dellafiore, and M. Rosa-Clot, "Nuclear excitation energy in muon capture: A reply," *Physical Review C*, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 691--4, 1975.

Abstract:Criticisms of Cannata and Mukhopadhyay (see Phys. Rev. no.C10, p.379 of 1974) of the authors' parametrization of the total capture rate in terms of a mean nuclear excitation energy related to the average neutrino momentum are refuted. The energy corrected for the Coulomb energy does agree with the giant dipole resonance energy in light nuclei and becomes larger in heavier nuclei because of contributions from higher multipoles. (13 References).

P. Christillin, M. Rosa-Clot, and A. Dellafiore, "Isotope effect in total muon capture rates on nuclei and isotensor effective potential," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 34A, no. 2, pp. 296-300, 1976.

Abstract:Isotope effects are considered in the framework of the energy-weighted sum rule treatment of muon capture on nuclei. The possibility of exploiting total capture rates to convey information on nuclear structure is pointed out. (11 References).

P. Christillin, A. Dellafiore, and M. Rosa-Clot, "Mean excitation energy and neutron emission following muon capture in medium-heavy nuclei," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 34A, no. 2, pp. 289-95, 1976.

Abstract:It is shown that calculated mean nuclear-excitation energies in muon capture account for the observed emission of neutrons from medium-heavy nuclei. The results confirm the finding of a decreasing average momentum nu of the emitted neutrino in heavy nuclei, while the hypothesis of a constant nu is untenable. (18 References).

P. Christillin, A. Dellafiore, and M. Rosa-Clot, "Total muon capture rates and mean neutrino energy," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 34A, no. 2, pp. 272-88, 1976.

Abstract:The energy-weighted sum rule approach to muon capture is discussed. The Fermi-gas model is used in medium-heavy nuclei to predict the mean neutrino energy-which is found to decrease along the nuclear table-and the total capture rates. Results compare favourably with experimental data. (24 References).

P. Christillin and S. Servadio, "About low-energy expansion of two-current amplitudes," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 42A, no. 2, pp. 165-88, 1977.

Abstract:An alternative technique to deal with processes in which two isospin-carrying electromagnetic or weak currents appear is developed to predict the amplitude up to nontrivial structure terms by means of the divergence conditions. Applications are made to isovector Compton scattering and radiative muon capture by a free proton. (6 References).

P. Christillin, M. Rosa-Clot, and A. Dellafoire, "Evaluation of v/c terms in nuclear muon capture rates," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 37A, no. 3, pp. 227-32, 1977.

Abstract:The v/c terms in muon capture are expressed within the usual approximations as a function of the mean neutrino energy and evaluated along the nuclear table. (11 References).

P. Christillin, S. Servadio, and M. Rosa-Clot, "Nuclear effects in radiative muon capture in calcium," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 73B, no. 1, pp. 23--6, 1978.

Abstract:The sensitivity of photon spectrum in the theoretical treatment of radiative muon capture in /sup 40/Ca to the closure approximation is discussed and its explicit calculation, relaxing the above condition, performed in two models. It is shown that the spectrum is substantially lowered with respect to the closure approximation results in the same models and it is now compatible with experimental data and nucleonic values of the weak coupling constants. (13 References).

P. Christillin, E. Lipparini, S. Stringari, and M. Traini, "Inclusive radiative pion and muon capture in N=Z nuclei," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 95B, no. 3-4, pp. 344--8, 1980.

Abstract:Sum rule techniques are used to predict average excitation energy and total capture rates for inclusive radiative pion and muon capture in N=Z nuclei. The processes under consideration are shown to exhibit different excitation features because of the strong dependence on the orbit of the captured particle. Results are given for /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ca. A semi-quantitative agreement with experimental data is found, amenable to the approximations in the treatment of nuclear dynamics. (13 References).

P. Christillin, M. Rosa-Clot, and S. Servadio, "Muon wave function and Coulomb propagator in radiative muon capture in nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A345, no. 2, pp. 317--30, 1980.

Abstract:The electromagnetic effects connected with the muon radiating diagram in radiative muon capture in nuclei are discussed. The non-relativistic Schrodinger equation, reproducing with a very good accuracy the muonic ground-state properties, i.e., binding energies and effective charges Z/sub eff/, is shown to be adequate for the bound muon. The effects of the extended nuclear Coulomb field on the muon propagator are considered, and an explicit solution is worked out for the high-energy region of the photon spectrum. (21 References).

P. Christillin, M. Rosa-Clot, and S. Servadio, "Radiative muon capture in medium-heavy nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A345, no. 2, pp. 331--66, 1980.

Abstract:Radiative muon capture in nuclei is thoroughly investigated in view of its sensitivity to the pseudoscalar coupling constant g/sub P/. In the photon energy domain of interest (k[right angle bracket]or=60 MeV) the effective one-body hamiltonian in use is shown essentially to hold true, with minor corrections due to the muon propagator in the nuclear field and to the two-step process. The closure approximation is avoided by appropriately integrating the response function calculated in the Fermi gas model, in the energy-momentum transfer plane. Theoretical predictions in medium-heavy nuclei of the high-energy photon spectrum, of photon polarization, and of muon-spin photon angular correlation are given for various values of the pseudoscalar coupling constant. (34 References).

P. Christillin, "Radiative muon capture for N=Z nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A362, no. 2, pp. 391--404, 1981.

Abstract:The commonly used elementary Hamiltonian of radiative muon capture has been confirmed, while the alternative Hwang-Primakoff approach is shown not to be gauge invariant. In the inclusive process on N=Z nuclei, the closure approximation is avoided by using a realistic nuclear excitation spectrum. The study is exemplified by a detailed application to /sup 40/Ca. Predictions are given for the high-energy photon spectrum, circular polarization and asymmetry with respect to the muon polarization for various values of the pseudoscalar coupling constant g/sub p/. A semi-quantitative agreement is found with the data on the spectrum; more precise experiments are necessary to determine g/sub p/. (34 References).

P. Christillin, "Inclusive radiative muon capture in nuclei: a status report," *Czechoslovak Journal of Physics*, vol. B32, no. 3, pp. 266--9, 1982.

Abstract:The problems connected to the use of the effective Hamiltonian and to the nuclear excitation spectrum for inclusive radiative muon capture in nuclei are reviewed. Results are presented for /sup 40/Ca. (10 References).

P. Christillin, "Radiative muon capture on /sup 16/O," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 150B, no. 1-3, pp. 50--2, 1985.

Abstract:Predictions of the photon spectrum of radiative muon capture on /sup 16/O are given within a phenomenological approach for a realistic nuclear excitation spectrum which includes low-lying excited states. Preliminary experimental results are totally at variance with the predictions based on the canonical value of the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant gp. (16 References).

P. Christillin, Dang G. Do, and A. Fabrocini, "Total muon capture rates beyond SU(4). Breakdown of the closure approximation," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 265, no. 3-4, pp. 212--18, 1991.

Abstract:It is shown that in a correlated model of spin-isospin saturated nuclear matter the tensor terms of the potentials yield a mean excitation energy for the axial current in the total muon capture rates that is above the maximum available one, i.e., the muon mass, thus making totally non-quantitative the use of sum rules for the process. This is in agreement with an analogous role played by tensor correlations in space-like low momentum transverse (e,e') scattering on nuclei and confirms the missing strength argument for Gamow-Teller transitions. (21 References).

K. Chung, M. G. Huber, B. Blum, and M. Danos, "Pion absorption in the oxygen isotopes," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 32B, no. 7, pp. 536--8, 1970.

Abstract:The absorption rates for bound pions in /sup 16/O and /sup 18/O are calculated on the basis of an independent particle model modified by short range nucleon-nucleon correlations. The ratio of the 1s and 2p level widths can be explained quantitatively by assuming an exchange of high momenta (h(cross)q approximately=300 MeV/c) between otherwise independently moving nucleons. It turns out that the detailed properties of the two d-neutrons in /sup 18/O one of vital importance to account for the observed differences of the absorption rates.

J-M Chung, B. K. Chung, K. S. Kang, and CW. Kim, "Reexamination of high-energy-transfer muon capture in /sup 165/Ho," *Journal of the Korean Physical Society*, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 142--6, 1994.

Abstract:The previous calculation of the muon-capture rate in /sup 165/Ho with high energy transfer or equivalently with time-like momentum transfer squared, q/sup 2/, has been reexamined and improved by incorporating better estimates of finite-nuclear-size corrections for the s-wave muon wave function and pion-nucleus coupling form factors. Also included in this new calculation are more refined estimates of the pion-nucleus scattering length and volume for /sup 165/Ho based on the extrapolation of optical potential calculations. Theory and experiment now agree within two standard deviations of experimental errors. (14 References).

Leung. Chun-Ming, "Branching ratio for the reaction pi /sup -/+/sup 4/He to n+/sup 3/H," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 389--93, 1969.

Abstract:The ratio of the two-body reaction pi /sup -/+/sup 4/He to /sup 3/H+n to all pi /sup -/ interactions is the same for pi /sup -/ absorption at rest and in flight. Therefore, this gives no direct information on the question of orbital angular momentum of pi /sup -/ capture in helium, but the ration is obviously compatible with an S-state capture hypothesis. The results seem to disagree with a small branching ratio for the charge symmetric reaction pi /sup +/+/sup 4/He to /sup 3/H+p reported by the Northwestern group (Block et al, 1968).

S. Ciechanowicz, "Angular correlations in muon capture including linear polarization of the de-excitation gamma-quanta," *Acta Physica Polonica B*, vol. B7, no. 5, pp. 371--4, 1976.

Abstract:Angular correlations coefficients are calculated for the nuclear cascade process j/sub o/(mesoatom) mu /sup -/ capture into j/sub 1/, gamma decay into j/sub 2/. When introducing explicitly a photon polarization density matrix a new quantity is distinguished. It is the imaginary part of the muon capture partial amplitudes, providing another check of the T-invariance in the mu -capture. The new quantity could be measured only be means of the linear polarization of the emitted gamma -quanta. (6 References).

S. Ciechanowicz, "Allowed partial transitions in muon capture by /sup 28/Si," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A267, no. 3, pp. 472--84, 1976.

Abstract:The transition amplitudes for allowed transitions in muon capture by /sup 28/Si are given in terms of the shell model. These transitions were investigated experimentally by means of gamma - nu angular distributions. The extended nuclear charge distribution is taken into account. The magnitude of the induced pseudoscalar interaction appears to be C/sub P/[left angle bracket]or=C/sub A/. It indicates downward renormalization of the Goldberger-Treiman relation. (18 References).

S. Ciechanowicz, "Recoil nuclei polarization in the partial mu /sup -/+/sup 12/C to nu /sub mu /+/sup 12/B transitions," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A372, no. 3, pp. 445--8, 1981.

Abstract:The average linear recoil polarization of recoil nuclei in the reaction mu /sup -/+/sup 12/C(g.s.) to nu /sub mu /+/sup 12/B(I/sup pi /) is investigated, and the results have been compared to the issues of the Louvain-Saclay-ETH experiment. The generalized Helm model has been used for the nuclear part of the problem, and its reliability is compared with the findings of the recent papers. The compatibility of the results with the recent experimental data has been confirmed within the model used, and qualitative explanation of the differences between the mu -capture rates from the Helm model and the experiment is proposed. (30 References).

S. Ciechanowicz, "Time reversal test in the nuclear muon capture," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atomic Nuclei)*, vol. 337, no. 1, pp. 97--108, 1990.

Abstract:Possible effects of breaking CP-symmetry are looked for in the muon capture by a linearly polarized target nucleus. With this aim the recoil polarization in the partial transitions 0 to I, 1/2 to J and 1 to I is investigated in a nuclear model independent way. It is shown that the hyperfine structure of the muonic atom significantly influences the T-odd correlations in the recoil polarization formula, and the expectation for the T-odd signal in case of the linearly polarized target is higher by one order of magnitude. The authors obtain the complete set of the T-odd observables which could enter the polarization formula. As an example, within the impulse approximation for the weak interaction hamiltonian, they analyse the nonstandard, CP-breaking extension of the Fermi theory using complex Fujii-Primakoff form factor G/sub V/e/sup i phi /. (19 References).

S. Ciechanowicz and N. Popov, "Neutrino mass effect on the nuclear muon capture," *Zeitschrift fur Physik C-Particles & Fields*, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 623--9, 1993.

Abstract:Multipole expansion of the partial transition amplitude in the nuclear muon capture with massive left-handed Dirac neutrino has been derived. The multipole amplitudes for the partial nuclear transitions are given as the explicit functions of the neutrino mass parameter. As an example, the capture rate, the recoil asymmetry and the neutrino polarization are investigated in terms of these multipole amplitudes. The transversal neutrino polarization provides a connection between the T-violation and the neutrino mass; if T-odd component in the neutrino polarization is observed, then neutrino must be a massive particle. It turns out that in the capture rate and recoil polarization, the effects due to very small neutrino mass can be proportional to the square ratio of the neutrino mass to its momentum, while the neutrino transversal polarization is proportional to this ratio only. Under the recent limits on the muon neutrino mass, the observable effects in the partial transition may be below the order of approximately=10/sup -3/. (26 References).

S. Ciechanowicz, "Low energy test of T-invariance in weak interactions," in *Proceedings of the First German - Polish Symposium. Particles and Fields*, (H. D. Doebner, M. Pawlowski, and R. Raczka, eds.), pp. 17--22, 1994.

Abstract:The Racah algebra formalism and the technique to compute amplitudes for mu -capture processes involving three-body final states are used in the explicit calculations of the observables. The formalism is then applied to the discussion of several mu -capture observables which might serve for the test purposes of the standard model fundamentals. The effects of CP-violation, neutrino mass and right-handed currents are analysed in detail. (9 References).

S. Ciechanowicz, Z. Oziewicz, and N. Popov, "Relativistic and neutrino mass effects in partial muon capture," *Journal of Physics G-Nuclear & Particle Physics*, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1601--9, 1996.

Abstract:The characteristics of the partial nuclear muon capture with massive left-handed Dirac neutrino and relativistic component of the muon wavefunction have been derived. The multipole amplitudes are given as a function of neutrino mass parameter and reduced nuclear matrix elements which are modified by the small component of the muon wavefunction. As an example, the capture rate, asymmetry and polarization of recoil nuclei are investigated in terms of these multipole amplitudes. (23 References).

S. Ciechanowiz and Z. Oziewicz, "Angular correlation for nuclear muon capture," *Fortschritte der Physik-Progress of Physics*, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 61--88, 1984.

Abstract:Formulae for the capture rates, gamma-neutrino correlations, and angular distributions of recoil in muon capture processes J/sub i/- mu to /sup mu /J/sub f/ by an unpolarized nucleus for J/sub i/[left angle bracket]or=3 and J/sub f/[left angle bracket]or=5/2, with and without change of parity of nuclear levels, are given explicitly in terms of the multipole amplitudes. Relation of helicity amplitudes for muonic atom decay to the multipole amplitudes and to amplitudes introduced by other authors is presented. The derivation is based on kinematics only, and the formulae are strictly valid for the muon capture by any nuclei. The formulae are convenient for model calculations of partial transitions with realistic nuclear and muon wave functions and for the phenomenological analysis of a weak interaction. (33 References).

A. Cieply, M. Gmitro, R. Mach, and SS. Kamalov, "Momentum-space method for pionic atoms," *Physical Review C*, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 713--20, 1991.

Abstract:A new momentum-space method is developed for calculation of the strong-interaction shifts and widths in pionic atoms. The singularity connected with the Coulomb potential is treated by using the Vincent and Phatak prescription. The nuclear and atomic distances are separated in the scheme and this secures numerical stability of the calculation. The latter property makes the method a useful alternative to the earlier algorithms. Sample results for a series of light pionic atoms are shown. (35 References).

A. Cieply, M. Gmitro, and R. Mach, "Nuclear structure effects in light pi -mesoatoms," *Czechoslovak Journal of Physics*, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1091--8, 1991.

Abstract:Performing the angle transformation from the pion-nucleon to the pion-nucleus CMS frame the first order pion-nucleus optical potential receives also a contribution due to nucleonic Fermi motion. The corresponding term is always repulsive and reflects the nuclear spin-orbital interaction playing an important role particularly for nuclei with half-filled valence shells. The authors demonstrate the effects due to this term yielding a contribution to the level shifts and widths of pionic atoms. Such ideas allow one to explain the A-dependence of 2p-level energy shifts for most of the s-d shell pi -mesoatoms. (28 References).

A. Cieply and R. Mach, "The nuclear spin-orbital interaction and characteristics of light pionic atoms," in *Few-Body Systems Supplementum*, pp. 302-9, 1991.

Abstract:Performing the angle transformation from pion-nucleon to pion-nucleus CMS frame, several Fermi motion terms appear in the first order pion-nucleus optical potential. One of them being always repulsive reflects the nuclear spin-orbit interaction and plays an important role particularly for nuclei with half-filled valence shells. the authors demonstrate the effects due to this term yielding a contribution to the level shifts and widths of pionic atoms. Such ideas allow one to explain the A-dependence of the 2p-level energy shifts for most of the s-d shell pionic atoms. (25 References).

A. Cieply and R. Mach, "Influence of nuclear structure on the characteristics of light pionic atoms," *Physical Review C*, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 1454--65, 1994.

Abstract:An extended version of the standard pion-nucleus optical potential is presented using the momentum-space formulation of the multiple scattering theory. This potential is used for studying the influence of nonlocal effects and nuclear structure on the characteristics of light pionic atoms. A method is suggested to treat the long-range two-nucleon correlations involved in the second-order optical potential. Particularly, the spin-orbital Fermi motion correction to the first-order optical potential, the center-of-mass correlations, and the spin-isospin corrections to the second-order optical potential are discussed in some detail. The results are presented in comparison with the experimental data for the 1 s and 2 p levels of light pionic atoms up to /sup 44/Ca. (51 References).

W. A. Cilliers and FD. Brooks, "Tests of plastic scintillators as alpha detectors in dt mu CF," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 413--19, 1991.

Abstract:Thin plastic scintillators are considered for the detection of alphas from muon-catalyzed fusion in D-T gas targets. Tests show that barriers of havar foil (1.6 mu m) or aluminium oxide (0.3 mu m) provide adequate protection of the scintillator against tritium decay betas and restrict diffusion of tritium into the scintillator to within acceptable limits over periods of eight days or longer. (6 References).

W. A. Cilliers, F. D. Brooks, and JBA. England, "Detection of fusion alphas from D/sub 2/-T/sub 2/ gas targets," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 337--42, 1993.

Abstract:Detectors for recording alphas from fusions in D/sub 2/-T/sub 2/ gas targets require protection against diffusion of tritium into the detector medium. Tests have been carried out on surface barrier detectors to determine the feasibility of using thin coatings of oxide and metal for this purpose. The results show that a layer of 0.5 mu m aluminium oxide plus 0.2 mu m gold provides effective protection for at least 280 h, without impairing the transmission of 2 MeV alphas into the detector. Tests of an alternative detector, a phoswich of thin film plastic and lithium-glass scintillators, are also described. (7 References).

C. Cioaca, "Influence of spatial extent of nucleus on the levels of mesic (muonic) atoms," *Romanian Journal of Physics*, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1025--9, 1992.

Abstract:Utilizing the radial wave functions R/sub nl/(r) of the mesic atoms for arbitrary integers numbers n,l (n[right angle bracket]or=1) and applying the perturbation theory there are calculated without simplification the radial integral, the first-order corrections on the energy Delta E/sub nl/, associated to the states mod psi /sub nlm/). (4 References).

JHD Clark, D. S. Armstrong, T. P. Gorringe, M. D. Hasinoff, P. M. King, T. J. Stocki, S. Tripathi, D. H. Wright, and PA. Zolnierczuk, "Ortho-para transition in muonic molecular hydrogen," in *AIP. American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 407-10, 2000.

Abstract:Knowledge of the transition rate between the ortho- and para-molecular states of muonic molecular hydrogen is critical for the extraction of the induced pseudoscalar coupling of the proton, g/sub p/, from muon capture experiments in hydrogen. A measurement of this rate has recently been completed at TRIUMF, and a status report on the experiment is presented here. (6 References).

D. C. Clary and JNL. Connor, "Isotope and potential energy surface effects in vibrational bonding," *Journal of Physical Chemistry*, vol. 88, no. 13, pp. 2758--64, 1984.

Abstract:Variational calculations of vibrational energy levels have been carried out in order to study vibrational bonding for the IXI and BrXBr molecules with X=Mu, H, and D. Extended London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato (LEPS) and three-center diatomics-in-molecules (DIM) potential energy surfaces have been used for IXI. For BrXBr, a three-center DIM potential surface was employed. The LEPS surface is purely repulsive, whereas the DIM potentials possess two van der Waals minima. The variational calculations use the exact Hamiltonian of Watson (1970) and provide rigorous upper bounds to the energy levels. Calculations have been performed both for the collinear configurations of the atoms as well as in three dimensions, with the total angular momentum quantum number equal to zero. The bond energies of YXY, where Y=Br and I, increase in the order D[left angle bracket]H[left angle bracket]Mu. This inverse isotope effect is opposite to that for conventional chemical bond energies. The bond energies for IXI also show a sensitive dependence on the nature of the potential surface. The presence of van der Waals wells as well as the lower barrier of the DIM surface increases the number of vibrationally bound states for IXI compared to the case of the LEPS surface. The accurate variational eigenenergies have also been approximately partitioned into normal-mode symmetric, bending, and asymmetric contributions. The isotopic dependence of the normal-mode frequencies is consistent with the predictions of the valence force field approximation. The calculations are relevant to the experimental detection of vibrational bonds by conventional spectroscopic techniques or by photodetachment spectroscopy. (34 References).

T. A. Claxton, A. M. Graham, MCR Symons, P. W. Percival, R. F. Kiefl, S. R. Kreitzman, D. M. Garner, SFJ Cox, G. M. Luke, J. H. Brewer, K. Nishiyama, and K. Venkateswaran, "On the interpretation of level-crossing resonance results for the muonated ethyl radical," *Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 610--14, 1987.

Abstract:Recent level-crossing resonance results on the muonated ethyl radical are reinterpreted to confirm the existence of the 'residual' isotope effect. All results are expressed as reduced hyperfine coupling constants. (15 References).

T. A. Claxton, A. M. Graham, SFJ Cox, D. M. Maric, P. F. Meier, and S. Vogel, "Vibrationally averaged spin densities on muons and protons in the hydroxyl and ethyl radicals," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 65, no. 1-4, pp. 913--26, 1990.

Abstract:The observations of the residual isotope effect for muonated radicals are discussed using calculations on the hydroxyl and ethyl radicals. The origins are partly due to the non-linear increase of the hyperfine coupling constants with increase in bond length, although a significant contribution comes from the anharmonicity of the molecular vibrations. (10 References).

T. A. Claxton and SFJ. Cox, "Ab initio minimal basis set calculations on C/sub 60/Mu," *Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 31--40, 1993.

Abstract:The simplest known adduct of C/sub 60/ fullerene is C/sub 60/Mu which shows an experimental mu SR spectrum very similar to that of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/Mu, the muonium adduct of ethylene. This suggests that the region affected by the addition of muonium (the defect) is very localised on the fullerene surface. To test this interpretation ab initio restricted Hartree-Fock calculations have been carried out on three different levels of relaxation of the C/sub 60/Mu geometry. Calculations have also been carried out on clusters C/sub 18/H/sub 12/Mu and C/sub 30/H/sub 12/Mu to investigate the extent to which the properties of this defect depend on the whole C/sub 60/ structure. (27 References).

T. A. Claxton and SFJ. Cox, "Ab initio calculations of quadrupole interactions and their isotope effects," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 87, no. 1-4, pp. 917--22, 1994.

Abstract:Calculations are presented of nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in simple closed-shell molecules containing hydrogen, together with their muonium-substituted counterparts. Results are given for HCl and MuCl, N/sub 2/H/sup +/ and N/sub 2/Mu/sup +/, and NH/sub 4//sup +/ and NH/sub 3/Mu/sup +/. The quadrupole isotope effect proves to be small, even for the ammonium ion, where isotopic substitution breaks the tetrahedral symmetry. The calculated quadrupole interactions serve to test the quality of the calculations, and also as a signature for these diamagnetic or closed-shell species: they may be compared with values measured by muon level crossing resonance, where known, or used to predict the fields for resonance, where not. (10 References).

E. Clementi and D. L. Raimondi, "Atomic screening constants from SCF functions," *Journal of Chemistry and Physics*, vol. 38, pp. 2686--2689, 1963.

D. A. Close, J. J. Malanify, and JP. Davidson, "Nuclear polarization deduced from muonic /sup 208/Pb measurements," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 34A, no. 2, pp. 301-14, 1976.

Abstract:The 2p-1s, 3d-2p, 3p-2s, 2s-2p, 3p-1s and 3d-1s muonic X-ray transitions in /sup 208/Pb have been used to determine the parameters of a spherical Fermi charge distribution and to deduce the nuclear polarization of the 1s, 2s and 2p muonic levels. The fitted value for the 1s nuclear polarization is larger by a factor of two than calculations; this may shed light on low-lying nuclear compressive modes. (22 References).

D. A. Close, J. J. Malanify, and JP. Davidson, "Nuclear charge distributions deduced from the muonic atoms of /sup 232/Th, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 239/Pu," *Physical Review C*, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1433--55, 1978.

Abstract:The muonic X-rays from four highly deformed actinide nuclei, /sup 232/Th, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 239/Pu, have been measured. A four parameter Fermi charge distribution with distortion terms of the form beta /sub 2n/Y/sub 2n0/, n[left angle bracket]or=2, was used to characterize the nuclear charge distribution. A least squares fit was made to the energies of the 2p-1s and 3d-2p muonic X-rays and their fine and hyperfine structure splitting. The 4f-3d and 5g-4f muonic X-rays were measured for the four nuclei as well as the 5-3, 4-2, and 3-1 muonic transitions for /sup 232/Th and /sup 238/U. The intrinsic electric quadrupole moments were deduced. The results are compared with those from earlier muonic experiments, as well as with proton, alpha , and electron inelastic scattering. (47 References).

H. T. Coelho, Groote JJ De, and JE. Hornos, "General theoretical approach to Coulombic three-body systems by the hyperspherical formalism," *Physical Review A*, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 5443--52, 1992.

Abstract:Coulombic three-body systems are investigated using the hyperspherical adiabatic approach. By using a suitable variable z=tan( alpha /2) in the angular differential equation for the determination of the potential curves, the authors are able to obtain stable series-expansion solutions, valid for small and large values of the hyperspherical radius. The analysis of the mathematical singularities of the differential equations in the variable z offers an insight into the physics of the problem and into the determination of stable converging solutions as well. In order to illustrate the investigation, the authors apply this study to several carefully chosen systems: He, dd mu , d/sub 2//sup +/, and excitons bound to a Coulomb center in different semiconductors. (20 References).

S. Cohen and others, "Mu--mesonic molecules. I. Three--body problem," *Physical Review*, vol. 119, pp. 384--397, 1960.

S. Cohen and others, "Mu--mesonic molecules. II. Molecular--ion formation and nuclear catalysis," *Physical Review*, vol. 119, pp. 397--411, 1960.

R. C. Cohen and others, "Muon capture in oxygen," *Nuclear Physics*, vol. 57, pp. 255--270, 1964.

J. S. Cohen, R. L. Martin, and WR. Wadt, "Diabatic-state treatment of negative-meson moderation and capture. I. The hydrogen atom," *Physical Review A*, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 33--43, 1981.

Abstract:A new formulation of the moderation and capture of negative mesons by atoms has been developed. The scattering is described by a complex potential with a real part given by a diabatic interaction potential and an imaginary part given by the ionization width of the diabatic state embedded in the electronic continuum. Results are presented for collisions of mu /sup -/, pi /sup -/, K/sup -/, and p/sup -/ with the hydrogen atom. The differential energy-loss cross sections and stopping powers obtained are large. The energy spectrum of stopped mesons is determined and most captures are found to occur at collision energies below or near the ionization potential. The principal-quantum-number distributions of the initially formed mesic atoms peak close to the orbital giving optimal overlap with the displaced electronic orbital. The angular-momentum distributions are not too different from statistical, except that they tend to cut off at l significantly smaller than n-1 in the case of large n. Comparison to a very recent experiment is made in a note added. (33 References).

J. S. Cohen and JN. Bardsley, "Radiative collisional quenching of metastable muonic hydrogen p mu /sup -/(2s) and the metastable muonic helium ion alpha mu /sup -/(2s)," *Physical Review A*, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 46--51, 1981.

Abstract:Fully quantum-mechanical calculations have been performed to determine the radiative collisional cross sections for quenching of metastable muonic hydrogen p mu /sup -/(2s) by normal hydrogen atoms and for quenching of the metastable muonic helium ion alpha mu /sup -/(2s) by normal helium atoms. The interatomic potential curves and the radiative transition rates for the mixed electronic-muonic systems are calculated using molecular-structure methods. The nuclear motion is treated as adiabatic and the interaction is written in terms of a complex potential. The cross sections are evaluated by direct numerical integration of the Schrodinger equation. The two-body thermal (300K) quenching rate constants obtained are 3.7*10/sup -13/ cm/sup 3//sec for p mu /sup -/ and 6.0*10/sup -15/ cm/sup 3//sec for alpha mu /sup -/. (19 References).

JS. Cohen, "Question of why metastable muonic helium is not quenched," *Physical Review A*, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1791--3, 1982.

Abstract:The ion-clustering mechanism which is the explanation usually invoked for the long collisional lifetime of metastable muonic helium is examined. Based on current knowledge of similar clusters, this mechanism does not work. (11 References).

JS. Cohen, "Classical-trajectory Monte Carlo calculation of negative-muon capture," in *Electronic and Atomic Collisions. 3th International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Int. Conference on the Phys. Electron. & Atomic Collisions*, (J. Eichler, W. Fritsch, I. V. Hertel, N. Stolterfoht, and U. Wille, eds.), 1983.

Abstract:The classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method has been used to describe the slowing down and capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms. The reactions of concern are mu /sup -/+H(1s) to mu /sup -/+H(nl) (inelastic) or mu /sup -/+e+H/sup +/ (ionization) or e+H/sub mu /(nl) (capture). Cross sections for these processes are required over a wide energy range and no single quantum-mechanical method is practical over the entire range. Since molecular (p mu /sup -/e) and nuclear-symmetry effects do not occur and since the muon is generally captured in a high-lying Rydberg orbital, classical mechanics is expected to have a wider range of validity for mu /sup -/+H scattering than for p+H scattering than for p+H scattering where it has been quite successful. (4 References).

J. S. Cohen, R. L. Martin, and WR. Wadt, "Diabatic-state treatment of negative-meson moderation and capture. II. Mixtures of hydrogen and helium," *Physical Review A*, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1821--30, 1983.

Abstract:For p.I see ibid., vol.24, no.1, p.33, 1981. Slowing-down and capture cross sections have been consistently calculated for mu /sup -/, pi /sup -/, K/sup -/, and p in collisions with hydrogen and helium atoms and isotopic variants. Capture-energy distributions are determined using the differential-energy-loss cross sections in the laboratory frame. Capture is found to occur predominantly at energies near or below the ionization potential of the target. Ratios of capture on different species are given as a function of the mole fraction of each species present in mixtures. For pi /sup -/ in a He-H mixture the reduced capture ratio obtained is approximately 0.73, slightly less than the experimental value of 0.92 for the He-H/sub 2/ mixture. In contrast with another recent theoretical calculation and in agreement with experimental analysis, it is found that atomic capture of pions in the helium-hydrogen mixture is only slightly nonlinear. It is pointed out that some prior theoretical treatments are in error because of inconsistent calculation of the slowing-down and capture processes and/or subsequent approximate treatment of the energy transport. Use of capture and transfer rates in muon kinetics, e.g. muon-catalyzed fusion, is discussed. (29 References).

J. S. Cohen, "Slowing down and capture of negative muons by hydrogen: classical-trajectory Monte Carlo calculation," *Physical Review A*, vol. 27, pp. 167--179, 1983.

JS. Cohen, "Calculations of muon capture in D/sub 2//T/sub 2//He mixtures," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, 1984.

Abstract:The first step in the muon-catalyzed fusion cycle is slowing down and capture of the negative muon in isotopic hydrogen mixtures. The author has used two methods for calculating this process: the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) approach and the diabatic-state model. Previous CTMC calculations probably give the most accurate published cross sections for mu /sup -/capture by hydrogen isotopes. However, those results are somewhat uncertain since, while the momentum distribution in the H-atom is given exactly, the position distribution is not described well by the microcanonical ensemble employed. A description has now been developed that simultaneously treats the position and the momentum distributions with sufficient accuracy. As the amount of helium in the mixture builds up (/sup 3/He from tritium decay or /sup 4/He from fusion), the catalytic action is poisoned. Cross sections for mu /sup -/ capture by He have also been calculated. Determination of the fraction captured by He requires, in addition, proper description of the muon-energy transport. Results for hydrogen/helium mixtures are presented and the tolerable contamination by He deduced. (0 References).

J. S. Cohen, R. L. Martin, and M. Leon, "Interaction matrix elements for resonant muonic-molecule formation," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 738--9, 1984.

Abstract:"In a recent Letter ibid., vol.52, p.605 (1984) Leon reported a calculation of the formation rate of the muonic molecular ion dt mu in the resonant reaction t mu +D/sub 2/( nu /sub i/=O,K/sub i/) to (dt mu )dee( nu /sub f/,K/sub f/), where nu /sub i/ and K/sub i/ are the vibrational and rotational quantum numbers of the initial deuterium molecule and nu /sub f/ and K/sub f/ are the similar quantum numbers of the final electronic molecule in which dt mu serves as a compound nucleus of charge +1 and mass approximately 5 amu. In the resonant collision the relative collision energy plus the binding energy of a weakly bound ( approximately 0.64 eV) state of dt mu ( nu =1

J. S. Cohen and M. Leon, "New mechanism for resonant dt mu formation and epithermal effects in muon-catalyzed fusion," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 52--5, 1985.

Abstract:A recent muon-catalysis experiment with a low-density D-T target saw a pronounced transient in the appearance of fusion neutrons. The authors propose that this transient is due to resonant molecular formation at epithermal energies. This effect is calculated, with inclusion of the contribution of direct (as opposed to dipole) mesomolecule formation. The direct process is the dominant one, but has not previously been considered. The results agree well with the experiment. (24 References).

JS. Cohen, "Thermalization of the muonic tritium atom in deuterium-tritium mixtures," *Physical Review A*, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 2719--30, 1986.

Abstract:Thermalization of hot t mu atoms formed in D/sub 2/-DT-T/sub 2/ mixtures and relaxation of the triplet hyperfine state of t mu are treated by Monte Carlo simulation. The cross sections for collisions with molecular targets are derived from cross sections for collisions with the component atoms. The statistical histograms for the time-dependent velocity distributions are fitted by sums of two Maxwellian functions, and the coefficients and temperatures are tabulated for tritium fractions of 10%, 50%, and 90% and mixture temperatures of 30, 100, and 300K. The results provide a basis for analyzing some previously puzzling aspects of the observed cycling rate in recent muon-catalyzed-fusion experiments. In particular, thermalization is found to be very incomplete for some low-temperature targets. Also, the relative rates of kinetic thermalization and hyperfine-state relaxation depend strongly on the target tritium fraction, and hyperfine effects may be observable. The velocity distribution of t mu atoms at times of molecular dt mu formation is shown to depend only rather weakly on the initial velocity distribution, which is not well known. (28 References).

JS. Cohen, "Kinetics of muonic helium in muon-catalyzed d-d and d-t fusion," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 58, no. 14, pp. 1407--10, 1987.

Abstract:An accurate kinetics treatment is applied to the muonic helium atoms formed by a muon's sticking to the charged particle produced in muon-catalyzed d-d and d-t fusion. Cross sections for l- and n-changing transitions are included to describe density-dependent stripping and X-ray production. Coupled with recent accurate calculations of the initial sticking, the results are generally in very good agreement with experiments. The noteworthy exception is that the density dependence of the sticking is much weaker than previously observed, in agreement with preliminary results of a new experiment. (21 References).

JS. Cohen, "Some effects on the kinetics of d-t muon-catalyzed fusion," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 1, no. 1-4, pp. 179--203, 1987.

Abstract:Two important stages in the kinetics of muon-catalyzed d-t fusion are discussed: (1) atomic thermalization and hyperfine-state relaxation preceding molecular formation, and (2) muon stripping and X-ray production following sticking to the fusion alpha particle. Thermalization is accurately treated by Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown that the thermalization and triplet-quenching times of the t mu atom may be greater than the average dt mu formation time in low-tritium targets, but that epithermal transients are most important in high-tritium targets. A complete kinetic treatment of muon stripping from alpha mu is made using newly calculated stripping (ionization and charge transfer) and inelastic-excitation cross sections and explicitly treating the 2s-2p Stark mixing. The calculated values of the sticking probability and K alpha alpha mu X-rays per fusion are omega /sub s/=0.53% (0.59%) and I/sub K alpha // chi =0.23% (0.28%) at density phi =1.2 (0.1) times liquid hydrogen density. Sensitivities to the various kinetic rates are evaluated, and error bars are estimated. (29 References).

JS. Cohen, "Stripping of mu /sup -/ from alpha mu after muon-catalyzed fusion: effect of target structure," *Physical Review A*, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 1419--22, 1987.

Abstract:Stripping (ionization and transfer) and excitation cross sections for the muonic helium ion ( alpha mu ) in deuterium-tritium mixtures are calculated by the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method. It is shown by direct (three- and four-body) calculations that the effects of the target electronic structure and finite mass are not important. (18 References).

JS. Cohen, "Cross sections for kinetics of muonic helium created in muon-catalyzed d-d and d-t fusion," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, no. 1-4, pp. 499--509, 1988.

Abstract:Simple analytic fits are provided for the cross sections required to describe the kinetics of the muonic helium resulting from sticking in muon-catalyzed d-d and d-t fusion. The stripping and inelastic excitation cross sections are determined by classical-trajectory Monte Carlo calculations or by conversion of normal-atom cross sections. (24 References).

JS. Cohen, "Charge transfer and ionization in collisions of alpha mu with all elements," *Physical Review A*, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 2343--8, 1988.

Abstract:Cross sections are determined for stripping (charge transfer and ionization) of the alpha mu ion in collisions with a number of elements. The calculations are done with the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method using the Thomas-Fermi model for the neutral-atom target. The total stripping cross sections are shown to differ only slightly from those for collisions with the bare nuclei. A simple analytic formula is given for evaluation of the stripping cross section for any target element. Finally, the results are applied to stopping and stripping of alpha mu ions in several metallic foils. (15 References).

J. S. Cohen and M. Leon, "Note on epithermal $dt\mu$ formation," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, pp. 497--498, 1988.

J. S. Cohen, M. Leon, and NT. Padial, "Pressure broadening of the ((dt mu )dee)* formation resonances," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 111-23, 1988.

Abstract:The treatment of ((dt mu )dee)* formation at high densities as a pressure broadening process is discussed. Cross sections for collisions of the complex (dt mu )dee, and of the D/sub 2/ molecule from which it is formed, with the bath molecules have been accurately calculated. These cross sections are used to calculate the collisional width in three variations of the impact approximation that have been proposed for this problem. In general, the quasistatic approximation is shown to satisfy the usual conditions of muon-catalyzed fusion better than does the impact approximation. A preliminary rough treatment is presented to illustrate the quasistatic approximation. (16 References).

J. S. Cohen and MC. Struensee, "Stark mixing of 2S muonic helium. II. Molecular and multiple-scattering effects in hydrogen," *Physical Review A*, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 53--7, 1988.

Abstract:For pt.I see ibid., p.44-52. The rectilinear-trajectory coupled-equation method (Kodosky and Leon 1971) is extended to collisions of alpha mu (2S) with molecular D/sub 2/. An efficient quadrature is formulated to integrate over the reaction probabilities and obtain the cross section that is dominated by trajectories passing close to one or the other nucleus. Molecular effects are found to increase the cross section by only 1-2% above twice the atomic value. Coherent effects in multiple scattering by more than one molecule in a high-density (or condensed) medium are also examined and shown to be negligible. (6 References).

JS. Cohen, "Stripping and X-ray production in muon-catalyzed d-d and d-t fusion," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, no. 1-4, pp. 421--37, 1988.

Abstract:The kinetics of the muonic helium formed by muon sticking to the charged particle produced in muon-catalyzed d-d and d-t fusion is described. A formula is given relating the required muonic cross sections to cross sections for He/sup +/+H/sup +/ collisions at different velocities. Ground-state cross sections are obtained by this formula, and excited-state cross sections are calculated quasi-classically. The influences of excited-state processes on muonic helium stripping and X-ray production are examined, and the resulting differences between alpha mu and /sup 3/He- mu kinetics are discussed. The state populations and sticking factors are shown as a function of density. Intensities of the K-series and L-series X-rays as well as the Doppler profiles of these transitions are given. The possible use of the Doppler shift to refine X-ray experiments is suggested. (20 References).

J. S. Cohen and M. Leon, "Approximations used in calculating many-body effects in resonant ((dt mu )dee)* formation," *Physical Review A*, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 946--51, 1989.

Abstract:The approximations needed to treat the resonant formation of the compound molecule ((dt mu )dee)* as a line-broadening process are examined. The necessary criteria for applying the impact (Lorentzian) approximation are shown to be seriously violated under the usual conditions of muon-catalyzed fusion. Neither the condition for binary collisions nor the requirement that the detuning not be too large holds. A much more appropriate description is the many-body quasistatic approximation, which is valid for large detunings at any density and for practically the whole profile at high densities. The convenient factorization of the three-body rate into a convolution of a two-body rate with a broadening factor is shown to hold within some approximations, but the broadening factor itself depends on the transition being considered. (23 References).

J. S. Cohen and J. D. Davies, "The cold fusion family," *Nature*, vol. 338, pp. 705--707, 1989.

J. S. Cohen and NT. Padial, "Effect of anisotropy on the sticking in muon-catalyzed fusion determined by the X-ray method," *Physical Review A*, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 915--18, 1989.

Abstract:The initial sticking in the 2p/sub m/ states of muonic helium in muon-catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) and the subsequent collisional excitation to these states are shown to have nonstatistical dependences on m that result in spatial anisotropy of the emitted X rays. This anisotropy, I(0 degrees )/I(90 degrees ), is found to be 0.71 for d-d mu CF and 1.12 for d-t mu CF in liquid targets, where the angle is between the coincidently detected X ray and neutron. The effect is predicted to increase the actual K alpha X-ray yield and corresponding sticking observed in a recent d-t mu CF experiment by 4%. The Doppler broadening of the radiation observed at different angles is also examined. (23 References).

JS. Cohen, "Muon catalyzed fusion," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials & Atoms*, vol. B42, no. 4, pp. 419--25, 1989.

Abstract:Muon catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) has proved to be a fruitful subject for basic physics research as well as an unusual source of cold nuclear fusion. Recent experiments have demonstrated that over 100 fusions per muon can be catalyzed by formation of the dt mu molecule in mixtures of deuterium and tritium. After a brief review of the subject's history, the dt mu catalysis cycle and the principal relations used in its analysis are described. Some of the more important atomic and molecular processes and cross sections needed for understanding the mu CF cycle are then discussed. Finally, the status of current research is appraised. (46 References).

JS. Cohen, "Accurate treatment of electron screening in calculations of muonic atom cross sections," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 3--20, 1990.

Abstract:The improved adiabatic approximation is used to formulate the problem of muonic atom scattering. This method allows the effect of electron screening to be calculated directly, taking into account the short-range molecular interaction and symmetry. The electron screening potential is found to be about 30% smaller in magnitude than the previously used value at large internuclear distances, and to deviate considerably from the asymptotic form at small distances. Cross sections for elastic scattering, isotopic exchange, and hyperfine-state transitions are calculated for p mu , d mu , and t mu in collisions with H, D, and T atoms. Results are given for scattering with and without electron screening. (13 References).

JS. Cohen, "Improved adiabatic calculation of muonic-hydrogen-atom cross sections. III. Hyperfine transitions in asymmetric collisions," *Physical Review A*, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 2836--45, 1991.

Abstract:"For pt.II see ibid., vol.43, no.9, p.4668 (1991). Cross sections for transitions between hyperfine-structure states of muonic hydrogen atoms in asymmetric collisions have been calculated for the first time. The interaction is described by the improved adiabatic representation. s waves dominate the cross sections except for the remarkable case of t mu ( up arrow up arrow )+d where the p wave dominates even at liquid-hydrogen temperature. The quenching rates for the collisions in which the muon resides on the heavier isotope are lambda (d mu ( up arrow up arrow )+p to d mu ( up arrow down arrow )+p)=5.5*10/sup 2/ (6.4*10/sup 2/) s/sup -1/, lambda (t mu ( up arrow up arrow )+p to t mu ( up arrow down arrow )+p)=3.1*10/sup 2/ (3.2*10/sup 2/) s/sup -1/, and lambda (t mu ( up arrow up arrow )+d to t mu ( up arrow down arrow )+d)=7.5*10/sup 1/ (7.3*10/sup 2/) s/sup -1/ at 23 K (232 K) and liquid-hydrogen density. Although some experimental observations have been attributed to hyperfine quenching in asymmetric collisions, these rates are probably too slow to have had an effect in previous experiments. However, the rate for t mu ( up arrow up arrow )+d is somewhat uncertain since it is found to be extraordinarily sensitive to the potential. As a by-product of this work, an independent value of the hyperfine correction to the binding energy of td mu (J=1

JS. Cohen, "Improved adiabatic calculation of muonic-hydrogen-atom cross sections. II. Hyperfine transitions and elastic scattering in symmetric collisions," *Physical Review A*, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 4668--83, 1991.

Abstract:For pt.I, see ibid., vol.43, no.7, p.3460 (1991). The improved adiabatic representation is used in calculations of elastic and hyperfine-transition cross sections for symmetric collisions for p mu , d mu , and t mu with bare p, d, and t nuclei and with H, D, and T atoms, respectively. The cross sections for d mu +d and t mu +t are in excellent agreement with other recent determinations, while those for p mu +p are about 30% larger at low energies. The electronic screening is calculated nonperturbatively and found to be about 30% smaller in magnitude than the previously calculated value at large internuclear distances, and to deviate considerably from the asymptotic form in the molecular region. The resulting screened elastic cross sections are up to 60% smaller than those obtained using the old screening potential. The reactance matrices, needed for calculations of molecular-target effects, are given in tables. (28 References).

J. S. Cohen and MC. Struensee, "Improved adiabatic calculation of muonic-hydrogen-atom cross sections. I. Isotopic exchange and elastic scattering in asymmetric collisions," *Physical Review A*, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 3460--73, 1991.

Abstract:The improved adiabatic representation is used in calculations of elastic and isotopic-exchange cross sections for asymmetric collisions of p mu , d mu , and t mu with bare p, d, and t nuclei and with H, D, and T atoms. The formulation dissociates properly, correcting a well-known deficiency of the standard adiabatic method for muonic-atom collisions, and includes some effects at zeroth order that are normally considered nonadiabatic. The electronic screening is calculated directly and precisely within the improved adiabatic description; it is found to be about 30% smaller in magnitude than the previously used value at large internuclear distances and to deviate considerably from the asymptotic form at small distances. The reactance matrices, needed for calculations of molecular-target effects, are given in tables. (39 References).

JS. Cohen, "Collisional problems in the mu CF cycle before muonic molecule formation," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 15--30, 1993.

Abstract:Important processes in the muon-catalyzed fusion cycle preceding muonic molecule formation are discussed. These include muonic atom formation as well as the subsequent elastic, isotopic-exchange, and hyperfine-state quenching collisions of the muonic atoms. Modern methods for atomic capture of the negative muon are reviewed. Elastic and inelastic cross sections obtained in the improved adiabatic representation are given, and rates at liquid-hydrogen density are tabulated for easy reference and comparison. (19 References).

J. S. Cohen, G. M. Hale, and Chiyu. Hu, "Calculation of sticking using the R-matrix method with the Bloch operator," *Hyperfine Interactions*, no. , pp. 349-58, 1996.

Abstract:We calculate the effects of nuclear forces on the sticking in muon-catalyzed D-T fusion using the R-matrix method. The importance of the Bloch operator in this calculation is emphasized. We try to clarify some features in the formulation that seem to have caused confusion in the past. Some speculations are made regarding the remaining discrepancy of the calculated sticking with experimental values. (19 References).

J. S. Cohen, "Molecular effects on antiproton capture by H-2 and the states of (p)over-bar-p formed," *Phys. Rev. A*, vol. 56, pp. 3583-3596, 1997.

Abstract:Complete five-body dynamical calculations of antiproton ((p) over bar) capture by the hydrogen molecule (H-2) have a been carried out using a generalization of the Kirschbaum-Wilets method (belonging to a class of quasiclassical methods sometimes called fermion molecular dynamics). The differences between capture by H-2 and the H atom are found to be dramatic. The effects due to the two-center structure, rotational motions, and vibrational motions are distinguished. Of particular importance, the vibrational degree of freedom enables the molecule to capture antiprotons having lab energies above 100 eV, whereas atomic capture cuts off sharply above the ionization threshold of 27 eV (in the lab system). Antiproton capture by the atom is calculated by the same method as well as by the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method, which is applicable only to the atom. The initial quantum numbers (assigned quasiclassically) of the <(pp)over bar> formed are found to be shifted to significantly smaller values for the molecular target; the n distribution is also narrower for the molecular target as compared with the atomic target. [S10502947(97)05011-7].

JS. Cohen, "Fermion molecular dynamics in the capture of muons by hydrogen atoms," *Journal of Physics B*, vol. 31, no. 19, pp. L833-40, 1998.

Abstract:The fermion-molecular-dynamics (FMD) method is applied to negative-muon ( mu /sup -/) capture by the hydrogen atom. It is found that the FMD results are similar to those of the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method, whose validity was confirmed previously by the most accurate existing method, classical-quantal coupling (CQC). Thus FMD is validated as a quasiclassical method for mu /sup -/ capture and will be applicable to multi-electron atomic and molecular targets, for which the CTMC approach is not suitable. Actually the FMD results agree slightly better with the CQC results and suggest an interpretation of the very low-energy and adiabatic-ionization-threshold regions where the quantal (CQC) cross sections differ most from the classical (CTMC) results. (21 References).

JS. Cohen, "Isotope effects on antiproton and muon capture by hydrogen and deuterium atoms and molecules," *Physical Review A*, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 1160--9, 1999.

Abstract:Cross sections for capture of the antiproton (p) and negative muon ( mu /sup -/) by the H/sub 2/ and D/sub 2/ molecules are calculated using fermion molecular dynamics (FMD). All the cross sections are significantly larger than those for capture by the corresponding atom, also evaluated by the FMD method. The largest molecular cross sections are obtained when the negative projectile mass best matches the nuclear mass in the molecular target, thus for p+H/sub 2/. The vibrational degree of freedom is shown to be most important in distinguishing the four reactions, but the effects of rotations, two-center electronic charge distribution, and nonadiabaticity are also significant. The predicted initial capture fractions (i.e., not taking subsequent transfer into account) in a H/sub 2/+D/sub 2/ mixture are P/sub capt//sup (p)//P/sub capt//sup (d)/=qc/sub p//c/sub d/, where q=1.585 for p and q=1.186 for mu /sup -/ independent of c/sub p/ and c/sub d/. The energy-dependent quantum-number distributions of the exotic atoms formed, the angular distributions of antiprotonic atoms, and the initial kinetic energies of muonic atoms are also presented. (24 References).

J. S. Cohen, "Negative pion capture in HD gas and in H-2+D-2 gas mixtures: Resolution of the isotope puzzle," *Phys. Rev. A*, vol. 59, pp. 4300-4308, 1999.

Abstract:The cross sections. initial quantum numbers, and kinetic energies For pionic atoms formed by negative pion capture in mixtures of isotopic hydrogen molecules are calculated using the fe:rmion-molecular-dynamics (FMD) method. With these cross sections, the reduced capture ratio for a H-2 + D-2 mixture is found to be (P-p((H2+D2))/P-d((H2+D2)))/(c(p)/c(d))= 1.204, and the capture ratio for HD is found to be P-p((HD))/P-d((HD)) - 0.875. In light of these results, the p-to-d pion transfer probabilities Q are reevaluated using prior experimental data and determined to be larger than previously thought: Q = 0.28 at deuterium fraction C-d= 0.5 and Q = 0.42 as c(d), -->. The puzzling relationship of the experimental data for HD to that for H-2 + D-2, mixtures is explained. [S1050-2947(99)06806-7].

JS. Cohen, "Theoretical status of muonic helium kinetics in muon-catalyzed d-t and d-d fusion," *Riken Review*, vol. 20, no. , pp. 8-11, 1999.

Abstract:Detailed n,l-dependent rates (several new) are used for the kinetics of muonic helium formed by muon sticking after muon-catalyzed d-t and d-d fusion. The results for stripping and X-ray yields are evaluated and compared with experimental results. Special attention is paid to the effects of Stark transitions due to collisions. The possibility that magnetic fields may further alter the angular-momentum populations is discussed. (13 References).

JS. Cohen, "Multielectron effects in capture of antiprotons and muons by helium and neon," *Physical Review A*, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 022512/1-14, 2000.

Abstract:Antiproton (p) and negative muon ( mu /sup -/) captures by helium and neon atoms are treated using the fermion- molecular-dynamics method, yielding capture cross sections, initial quantum numbers, and ejected-electron energies. The calculated angular-momentum distributions tend to pile up at l=n-1 and are not well fitted by the form (2l+1)e/sup alpha l/, which is often assumed in experimental analyses. The residual electrons are generally left in a {"}shake-up{"} state. When capture is accompanied by multiple ionization, the second and later electrons escape with increasing kinetic energies, a process that is not well described as quasiadiabatic. In a 50:50 mixture of helium and neon, the calculated Ne:He capture ratios are 3.36 for p and 3.69 for mu /sup -/. The mu /sup -/ per-atom capture probability is almost independent of the neon fraction and is in overall agreement with several mu /sup -/ and pi /sup -/ experiments; for p there is a rather strong dependence on neon fraction, but there are as yet no experiments. The possible experimental indication of a strong isotope effect on capture of pi /sup -/ in mixtures of /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He is not supported by the present calculation. (56 References).

JS. Cohen, "Preliminary results for capture of negative muons and antiprotons by noble-gas atoms," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 138, no. 1-4, pp. 159--66, 2001.

Abstract:Cross sections for capture of negative muons ( mu /sup -/) and antiprotons (p) by helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon atoms (incomplete for the two heaviest noble-gas atoms) are calculated using the fermion molecular dynamics (FMD) method. These cross sections are used to estimate the capture ratios in mixtures, but these ratios are not precise since the total energy-loss cross sections have not yet been determined. (22 References).

J. S. Cohen, "Capture of negative muons and antiprotons by noble-gas atoms," *Phys. Rev. A*, vol. 65, pp. art. no.-052714, 2002.

Abstract:Cross sections for capture of negative muons (mu(-)) and antiprotons ((p) over bar) by helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon atoms are calculated using the fermion molecular dynamics method. These cross sections are used to estimate the capture ratios in mixtures.

RK Jr. Cole, "Nuclear-polarization corrections to the levels of muonic atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 164--83, 1969.

Abstract:It is shown that information about the nuclear electromagnetic-transition vertex derived from experimental inelastic-scattering cross sections for electrons may be used to evaluate the nuclear- polarization (dispersion) corrections to the levels of muonic atoms. A model-independent result is obtained for the contributions of discrete nuclear states. The most important systematic features of nuclear- excitation spectra, the giant-dipole resonance and the quasielastic peak, are considered in detail. The Goldhaber-Teller model is used for the former, and a simple-harmonic-oscillator shell model for the latter. Numerical estimates are obtained for total level shifts of low-lying muon states in nuclei with closed (harmonic- oscillator) proton shells, using closure approximation for the muon. The muon closure energies are considered in detail. It is felt that the results obtained are probably accurate to a factor of 2. The shifts are estimated to be several keV for the 1s state in heavy nuclei, and somewhat less (a few tenths to about 1 keV) for the 2s and 2p states. These shifts are significant in comparison to the present accuracy of measurement of muonic x-ray spectra, and should be considered in calculations to fit nuclear- charge distributions.

C. Comber, D. H. Davis, D. J. Gordon, D. N. Tovee, R. Roosen, C. V. Velde-Wilquet, and JH. Wickens, "The orbital capture of K/sup -/-mesons and Sigma /sup -/-hyperons in liquid helium," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 24A, no. 3, pp. 294--300, 1974.

Abstract:The mean cascade times of both K/sup -/-mesons and Sigma /sup -/-hyperons in their captures at rest in liquid helium have been determined to be (3.1+or-0.4)*10/sup -10/s and less than 3.6*10/sup -11/s (with a confidence level of 90%) respectively. The finding of a much lower mean cascade time for Sigma /sup -/-hyperons than for K/sup -/-mesons lends weight to the hypothesis of trapping of negative hadrons in metastable orbits in helium. (18 References).

GT. Condo, "Intensity variations of K/sup -/-mesonic X-rays," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 126--8, 1974.

Abstract:The K/sup -/ mesonic X-ray line intensities of targets consisting of the Groups IV, V and VI metals are plotted against their atomic number (Z). A plot is also presented of the atomic diameters of the metals versus Z. Good correlations are found between the X-ray intensities and the atomic diameters, which is explained by the circular orbitals becoming more highly populated as the target atomic size increases. Anomalous results in previous work on muonic atomic spectra are treated on this basis. (10 References).

GT. Condo, "Electron depletion in mesic atoms," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 51a, no. 5, pp. 307--8, 1975.

Abstract:Assuming there is no serious electron depletion in mesic atoms, most previously calculated auger electron spectra for nuclear emulsion have ignored a large low energy (18-25 kev) contribution. A method for investigating electron depletion in mesic atoms is suggested. (9 References).

GT. Condo, "On the initial distribution in kaonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 58B, no. 1, pp. 55--6, 1975.

Abstract:A comparison of two recent kaonic X-ray experiments indicates that the initial distribution of K/sup -/ in the vicinity of the electronic K shell in kaonic atoms has a substantial low angular momentum excess which cannot be accommodated by the conventional parametrization, (2l+1) exp ( alpha l). (9 References).

GT. Condo, "Mass dependence in mesonic atoms," *Physical Review A*, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 376--7, 1975.

Abstract:Muonic and kaonic de-excitation X-ray spectra indicate that different particles have different distributions of the initial orbital angular momentum immediately the meson has been localized about a single atom. The X-ray data is compared with theoretical and experimental data. The results indicate that the population of the higher atomic angular momentum states decreases as the mass of the captured meson increases. (10 References).

GT. Condo, "Negative muons as solid state probes," *Radiation Effects*, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 125--6, 1976.

Abstract:It is shown that the use of negative muons as solid state probes is complicated by the de-excitation scheme of muonic atoms. A comparison with some recent radiation damage experiments suggest that the mu /sup -/ atom (at least in silicon) is displaced to an interstitial position. (11 References).

G. Conforto, S. Focardi, C. Rubbia, and E. Zavattini, "Direct measurement of $\mu^-$ mesonic molecule formation rates in liquid hydrogen," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 10, pp. 432--434, 1962.

G. Conforto, C. Rubbia, E. Zavattini, and S. Focardi, "Direct measurement of $\mu^-$ mesonic Molecule formation rates in liquid hydrogen," *Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 33, pp. 1001--1019, 1964.

J. G. Congleton and HW. Fearing, "Determination of the nucleon pseudoscalar coupling using muon capture by /sup 3/He," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A552, no. 4, pp. 534--48, 1993.

Abstract:The recent development of a highly sophisticated and accurate three-body wavefunctions has led to renewed interest in the muon capture process mu /sup -/+/sup 3/He to v/sub mu /+/sup 3/He since it may now be possible to remove nuclear uncertainties and extract the induced pseudoscalar coupling g/sub p/ with nearly the same precision as from capture by the free proton. With this aim, the authors examine this process from two points of view. First using the elementary particle model (EPM), which uses empirical information from electron scattering and beta decay to evaluate the form factors, they calculate the rate and various analyzing powers and show quantitatively that the analyzing powers are more sensitive than the rate to g/sub p/. Secondly, they use the impulse approximation (IA), where the new wave functions allow extremely accurate evaluations of the nuclear matrix elements, to calculate these same quantities in a microscopic way. For the rate they find in EPM 1497 s/sup -1/ which is in reasonable agreement with experiment. In IA the rate is 1304 s/sup -1/ which is somewhat low. More detailed examination shows that this results from missing magnetic strength, and suggests that meson exchange currents may be significant. Numerical results are given also for the various analyzing powers. (59 References).

JG. Congleton, "Hyperfine populations prior to muon capture," *Physical Review A*, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. R12-14, 1993.

Abstract:It is shown that the 1S level hyperfine populations prior to muon capture will be statistical when either target or beam is unpolarized independent of the atomic level at which the hyperfine interaction becomes appreciable. This assertion holds in the absence of magnetic transitions during the cascade and is true because of minimal polarization after atomic capture and selective feeding during the cascade. (9 References).

JG. Congleton, "Muon capture by /sup 3/He: the hyperfine effect," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A570, no. 3-4, pp. 511--20, 1994.

Abstract:The hyperfine effect for muon capture by /sup 3/He is calculated in a modified closure approximation as a function of g/sub p/, the nucleon pseudoscalar form factor. It is found to be very sensitive to g/sub p/. (11 References).

J. G. Congleton and E. Truhlik, "Meson exchange currents for nuclear muon capture by /sup 3/He," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 761-3, 1995.

Abstract:We have calculated exchange corrections for nuclear muon capture by /sup 3/He using the hard pion method for the currents and wavefunctions for /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H found by the coupled rearrangement channel method. The result for the rate (triton asymmetry) has an uncertainty of 3% (1%) due mainly to the uncertainty in the value of f/sub pi N Delta / (various factors). (10 References).

J. G. Congleton and E. Truhlik, "Meson exchange currents for nuclear muon capture by /sup 3/He leading to the triton final state," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 429-31, 1996.

Abstract:We have calculated exchange corrections for nuclear muon capture by /sup 3/He using the hard-pion model and realistic nuclear wavefunctions. These currents modify the vector and axial part of the weak nuclear current. In their absence the rate is found to be about 12% smaller than experiment. Our aim is to test the hard-pion model by making a realistic estimate of the theoretical uncertainty and comparing the calculated rate with its experimental value. Results for the rate and spin observables will be presented at the symposium. The recent precise measurement of the rate (see the contributions of A.A. Vorobyov and W. Prymas in these proceedings) allows the most stringent test of exchange currents for muon capture to date. (12 References).

J. G. Congleton and E. Truhlik, "Nuclear muon capture by /sup 3/He: meson exchange currents for the triton channel," *Physical Review C*, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 956--76, 1996.

Abstract:We have calculated exchange corrections for nuclear muon capture by /sup 3/He leading to the 3H final state using the hard-pion model and realistic nuclear wave functions. These currents modify the vector and axial part of the weak nuclear current. In their absence the rate is 12% smaller than found by experiment. Our final result for the rate is 1502+or-32 per second. For the analyzing powers we find A/sub v/=0.515+or-0.005, A/sub t/=-0.375+or-0.004, and A/sub Delta /=-0.110+or-0.006. These predictions use the PCAC value of g/sub P/. The variation of the observables with g/sub P/ is also reported. (33 References).

JNL Connor, W. Jakubetz, A. Lagana, J. Manz, and JC. Whitehead, "The reaction X+Cl/sub 2/ to XCl+Cl (X=Mu,H,D). II. Comparison of experimental data with theoretical results derived from a new potential energy surface," *Chemical Physics*, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 19--48, 1982.

Abstract:For pt.I see J. Chem. Phys., vol.72, p.6209 (1980). Considers experimental implications for the Mu+Cl/sub 2/, H+Cl/sub 2/, and D+Cl/sub 2/ reactions of the extended London-Eyring-Polyani-Sato potential energy surface. The authors have performed accurate 1D quantum calculations of reaction probabilities, which are then transformed into 3D by an information theoretic 1D to 3D transformation incorporating a constraint to allow for angular momentum transfer effects in light+heavy-heavy atom reactions. This procedure implicitly accounts for the 3D nature of the potential surface. The Sato parameters for the 1D surface also define a full 3D surface. This is used as an approximation to the true surface, and its properties are explored in 3D quasiclassical trajectory calculations. (69 References).

R. Coombes, R. Flexer, A. Hall, R. Kennelly, J. Kirkby, R. Piccioni, D. Porat, M. Schwartz, R. Spitzer, J. Toraskar, S. Wiesner, B. Budick, and JW. Kast, "Detection of pi - mu Coulomb bound states," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 249--52, 1976.

Abstract:The authors report the observation of the pi - mu system in a Coulomb bound state. These atoms were formed from the decay K/sub L//sup 0/ to ( pi mu ) nu . This is claimed to be the first observation of an atom composed by two unstable particles. (1 Reference).

G. Cory-Goulard, "Nucleon-nucleon interaction and some reactions with /sup 3/He, /sup 3/H," *Czechoslovak Journal of Physics*, vol. B36, no. 8, pp. 971--5, 1986.

Abstract:Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations are discussed for the A=3 nuclei. Using the sum rule formalism, the need for a better bound state is investigated. Some reactions on /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H, like electron scattering, photodisintegration, and mu -capture, involve transitions to the continuum but with the work developed by Merkuriev, Gignoux and Laverne (1976) some progress is possible. The same realistic NN interactions used for calculating the bound state wave function of the three nucleon system are incorporated in the scattering equations based on the Faddeev approach. (20 References).

R. E. Cote, W. V. Prestwich, A. K. Gaigalas, S. Raboy, C. C. Trail, RA Jr Carrigan, P. D. Gupta, R. B. Sutton, M. N. Suzuki, and AC. Thompson, "Distribution of charge in Th/sup 232/ and U/sup 238/ determined by measurements on muonic X rays," *Physical Review A*, vol. 179, no. 4, pp. 1134--47, 1969.

Abstract:The energies and intensities of the X rays of muonic atoms of Th/sup 232/ and U/sup 238/ were measured. Analysis of the data was performed using the rotational model of strongly deformed nuclei to include dynamic quadrupole interactions. The distribution of nuclear charge was represented by a modified Fermi distribution which involves three parameters, namely, the intrinsic quadrupole moment Q/sub 0/, the half-density radius c=c/sub 0/A/sup 1/3/, and the skin thickness t. It was found that the allowed ranges of values for Q/sub 0/,c/sub 0/, and t were for thorium 9.58-9.83 b, 1.155-1.143 F, and 1.54-1.87 F, and for uranium 11.20-11.41 b, 1.150-1.142 F, and 1.600-1.87 F, respectively. However, if specific values for two of these parameters are chosen, the third is determined with an error smaller than the above ranges: 0.5% for Q/sub 0/, 0.25% for c/sub 0/, and 0.6% for t.

S. Cowell and VR. Pandharipande, "Quenching of weak interactions in nucleon matter," in *Proceedings of the Kyudai-RCNP International Symposium. Nuclear Many-Body and Medium Effects in Nuclear Interactions and Reactions*, (K. Hatanaka, T. Noro, K. Sagara, H. Sakaguchi, and H. Sakai, eds.), pp. 3--17, 2003.

Abstract:Weak interactions in nucleon matter occur during the beta-decay of nuclei, electron and muon capture reactions, neutrino-nucleus scattering and in various astrophysical environments, such as evolving stars, neutron stars and supernovae. Recently there has been much interest in weak interactions in the sun ,those of /sup 12/C and /sup 16/O due to their use in neutrino detectors searching for neutrino oscillations, and in interactions of neutrinos with dense matter in neutron stars and supernovae. The work presented here is within the context of neutron stars and supernovae. (29 References).

C. R. Cox, G. W. Dodson, M. Eckhause, R. D. Hart, J. R. Kane, A. M. Rushton, R. T. Siegel, R. E. Welsh, A. L. Carter, M. S. Dixit, E. P. Hincks, C. K. Hargrove, and H. Mes, "Muonic X-ray intensities in low-Z elements and their hydrides," *Canadian Journal of Physics*, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1746--8, 1979.

Abstract:K-series muonic X-ray intensity ratios have been measured in Li, LiH, Be, BeH/sub 2/, B, B/sub 10/H/sub 14/, and LiBH/sub 4/. The relative intensities of the transitions nP to 1s, for n[right angle bracket]2, are enhanced for the higher-Z components in the hydrides compared to the elemental targets. Possible explanations for the observed intensity ratios are discussed. (8 References).

SFJ Cox, T. A. Claxton, and MCR. Symons, "On the origins of proton-muon isotope effects in muonium-containing radicals," *Radiation Physics & Chemistry*, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 107--13, 1986.

Abstract:Reasons for marked isotope effects in the hyperfine coupling for muons relative to protons in various organic radicals are discussed, and the special case of the H/sub 2/CCH/sub 2/Mu radical is considered theoretically. It is concluded that hyperconjugation governs these isotope effects and that steric contributions in which the muonium atoms are treated as being significantly larger than hydrogen atoms in these radicals play only a minor role. (32 References).

SFJ Cox, G. H. Eaton, J. E. Magraw, and CA. Scott, "Muon addition to oxygen in ice: characterisation of the diamagnetic product by level crossing resonance," *Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 85--8, 1989.

Abstract:Transfer of polarisation by resonant cross-relaxation is detected between positive muons implanted in ice and host /sup 17/O nuclei. The quadrupole resonance spectrum provides a direct chemical signature of the diamagnetic species in which the muon is incorporated, establishing that the muon is bound to oxygen. This result is informative about the early events following muon implantation, it also significantly extends the possibilities for studying the effects of isotopic substitution on quadrupole coupling constants and O-H bond dynamics. (24 References).

SFJ Cox, D. Buttar, and JAS. Smith, "Muon addition to nitrogen, oxygen and other atoms: considerations for level crossing resonance studies," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 65, no. 1-4, pp. 987--92, 1990.

Abstract:The purpose of this note is to examine the conditions under which muon level crossing resonance with quadrupolar nuclei may be used to characterise the elusive diamagnetic fraction which is formed when positive muons are stopped in various media and associate chemically with the host molecules. A potential difficulty is identified for nuclei having integral spin, which may explain why cross polarisation to /sup 14/N has not yet been detected. The general suitability of nuclei with half-integral spin (I[right angle bracket]or=3/2) is illustrated with the case of /sup 17/O, and suggestions are made for future studies with other nuclei, including species such as molecular ions and defect complexes (muon-impurity pairs). (22 References).

SFJ Cox, JAS Smith, and MCR. Symons, "Measurement of /sup 17/O quadrupole interactions and identification of the diamagnetic fraction in ice by muon level crossing resonance," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 65, no. 1-4, pp. 993--1003, 1990.

Abstract:By means of level crossing resonance in a sample of ice which is enriched in H/sub 2//sup 17/O, the final diamagnetic state of implanted positive muons is determined to be the muonium-substituted molecule HMuO, accommodated in the regular and fully relaxed Ih structure. The /sup 17/O quadrupole coupling constant is measured to be 6.1 MHz at 200 K assuming an asymmetry parameter close to unity, a decrease of about 5% relative to that in normal ice Ih at 77 K. The isotope effect is attributed to a greater polarization in the vicinity of a muonium (as opposed to a normal hydrogen) bond. At 50 K, an additional resonance is observed which could correspond to a precursor state, so far not definitely identified. One possibility is a muon trapped at a Bjerrum L-defect, giving a (H/sub 2/0-Mu-OH/sub 2/)/sup +/ species with an /sup 17/O quadrupole coupling constant of 8.2 MHz and asymmetry parameter of 0.55. Above this temperature, the fall in the (Gaussian) line-width parameter is attributed to the increasing rate of proton or muon migration, the correlation time dropping from 4 mu s at 80 K to 1 mu s near the melting-point. The increase in the diamagnetic fraction with rise in temperature is attributed to the increasing proportion of trapping sites available for muon capture. (28 References).

SFJ Cox, I. D. Reid, K. L. McCormack, and BC. Webster, "Muonium radical formation in elemental sulphur," *Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 273, no. 3-4, pp. 179--82, 1997.

Abstract:The formation of a molecular radical following muon implantation in sulphur S/sub 8/ is established experimentally by level crossing resonance. The position of the resonance determines the hyperfine constant as 233 +or- 5 MHz. Of various possible assignments evaluated by ab initio molecular orbital calculations, the most promising appears to be the muonic sulfanyl radical, SMu. (12 References).

SFJ. Cox, "Muon spin relaxation studies of interstitial and molecular motion," *Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance*, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 103--21, 1998.

Abstract:The unusual methods of preparation and analysis of spin polarization in mu SR spectroscopy, which exploit the unique properties of the positive muon, are introduced in this article. Following a summary overview of applications, particular attention is paid to the problem of spin-lattice relaxation for a muon experiencing a hyperfine interaction with a single unpaired electron. The specific cases considered are the interstitial diffusion of muonium-the 1-electron atom which may be considered as a light isotope of hydrogen-and the molecular dynamics of organic radicals labelled by muonium. Rate equations for the evolution of population in the hyperfine-coupled spin states are solved numerically for various relaxation mechanisms. The formalism is equally valid for conventional ESR studies of paramagnetic states but is pursued specifically to simulate T/sub 1/-relaxation in mu SR. The simulations are compared with literature data. Also treated is the case of intermittent hyperfine coupling, appropriate to electron capture and loss in semiconductors or soliton motion in polymers; for this, a Monte Carlo approach is used to simulate the muon response. (For low-dimensional motion, the relaxation function is not exponential, so that a unique value of T/sub 1/ cannot be defined.) Finally, a proposal is made to implement muon-T/sub 1 rho / measurements in the rotating frame; this is designed for the selective study of electronically diamagnetic muonium states (i.e., those without hyperfine coupling) in the presence of a paramagnetic muonium or radical fraction. (65 References).

DH. Crandall, "The scientific status of fusion," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials & Atoms*, vol. B42, no. 4, pp. 409--18, 1989.

Abstract:The development of fusion energy has been a large-scale scientific undertaking of broad interest. The magnetic plasma containment in tokamaks and the laser-drive ignition of microfusion capsules appear to be scientifically feasible sources of energy. These concepts are bounded by questions of required intensity in magnetic field and plasma currents or in drive energy and, for both concepts, by issues of plasma stability and energy transport. The basic concept and the current scientific issues are described for magnetic fusion and for the interesting, but likely infeasible, muon-catalyzed fusion concept. Inertial fusion is mentioned, qualitatively, to complete the context. Fusion appears to release energy in rather large quantities (about 1000 MW) and significant new devices are needed to make progress. For magnetic fusion, the required net energy production within the plasma may be accomplished soon, but the more useful goal of self-sustained plasma ignition requires a new device of somewhat uncertain (factor of 2) cost and size. (49 References).

J. F. Crawford, M. Daum, R. Frosch, B. Jost, P-R Kettle, R. M. Marshall, and KOH. Ziock, "Precision measurement of the mass difference m/sub pi -/-m/sub pi 0/," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1043--6, 1986.

Abstract:Using the time-of-flight method to determine the velocity of the neutrons from the reaction pi /sup -/+p to pi /sup 0/+n at rest the authors have measured the mass difference m( pi /sup -/)-m( pi /sup 0/) to be 4.5930+or-0.0013 MeV/c/sup 2/. From the width of the time-of-flight distributions they conclude that the pionic hydrogen atoms have a mean kinetic energy T/sub pi p/[left angle bracket]12 eV (90% confidence limit) at the time of the charge exchange. (13 References).

J. F. Crawford and others, "Precision measurement of the mass difference m$_\pi^-$--m$_\pi^0$," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 213, pp. 391--394, 1988.

J. F. Crawford, D. Daum, R. Frosch, B. Jost, P-R Kettle, R. M. Marshall, B. Wright, and KOH. Ziock, "Precision measurement of the mass difference m/sub pi -/-m/sub pi 0/," *Psi Nuclear & Particle Physics Newsletter*, no. , pp. 19-20, 1990.

Abstract:This experiment was concerned with the measurement of time-of-flight distributions of neutrons produced by the charge exchange reaction pi /sup -/p to pi /sup 0/n of pi /sup -/p atoms in liquid hydrogen. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the mass difference of charged and neutral pions, m/sub pi -/-m/sub pi 0/, and, as a side result, the kinetic energy distribution f(T/sub pi p/) of the pi /sup -/p atoms just before the charge exchange reaction. (4 References).

J. F. Crawford and others, "Precision measurement of the pion mass difference m$_\pi^{-}$ - m$_\pi^{0}$," *Physical Review D*, vol. 43, pp. 46--58, 1991.

G. Cripps, A. A. Harms, and B. Goel, "Muon catalyzed fusion of deuterium-tritium at elevated densities," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 77, no. 1-2, pp. 181--99, 1993.

Abstract:Calculations of the number of deuterium-tritium fusions a muon might catalyze in temperature and density conditions found in moderate fuel compressions are examined. Analytic models of muon catalyzed fusion reactions including muon sticking suggest that a deuterium-tritium fuel target with injected muons achieves an energetically viable number of fusions per muon only at fuel temperatures less than about 5 eV and fuel densities greater than 100 times LHD. (35 References).

L. Cristofolini, M. Ricco, Renzi R. De, E. Dalcanale, and L. Mavilla, "Observation of endohedral muonium in C/sub 61/H/sub 2/," *Chemical Physics Letters*, vol. 234, no. 1-3, pp. 260--4, 1995.

Abstract:A study is presented of endohedral muonium (Mu= mu /sup +/e/sup -/) in a functionalized fulleroid, the 6, 5 isomer of C/sub 61/H/sub 2/. The temperature independence of the muonium depolarization rate implies that in the timescale of the mu SR experiment no isotropic reorientation regime sets in even at 280 K. The depolarization appears dominated by the interaction of Mu with methylene protons. No anisotropy of the hyperfine interaction was directly detected within experimental accuracy; an upper limit for the anisotropy can be fixed to 600 kHz by a transverse field measurement. (17 References).

L. Crone and C. Werntz, "Angular correlations between momentum transfer and emitted nuclear fragments in photo-absorption, electron scattering and muon capture; /sup 4/He," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A134, no. 1, pp. 161--79, 1969.

Abstract:The giant dipole region of nuclear excitation plays an important role in photo-absorption, electron scattering and muon capture, and in this region there are many overlapping levels of the same and different J/sup pi /. The authors derive expressions for the angular correlations of emitted nuclear fragments using R-matrix theory to describe the nuclear scattering states and reduced multipole moments to describe the electromagnetic or weak interactions. Application of the formulae to the processes in /sup 4/He is presented, and it is shown that one of two previously proposed level schemes is unacceptable.

A. D. Cronin, R. B. Warrington, S. K. Lamoreaux, and E. N. Forston, "Studies of electromagnetically inducet transparency in thallium vapor and possible utility for measuring atomic parity nonconservation," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 80, pp. 3719--3722, 1998.

E. Cruz, M. Coronado, and JE. Vitela, "Statistical study of the muon catalyzed d-t fusion cycle," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 96, no. 1-2, pp. 139--51, 1995.

Abstract:In this paper we discuss the statistics of the main branch species of the muon catalyzed d-t fusion. From a master equation we derive and numerically solve kinetic equations for the average density and the covariances of a system composed of muons, muonic deuterium and muonic tritium atoms, muon molecular d-t ions, muonic helium, helium and neutrons. The system consists of an initial fixed amount of muons in a 50-50% D/sub 2/+T/sub 2/ mixture without any external muon source. It is known that the probability distribution function of the population species with the exception of the neutron and helium follow a multinomial distribution function. (18 References).

W. J. Cummings, "Nuclear muon capture in extreme kinematics", 1991.

W. J. Cummings, G. E. Dodge, S. S. Hanna, B. H. King, S. E. Kuhn, Y. M. Shin, R. Helmer, R. B. Schubank, N. R. Stevenson, U. Wienands, Y. K. Lee, G. R. Mason, B. E. King, K. S. Chung, J. M. Lee, and DP. Rosenzweig, "Energetic protons and deuterons emitted following mu /sup -/ capture by /sup 3/He nuclei," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 293--6, 1992.

Abstract:Spectra of energetic protons and deuterons emitted following negative muon capture from rest in /sup 3/He have been measured for the first time. Significant capture strength is observed at high energy transfers (m/sub mu /-E/sub nu /[right angle bracket]60 MeV) for the two-body and three-body breakup channels, indicative of the importance of nucleon-nucleon correlations and meson exchange currents in the capture process. A simple plane wave impulse approximation calculation reproduces the proton spectrum reasonably well, but underpredicts the deuteron rate at the highest energies by a large factor. (13 References).

W. J. Cummings, J. Behr, P. Bogorad, E. J. Brash, G. D. Cates, A. Gorelov, M. D. Hasinoff, O. Hausser, K. Hicks, R. Holmes, J. C. Huang, K. Kumar, B. Larson, W. Lorenzon, J. McCracken, P. Michaux, H. Middleton, E. Saettler, D. Siegel, P. A. Souder, D. Swenson, D. Tupa, X. Wang, and A. Young, "First measurement of the vector analyzing power in muon capture by polarized muonic /sup 3/He," in *Yamada Conference XL IV*, (H. Ejiri, T. Kishimoto, and T. Sato, eds.), pp. 381--5, 1995.

Abstract:This paper describes the first measurement of spin observables in nuclear muon capture by /sup 3/He. The sensitivity of spin observables to the pseudoscalar coupling is described. (8 References).

W. Czaplinski, A. Gula, A. Kravtsov, A. Mikhailov, and N. Popov, "Isotope exchange reactions in hydrogen mixtures," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 55--8, 1990.

Abstract:The rates of isotopic exchange for the excited states of muonic hydrogen are calculated as functions of collision energy. The ground-state population q/sub 1s/ is obtained for different collision energies, target densities and isotope concentrations. It is shown that for principal quantum numbers n[right angle bracket]5, the isotopic exchange still influences the value of q/sub 1s/. (10 References).

W. Czaplinski, A. Gula, A. Kravtsov, A. Mikhailov, N. Popov, and S. Ovchinnikov, "Muonic hydrogen deexcitation mechanisms," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 59--63, 1990.

Abstract:The cross sections and rates of Coulomb deexcitation of muonic hydrogen are calculated with and without electron screening taken into account. It is shown that for highly excited states, Coulomb deexcitation is essential and should be considered together with other deexcitation processes. (8 References).

W. Czaplinski, A. Gula, A. Kravtsov, A. Mikhailov, S. Ovchinnikov, and N. Popov, "Coulomb deexcitation of muonic hydrogen," in *Exotic Atoms in Condensed Matter. Proceedings of the Erice Workshop*, (G. Benedek and H. Schneuwly, eds.), pp. 159--65, 1992.

Abstract:The cross sections and rates of the Coulomb deexcitation of muonic hydrogen are calculated taking into account the electron screening effect and without it. It is shown that for highly excited states or muonic hydrogen one should take into account the Coulomb deexcitation process together with other known deexcitation processes. (9 References).

W. Czaplinski and AI. Mikhailov, "Direct radiative and Auger muon transfer from hydrogen to helium," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 181--5, 1992.

Abstract:Direct muon transfer from ground state muonic hydrogen to helium accompanied by gamma -ray or Auger emission is considered. The transfer rates are calculated in the semi-classical approximation for different isotope combinations. At room temperature the rates range between (9.0-10.9)*10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/ for the radiative process and between (2.2-3.4)*10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/ for Auger emission. (12 References).

W. Czaplinski and others, "Kinetics of excited muonic hydrogen," *Physical Review A*, vol. 50, pp. 525--539, 1994.

W. Czaplinski and others, "Muon transfer in excited muonic hydrogen," *Physical Review A*, vol. 50, pp. 518--524, 1994.

W. Czaplinski, A. Kravtsov, A. Mikhailov, and N. Popov, "Estimation of the nuclear fusion rate in the d mu /sup 3/He molecule," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 219, no. 1-2, pp. 86--8, 1996.

Abstract:The rate of nuclear synthesis from the state of the total angular momentum J=0 of the d mu /sup 3/He molecule has been estimated by two methods, yielding the value lambda /sub f/~10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/. (12 References).

W. Czaplinski, M. Filipowicz, E. Gula, A. Kravtsov, A. Mikhailov, and N. Popov, "Rotational 1 to 0 transitions in muonic helium-hydrogen molecular ions due to external Auger process," *Zeitschrift fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules & Clusters*, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 283--7, 1996.

Abstract:Rotational J=1 to J=0 transitions in (He mu h)/sub J/ muonic molecular ions (where He and h are helium and hydrogen isotopes, respectively), induced by external Auger process in collision with hydrogen isotope atoms are considered. The obtained reaction rates, normalized to liquid hydrogen density, range between 3.4.10/sup 11/ s/sup -1/ and 11.2.10/sup 11/ s/sup -1/ for different isotope combinations. Rotational state populations of He mu h in hydrogen isotope-helium mixtures are also calculated. (24 References).

W. Czaplinski, A. Gula, A. V. Kravtsov, A. I. Mikhailov, and N. Popov, "Transport cross sections for excited muonic hydrogen," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 151-4, 1996.

Abstract:Transport cross sections for scattering of excited muonic hydrogen on hydrogen are calculated in the quasi-classic approximation in the energy range 0.01-50 eV. (9 References).

W. Czaplinski, M. Filipowicz, E. Gula, A. Kravtsov, A. Mikhailov, and N. Popov, "Decay modes of muonic lithium-hydrogen molecules," *Zeitschrift fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules & Clusters*, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 165--9, 1997.

Abstract:Radiative, Auger and predissociation decay modes of muonic lithium-hydrogen molecule, Li mu h, (h=p,d or t is a hydrogen isotope) are considered. Results obtained for the corresponding reaction rates indicate that predissociation is a dominating decay mode for h=p,d while Auger decay dominates for h=t. The calculated conversion coefficient is significantly larger than that for helium muonic molecule and ranges between 37 and 42 (on the basis of one electron) depending on isotope composition of the molecule. Reaction rates for rotational 1 to 0 transitions in Li mu h and He mu h due to inner Auger process are also calculated. (30 References).

W. Czaplinski, A. Kravtsov, A. Mikhailov, and N. Popov, "Gamma-ray and electron spectra from decay of hydrogen-helium muonic molecules," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 233, no. 4-6, pp. 405--9, 1997.

Abstract:Spectra of gamma -rays and Auger electrons emitted during decay of J=1 and J=0 states of hydrogen-helium muonic molecules have been calculated using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. A comparison of the calculated gamma -ray spectra with experiment is presented. Experimental data allow one to conclude that the J=1 state is more populated than the J=0 one. (17 References).

W. Czaplinski, A. Kravtsov, A. Miihailov, and N. Popov, "Muon transfer in hydrogen isotopic mixtures," *Acta Physica Polonica A*, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 617--23, 1998.

Abstract:Direct and inverse muon transfer between atomic orbits of muonic hydrogen isotopes is considered in the WKB approximation. The corresponding cross sections, calculated as functions of collision energy, are different above the thresholds for the inverse transfer and approach common limits depending on the principal quantum number and hydrogen isotopes. The comparison of results obtained by integration over impact parameter and by summation over angular momentum is also presented. (20 References).

W. Czaplinski, A. Kravtsov, A. Mikhailov, and N. Popov, "Nuclear fusion in charge-asymmetric muonic molecules," *European Physical Journal D*, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 223--7, 1998.

Abstract:Nuclear fusion reactions in hydrogen-lithium muonic molecules, h mu /sup 6,7/Li (where h=p,D,T) are considered and fusion rates from rotational states J=0 of the molecules are presented. Results obtained depend on the isotopic composition of the molecules and range between 10/sup 3/ s/sup -1/ and 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/. The upper limit for fusion rates from rotational states J=0 of hydrogen-helium muonic molecules, D mu /sup 3,4/He and T mu /sup 3,4/He, equal 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/, is also found. (26 References).

W. Czaplinski, A. I. Mikhailov, and IA. Mikhailov, "About rotational transitions and muon transfer in muonic hydrogen-helium systems," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 142, no. 3-4, pp. 577--92, 2002.

Abstract:Rotational J = 1 to J = 0 transitions in muonic molecule, (/sup 3/He mu d)/sub J//sup ++/, in [(/sup 3/He mu d)/sup ++/ 2e]-D and [(/sup 3/He mu d)/sup ++/, e]/sup +/-D collisions are considered. The corresponding cross sections and reaction rates are calculated in the frame of the semi-classical approximation using He-H(H/sup +/) and He/sup +/-H(H/sup +/) interaction potentials. The results obtained are about two orders of magnitudes smaller than the corresponding quantum-mechanical ones calculated previously by the authors using plane-waves for description of relative motion of the subsystems. Reaction rates for radiative and Auger muon transfer from hydrogen to helium are also calculated semi-classically. The corresponding results are close to the quantum-mechanical ones published elsewhere. (24 References).

W. Czaplinski, E. Gula, and N. Popov, "Rotational 1 to 0 transition in muonic hydrogen-helium molecular ion induced by Auger conversion," *Kerntechnik*, vol. 67, no. 5-6, pp. 290--5, 2002.

Abstract:The rotational J = 1 to J = 0 transition in muonic molecular ion (d mu /sup 3/ He)/sub J//sup ++/ induced by external Auger effect in collision with a deuterium atom is considered. The energy dependence of the corresponding cross section and reaction rate is calculated within the quasi-classical approximation. The reaction rate weakly depends on the collision energy and is of the order of 10/sup 10/ s/sup -1/ (normalized to the liquid hydrogen density). Reaction rates are calculated for different isotope compositions of the ion range between 10/sup 9/ s/sup -1/ and 10/sup 11/ s/sup -1/. A discussion of the results from the point of view of the Born and eikonal approximation is also presented. (16 References).

A. Czarnecki, "Using muons to probe for new physics," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 252-62, 1997.

Abstract:Searches for new physics using muons are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to muon number non-conserving processes, like the decay mu to e/sub gamma / and muon-electron conversion in muonic atoms. Also, experimental determinations and theoretical predictions for the muon anomalous magnetic moment are reviewed. (86 References).

A. Czarnecki, W. J. Marciano, and K. Melnikov, "Coherent muon-electron conversion in muonic atoms," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 409-18, 1998.

Abstract:Transition rates for coherent muon-electron conversion in muonic atoms, mu N to eN, are computed for various types of muon number violating interactions. Attention is paid to relativistic atomic effects, Coulomb distortion, finite nuclear size, and nucleon distributions. Discrepancies with previously published results are pointed out and explained. Results are presented for several elements of current and future experimental interest. (23 References).

A. Czarnecki, W. J. Marciano, and K. Melnikov, "Muon-electron conversion in nuclei," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 938-41, 2000.

Abstract:Transition rates for coherent muon-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus (muonic atoms), mu N to eN, are computed for various possible muon-number violating amplitudes. Attention is paid to relativistic atomic effects, Coulomb wave function distortions, finite nuclear size, and nucleon distributions. (15 References).

A. Czarnecki and K. Melnikov, "Expansion of bound-state energies in powers of m/M," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 013001/1-4, 2001.

Abstract:We describe a new approach to computing energy levels of a nonrelativistic bound state of two constituents with masses M and m, by a systematic expansion in powers of m/M. After discussing the method, we demonstrate its potential with an example of the radiative recoil corrections to the Lamb shift and hyperfine splitting relevant for the hydrogen, muonic hydrogen, and muonium. A discrepancy between two previous calculations of O( alpha (Z alpha )/sup 5/m/sup 2//M) radiative recoil corrections to the Lamb shift is resolved and several new terms of O( alpha (Z alpha )/sup 5/m/sup 4//M/sup 3/) and higher are obtained. (22 References).

Cunha Lima IC da, M. Fabbri, da Silva A. Ferreira, and A. Troper, "Calculation of ground-state energies of muonic molecules of hydrogen isotopes confined to a two-dimensional region," *Physical Review A*, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 4049--51, 1990.

Abstract:The authors calculate the ground-state energies of muonic molecules formed by deuterium-deuterium, tritium-tritium, and deuterium-tritium nuclei plus a negative muon confined in a two-dimensional (2D) region. They show that the equilibrium distance between nuclei is a factor of 4 smaller and the vibrational energies are about a factor of 5 higher than the corresponding three-dimensional (3D) muonic molecules, thus favoring fusion reactions. In fact, the estimated d+t fusion rate is found to be three orders of magnitude higher in 2D than in 3D. (7 References).

Cunha Lima IC Da, Da Silva A. Ferreira, M. Fabbri, and A. Troper, "Variation of the fusion rate of the deuterium molecule in an effective medium," *Modern Physics Letters B*, vol. 7, no. 13-14, pp. 949--52, 1993.

Abstract:The authors have investigated the dependence of the fusion rate of a deuterium-deuterium-muon (dd mu ) molecule on the relative mass correction of the d-d pair due to interaction with a medium. They show in a qualitative way that decreasing the relative mass by a factor of ten causes the fusion probability to increase by two orders of magnitude. (8 References).

van Enschut JFM d'Achard, JBR Berkhout, W. Duinker, Eijk CWE van, WHA Hesselink, T. Johansson, T. J. Ketel, J. H. Koch, J. Konijn, Laat CTAM de, W. Lourens, Middelkoop G. van, and W. Poeser, "Anomalous strong interaction shifts and widths of the 3d state in pionic Pt and Au," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 136B, no. 1-2, pp. 24--8, 1984.

Abstract:The pionic 4f to 3d X-ray transitions in Pt and Au have been observed. The strong interaction monopole shifts epsilon /sub 0/ and widths Gamma /sub 0/ of the 4f and 3d levels have been deduced. For the pionic 4f levels standard optical potentials predict the experimental values quite well, whereas the deeper bound 3d states have shifts and widths that are smaller by a factor of about two than the theoretical predictions. (14 References).

van Enschut JFM d'Achard, P. David, W. Duinker, C. Gugler, J. Hartfiel, H. Janszen, J. Konijn, T. Krogulski, Laat CTAM de, T. Mayer-Kuckuk, W. Muller, Mutius R. von, C. Petitjean, H. W. Reist, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, and A. Taal, "Non-radiative decay of the 3d level in muonic /sup 237/Np," in *Proceedings of the International Nuclear Physics Conference*, (J. L. Durrell, J. M. Irvine, and GC. Morrison, eds.), 1987.

Abstract:The role of quadrupole 3d to 1s radiationless transitions in nuclear excitation, leading to prompt processes like gamma decay, neutron emission or fission, has been discussed in several papers. There are two theoretical descriptions of the non-radiative width of the 3d level in heavy muonic atoms. A microscopic one emphasizes the role of compound nucleus mechanism, and a phenomenological one describes it in terms of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance as an entrance channel for nuclear excitation of the nucleus. If the phenomenological approach is correct, the probability of the radiationless 3d to 1s transition is about 15%. Here the authors report on X-ray coincidence experiments aiming at a determination of the fraction of missing 3d to 2p muonic X-rays. Correcting this value for the radiative width of the 3d to 1s transition and disregarding the very weak ([left angle bracket]or=0.1%) 3d to 2s transition, the non-radiative width of the 3d level was deduced. (8 References).

van Enschut JFM d'Achard, P. David, W. Duinker, C. Gugler, H. Hanscheid, J. Hartfiel, H. Janszen, J. Konijn, T. Krogulski, Laat CTM de, T. Mayer-Kuckuk, W. Muller, Mutius R. von, C. Petitjean, S. Polikanov, H. W. Reist, F. Risse, Ch Rosel, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, W. Schrieder, A. K. Sinha, A. Taal, and N. Trautmann, "Studies of muonic actinides," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 19, no. , pp. 56-7, 1987.

Abstract:The X-ray spectrum of muonic and pionic /sup 237/Np has been investigated with muons and pions stopped in a 10g NpO/sub 2/ target. The authors discuss the experimental details and the electromagnetic and strong interaction parameters deduced from the results. (5 References).

H. Daniel, "Pion finite size and mesic atoms," *Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung Section A-A Journal of Physical Sciences*, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1510--11, 1970.

Abstract:Contrary to the point-like muon the pion has a spatial extension. The effect of this finite size on levels of pi -mesic atoms is estimated to be small but not necessarily negligible.

H. Daniel, H-J Pfeiffer, and K. Springer, "Muonic X-ray intensities in SF/sub 6/ and in H/sub 2/+SF/sub 6/," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 44A, no. 7, pp. 447--8, 1973.

Abstract:With a high pressure gas target muonic F and S X-ray intensities in SF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/+SF/sub 6/ have been measured. It was found that the distribution of muons between sulphur and fluorine is not at all equal to the ratio of the atomic numbers Z. (3 References).

H. Daniel, H-J Pfeiffer, and K. Springer, "Search for mu /sup -/ transfer from He to Ar in gas at 620 atm," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 46B, no. 1, pp. 129--30, 1973.

Abstract:The mu /sup -/ transfer from He to Ar in gas at 620 atm has been searched for with a 1.5 l target. No transfer was observed. (5 References).

H. Daniel and others, "Electric charge radius of $^36$A," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 48, pp. 109--110, 1974.

H. Daniel, "Formation of mesonic atoms in condensed matter," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 1649--51, 1975.

Abstract:The Coulomb capture probability of negative mesic particles in condensed matter is calculated by using a pure classical model based on the Fermi and Teller treatment (1947). An expression for the ratio of capture probabilities per atom in a binary compound is obtained. The predictions based on these calculations are compared with previous calculations based on the Z-law, and with experimental values for a wide range of metal halides. (14 References).

H. Daniel, H-J Pfeiffer, and K. Springer, "Pionic X-rays from argon and hydrogen plus argon," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 275, no. 4, pp. 369--71, 1975.

Abstract:Pionic X-ray spectra from argon and hydrogen plus argon have been measured with a high pressure gas target. Energy and natural width of the (3d-2p)-line were determined ot be E=168.88+or-0.10 keV and Gamma =1.17+or-0.17 keV, respectively. An upper limit of 56% at 90% confidence was obtained for the probability of pion transfer from hydrogen to argon. (14 References).

H. Daniel, "Coulomb capture of muons," *Radiation Effects*, vol. 28, no. 3-4, pp. 189--94, 1976.

Abstract:The Coulomb capture of muons accompanied by Auger electron emission has been calculated by treating the process as internal conversion of E1 gamma radiation. Emission of K, L/sub I/, L/sub II/, L/sub III/, M/sub I/ and N/sub I/ electrons was investigated and emission of electrons from the other M and N subshells was considered in a very rough manner. Conversion coefficients by Hager and Seltzer (1968), and by Dragoun, Pauli and Schmutzler (1969) were used. Numerical calculations were carried out for Z=30 and Z=60. The results are expected to be best applicable to the case of mono-atomic gases. By extrapolating the values, good agreement with recent experimental results on Ne and Ar was obtained. (17 References).

H. Daniel, W. Denk, F. J. Hartmann, J. J. Reidy, and W. Wilhelm, "Measurement of the Coulomb capture ratio of muons in twenty oxides of medium and heavy elements," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 71B, no. 1, pp. 60--2, 1977.

Abstract:The Coulomb capture ratios of muons in twenty oxides of element between Ti and U have been measured by a novel technique. The per-atom ratios vary systematically with the position of the oxidized element in the periodic table. (12 References).

H. Daniel, "Reply to 'Transport properties of negative muons in matter'," *Physical Review A*, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1338--9, 1977.

Abstract:The author's previous result (see Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.35, no.24, p.1649 (1975)) that the steady-state energy spectrum of muons in a two species target is white is reiterated and the different result obtained by Vogel et al. in the previous paper (see ibid., vol.15, no.3, p.1336 (1977)) attributed to the different potential used in the outer region of the atom. The experiments suggested have in fact been carried out and are in better agreement with the predictions of the present author. (13 References).

H. Daniel, "Calculation of the Coulomb capture of mesonic particles in inhomogeneous matter," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods*, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 609--11, 1978.

Abstract:The Coulomb capture of mesonic particles in inhomogeneous matter has been calculated in closed form. Depending on the values of the atomic number Z of the constituents large variations with the grain size may occur. (12 References).

H. Daniel, W. Denk, F. J. Hartmann, W. Wilhelm, and Egidy T. von, "Empirical intensity correlations in muonic X-ray spectra of oxides," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 41, no. 13, pp. 853--5, 1978.

Abstract:The Lyman intensities of muonic X-rays from 35 oxides have been measured with Ge detectors. The dependence of the various quantities on each other and on target data is investigated with correlation theory. Many correlations are established. (13 References).

H. Daniel, R. Bergmann, V. Dornow, F. J. Hartmann, J. J. Reidy, and W. Wilhelm, "Search for an effect of the ionic charge on the Coulomb capture of muons in Cu, CuSCN and Cu(SCN)/sub 2/," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 215--18, 1978.

Abstract:Muonic Lyman series intensities and Coulomb capture ratios have been measured for CuSCN and Cu(SCN)/sub 2/, and the Cu Lyman series intensities also for Cu metal. No effect due to the ionic charge was found. (11 References).

H. Daniel, "Coulomb capture of muons and atomic radius," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 291, no. 1, pp. 29--31, 1979.

Abstract:An earlier theoretical treatment of the Coulomb capture of muons has been extended to take the radius of the (electronic) atom into account. Smaller radii are shown to favor the capture, in agreement with earlier experimental findings. (15 References).

H. Daniel, "Influence of chemical environment on lifetimes in nuclear physics," *Atomic Energy Review*, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 287--343, 1979.

Abstract:The influence of chemical environment on lifetimes in nuclear physics is reviewed. Electron capture and internal conversion for measuring total electron densities at the nucleus and densities of individual electron shells, respectively, are treated on an equal footing. Correlations to other fields of physics such as Mossbauer isomer shifts and muonic atoms are dealt with. (114 References).

H. Daniel, H-J Pfeiffer, P. Stoeckel, Egidy T. Von, and HP. Povel, "Direct measurement of the transfer rate p mu +Ar to p+Ar mu at high gas pressure," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A345, no. 2, pp. 409--12, 1980.

Abstract:The transfer rate p mu +Ar to p+Ar mu has been directly measured in H/sub 2/ gas 600 atm with 2.03*10/sup -3/ at.% Ar at room temperature using delayed coincidence technique. The transfer rate reduced to an Ar concentration (atoms per unit volume) corresponding to that of liquid hydrogen was found to be (9.8+or-1.5)*10/sup 11/ s/sup -1/, which is considerably higher than previous results obtained at lower pressure. (8 References).

H. Daniel, R. L. Hutson, M. Leon, M. E. Schillaci, and R. Seki, "Pionic X-ray intensities from C, CH/sub 2/ and CD/sub 2/," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 75A, no. 4, pp. 282--4, 1980.

Abstract:The relative intensities of the carbon L/sub alpha / and L/sub beta / pionic X-ray lines from graphite, polyethylene, and deuterated polyethylene have been measured. No differences between CH/sub 2/ and CD/sub 2/ were observed, but differences were found between graphite and the two polyethylene targets. (9 References).

H. Daniel, "Theory of the Coulomb capture of negative mesonic particles," *Annals of Physics*, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 303--19, 1980.

Abstract:The Coulomb capture of negative mesonic particles is semiclassically calculated in closed form. Expressions are given for energy loss and angular momentum loss, capture ratios, and spectral flux densities of the slow particles in matter. The effect of a centrifugal barrier on the capture ratio and the spectral flux density is shown. Numerical results are given for gaseous Ar and a hypothetical solid of Z=18 with an assumed atomic radius corresponding to average condensed matter. There is a great difference between the results for the two cases. (28 References).

H. Daniel, "Dependence of Coulomb capture ratio and X-ray intensities on the mesonic-particle energy spectrum," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 302, no. 3, pp. 195--7, 1981.

Abstract:The dependence of the per-atom capture ratio A(Z/sub 1/, Z/sub 2/) and the X-ray intensity pattern on the spectral flux density n(W) of slow mesonic particles in the target is calculated in closed form with a semiclassical theory. The intensity pattern turns out to vary only slightly with n(W) whereas the capture ratio shows a more pronounced dependence. Numerical results are presented. (8 References).

H. Daniel, "Muonic atoms in physics, chemistry and archeometry," *Naturwissenschaften*, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 590--6, 1981.

Abstract:A survey is given of properties, formation, and application of muonic atoms in physics, chemistry, and archeometry. In the field of physics the measurement of nuclear charge distributions and vacuum polarization as well as the slowing down of muons in matter are treated in some detail, and in the fields of chemistry and archeometry, non-destructive quantitative chemical analysis of bulk material and, with the help of suitable beam setting, also of selected parts of the specimen. (28 References).

H. Daniel, R. Bergmann, G. Fottner, F. J. Hartmann, and W. Wilhelm, "Measurement of muonic X-ray intensities and Coulomb capture ratios in chlorides," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atoms & Nuclei)*, vol. 300, no. 4, pp. 253--62, 1981.

Abstract:Muonic X-ray spectra of 32 chlorides have been measured with Ge detectors. Coulomb capture ratios and Lyman X-ray intensities were determined, and correlations to target data established. The experimental capture ratios agree well with the values from a recently proposed formula. (30 References).

H. Daniel, "Application of X-rays from negative muons," *Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials & Atoms*, vol. 231, no. 1-3, pp. 65--70, 1984.

Abstract:Due to the large mu mass compared to the electron mass the muonic X rays have energies very suitable for standard gamma ray spectroscopy (Ge detectors). Consequently every element is easily recognized. By selecting the primary mu energies appropriately any part of the specimen, even well inside, can be non-destructively investigated. On the other hand, surface layers may be analyzed. Trace element analysis is possible only within limits (down to atomic abundances of about 100 p.p.m.). Typical accuracies of quantitative analyses are a few percent. Results on the Coulomb capture process and on applications in archeometry, nuclear medicine and surface physics will be presented. Ways of improving the muon flux density will be discussed. (11 References).

H. Daniel, "Can we produce muons cheaply?," in *Contributions to the Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Workshop*, 1984.

Abstract:The question how much a muon costs (in units of electrical energy) depends both on nuclear physics (working in the most effective energy range) and on accelerator technology. For a cheap production of muons a storage ring device may be appropriate making use of two new methods in accelerator technology: phase-free AC accelerator and frictional cooling. Both methods are explained. (0 References).

H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, R. A. Naumann, and JJ. Reidy, "Muon Coulomb capture in aqueous solutions and the controversy between the large-mesonic-molecule model and the transfer model," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 448--51, 1986.

Abstract:Muonic X-ray spectra from aqueous solutions of alkali halides have been measured and compared with spectra from the respective solid salts. In the solutions the higher members of the Lyman series are enhanced. From this and from p+ pi /sup -/ to n+ pi /sup 0/ data on hydrogen-containing compounds it is concluded that transfer involving p mu or p pi atoms, respectively, is responsible for the hydrogen effects while mechanisms involving mesonic molecular orbitals are ruled out. (23 References).

H. Daniel, "Can we reactivate sticking muons?," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 20, no. , pp. NL46-7, 1988.

Abstract:Negative muons can be used to catalyze hydrogen fusion. The only reaction for an eventual power reactor is muon-catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) of d and t. The limiting factor to the maximum number n/sub max//sup 0/ of fusions a single muon can catalyze without artificial reactivation is the final-sticking coefficient omega /sub 0/. The value of omega /sub 0/ as measured by the SIN-Vienna-Berkeley-Munich collaboration is omega /sub 0/=(0.45+or-0.05)*10/sup -2/, thus yielding n/sub max//sup 0/=222+or-25. However, for a power reactor based on fusion only (no breeding) a minimum n/sub min/ of the order of n/sub min/=600 fusions per muon is necessary. Hence, without artificial reactivation no self-sustaining mu CF reactor can be built. The author outlines the basic idea of a reactivator and presents the first results of calculations. (6 References).

H. Daniel, "Self-consistency of the vacuum polarization of mesic atoms," *Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento*, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 375-6, 1988.

Abstract:In relation to the self-consistency convection for the vacuum polarization potential, it is pointed out that it is incorrect to assume, as has been done hitherto, the nuclear charge distribution for the charge distribution term in the expression for the polarisation potential. (5 References).

H. Daniel, "Calculation of cooling charged particle beams by moderation plus acceleration," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, pp. 425--432, 1989.

A. V. Daniel, S. I. Kalcheva, V. V. Kuzminov, and YuV. Petrov, "Contribution of fast nucleons to the energy balance of a hybrid mesocatalytic reactor," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 133--50, 1989.

Abstract:Using Monte Carlo codes (SITHA, MORSE, BLANK) some blanket characteristics of a hybrid mesocatalytic reactor (HMCR) were evaluated. Fast nucleons, escaping from a pion-producing target, irradiate the blanket. The blanket contains a zone of natural uranium with construction elements and a graphite reflector with lithium (for tritium production). The multiple interaction of high-energy nucleons of the initial beam, both with the pion-producing target and the blanket, it taken into account. The number of fissions, the breeding rate of plutonium, and the tritium production were determined for the start of the operating period. The results are in good agreement with some earlier estimations. (29 References).

H. Daniel and RA. Naumann, "Negative muon capture in simple binary ionic solids-the influence of electronic structure," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 121--4, 1989.

Abstract:The study of negative muon atomic capture by simple binary ionic solids is advantageous when searching for regularities in the electronic processes occurring when exotic atoms are formed. The increasing body of such data for both atomic capture ratios and relative intensity data for the muonic X-ray series arising from both elemental constituents has revealed some important, essentially constant, experimental features. These observed similarities together with the standard ionic model usual for halide and oxide compounds of group IA, IIA and IIIA chemical elements indicate that muon capture involves two essentially independent and invariant processes; one specific for each constituent. Such a deduction follows from both the apparent constancy of quotients of per-atom atomic capture ratios (e.g. A'(Y/X)=A(M/X)/A(M/Y), independent of M) as well as the nearly-identical intensity patterns of the muonic X-ray series for element M from any M-containing ionic compounds. (13 References).

H. Daniel, "A new way of cooling a beam of charged particle," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 4, pp. 109--112, 1989.

H. Daniel, "`Cheap` muon production and artificial muon reactivation," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 335--47, 1991.

Abstract:The status of muon production and artificial muon reactivation is reviewed, in particular with respect to a mu CF (muon-catalyzed fusion) reactor, ad a concept of a novel mu CF reactor is outlined. This concept makes use of a recently proposed acceleration principle which is very suitable to continually supply energy to charged particles in a magnetic field to compensate, for example, losses due to ionization. In the novel reactor, the pions are produced by bombarding D+T gas with protons of 3 GeV; the same gas serves simultaneously as fusion material and stripper for muonic He (integrated reactor). The phase space behavior of both p and alpha mu beams is sketched. (20 References).

H. Daniel, "Concept of a novel muon-catalyzed fusion reactor," *Fusion Technology*, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 222--4, 1991.

Abstract:A muon-catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) reactor uses the negative muon to catalyze deuteron-triton (d-t) fusion via d mu t molecules. The novel reactor whose concept is outlined works with the deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixture in a single volume within a magnetic bottle. This volume serves simultaneously for pion production, pion decay into muons, muon stopping, d-t fusion, and muon reactivation. The pions are produced by proton bombardment of the D-T. The muon reactivation is done by stripping off the muons from muonic alpha particles by continuously moving the muonic alpha particles in cyclotron resonance. The protons for pion production are injected through a hole in the bottle and are kept moving in cyclotron resonance as well. Energy is supplied to the protons and muonic alpha particles in the bottle by a rotating electric field of constant amplitude. Some details of the phase-space behavior of the moving protons and muonic alpha particles are given. An optimistic estimate leads to a net cost of W=3 GeV per negative muon and an energy yield of Y=50 GeV per negative muon, both energies in the form of heat. (11 References).

H. Daniel, "Muon catalyzed fusion: old and new aspects of energy production," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 82, no. 1-4, pp. 409--21, 1993.

Abstract:Muon catalyzed fusion of deuterium and tritium ( mu CF) yields the same energy gain per reaction as fusion with magnetic or inertial confinement (17.6 MeV). The crucial points of mu CF are, however, very different, namely (a) the energy cost W/sub ( mu )/ for production of one mu /sup -/ and (b) the number n of reactions a single muon can catalyze on the average. (b) is ultimately limited by the effective sticking probability omega /sub f/:n[left angle bracket]or=1/ omega /sub f/. With 'standard' methods one has W/sub ( mu )/ approximately=5 GeV, omega /sub f/=0.5%. Hence a 'standard' mu CF reactor can never reach a net energy gain. To solve this problem, ways discussed since about a decade are to increase the efficiency by both (i) energy multiplication using a fissionable blanket and (ii) breeding. A new way to increase the safety of fission devices mostly due to Yu. Petrov is outlined. On the other hand there is a hope to lower W/sub ( mu )/ slightly and omega /sub f/ drastically, the latter by artificial reactivation. New theoretical results for beam cooling in an omegatron type driven integrated mu CF reactor, important for W/sub ( mu )/ and, in particular, omega /sub f/, is presented. (22 References).

H. Daniel, "Muon catalyzed fusion and energy production," in

Abstract:"Muon catalyzed fusion ( mu CF) of deuterium and tritium yields the same energy gain per reaction as fusion with magnetic or inertial confinement (17.6 MeV). The crucial points of mu CF are, however, very different, namely (a) the energy cost W( mu ) for producing one mu /sup -/ and (b) the number n of reactions a single muon can catalyze. (b) is ultimately limited by the effective sticking probability omega : n[left angle bracket]or=1/ omega . With 'standard' methods one has W/sub ( mu )/ approximately= 5 GeV

H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, W. Neumann, and W. Schott, "Measurement of the stopping power for $\mu^-$ at energies down to the eV range," *Physics Letters A*, vol. 191, pp. 155--158, 1994.

H. Daniel, F. J. Hartmann, and RA. Naumann, "Solid-state effects on Coulomb capture and X-ray cascade of negative muons," *Physical Review A*, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 3343--8, 1999.

Abstract:Coulomb capture and the subsequent muonic X-ray cascade have been measured for a selection of solid-state targets: three allotropic forms of selenium, magnesium chloride with and without crystal water, and single-phase Nb-Ta alloys in three different stoichiometric ratios. Small but statistically significant differences were found in higher-level crossover transition X-ray intensities in Se. A rather large enhancement of crossover transition intensities was observed in magnesium chloride with water, which is ascribed to transfer from hydrogen. No significant variations with composition were found in the Lyman intensity patterns from Nb-Ta; the per-atom capture ratio was measured to be constant within 5%. (24 References).

M. Danos, B. Müller, and J. Rafelski, "Detuning reduction of muon sticking in resonant muon catalyzed d--t fusion," *Physical Review A*, vol. 34, pp. 3642--3645, 1986.

M. Danos, B. Muller, and J. Rafelski, "Comment on 'muon-alpha-particle sticking probability in muon-catalyzed fusion'," *Physical Review A*, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 2741--3, 1987.

Abstract:D. Ceperley et al. (see ibid., vol.31, p.1999 1985) reported a calculation of the muon sticking probability using three-body Coulomb wave functions of the DT mu muomolecule. The authors comment here that such calculations require in addition the incorporation of the interplay of the nuclear reaction dynamics with the Coulomb problem. (13 References).

M. Danos, L. C. Biedenharn, and A. Stahlhofen, "Comprehensive theory of nuclear effects on the intrinsic sticking probability. II," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 320-9, 1988.

Abstract:For pt.I see Muon-Catalyzed Fusion 1988 Meeting, p.308-19. An accurate calculation of the intrinsic sticking fraction, omega /sub s//sup 0/, for (dt mu ) fusion requires the development of a comprehensive, non-perturbative, inherently many-body, reaction theory. The authors identify and discuss the key problems underlying their construction of this theory. (17 References).

M. Danos, L. C. Biedenharn, and A. Stahlhofen, "Comprehensive theory of nuclear effects on the intrinsic sticking probability. I," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 308-19, 1988.

Abstract:A comprehensive inherently many-body, reaction theory for an accurate calculation of the intrinsic sticking fraction, omega /sub s//sup 0/, for (dt mu ) fusion is outlined. The non-perturbative treatment of the long-range Coulomb force and its interference with the short range nuclear force is emphasized. (10 References).

M. Danos, B. Müller, and J. Rafelski, "Nuclear resonance effects on the muon sticking probability in muon catalyzed D--T fusion," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 3, pp. 443--452, 1988.

M. Danos, A. A. Stahlhofen, and LC. Biedenharn, "Intrinsic sticking in dt muon-catalyzed fusion: interplay of atomic, molecular and nuclear phenomena," *Annals of Physics*, vol. 192, no. 1, pp. 158--203, 1989.

Abstract:A comprehensive reaction theory for the resonant muon catalyzed fusion of deuterium and tritium is formulated. Emphasis is put on non-perturbative, many body, treatment of the long range Coulomb force and its interference with the nuclear forces, with the aim of providing the theoretical framework for an accurate calculation of the branching ratio dt mu to (( alpha mu )+n)/( alpha + mu +n) essential for muon catalyzed fusion. (22 References).

M. Danos, "Accuracy-weighted variational principle for degenerate continuum states," *Journal of Mathematical Physics*, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 2588--91, 1990.

Abstract:A variational principle for continuum states is given that permits numerical solution by the Ritz method. It allows one to maximize the accuracy of the solution in preselected regions of space, and also allows the selection of that solution from the perhaps infinitely degenerate solution set that is needed in the particular application. (4 References).

F. Dautry, M. Rho, and DO. Riska, "Weak interactions in deuterons: exchange currents and nucleon-nucleon interaction," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A264, no. 3, pp. 507--30, 1976.

Abstract:While the meson-exchange electromagnetic current has been tested with an impressive success in the two-nucleon system, nothing much is known about the reliability of the exchange currents in weak interactions. The authors study this question using muon absorption in the deuteron, mu /sup -/+d to n+n+ nu . The meson-exchange current, previously derived in parallel to those of the electromagnetic interaction, is checked for consistency against the p-wave piece of the p+p to d+ pi /sup +/ process near threshold and then tested with the total capture rate for which some (though not so accurate) data are available. The same Hamiltonian is then used to calculate the matrix elements for the solar neutrino processes p+p to d+e/sup +/+ nu and p+p+e/sup -/ to d+ nu in the hope that they would be measured and help resolve the solar neutrino puzzle. Finally a detailed analysis of the differential capture rate d Gamma /dE/sub n/, is made, E/sub n/ being the kinetic energy in the c.m. of the two neutrons, in the expectation that it will be used to pin down the ever elusive n-n scattering length. (30 References).

P. David, J. Hartfiel, H. Janszen, T. Johansson, J. Konijn, T. Krogulski, T. Mayer-Kuckuk, C. Petitjean, S. Polikanov, H. W. Reist, and G. Tibell, "Total kinetic energy release and mass distributions in prompt and delayed muon induced fission of /sup 238/U," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 15, no. , pp. 63-5, 1983.

Abstract:Negative muons after having formed muonic atoms induce fission in heavy nuclei in two different modes which can be separated experimentally. The first mode is a prompt component caused by radiationless transitions in the muonic cascade, and the second mode is a delayed part due to nuclear capture of the muon. In the prompt part the muon influences important fission parameters, which opens new possibilities to understand the fission process. The prompt mu /sup -/ induced fission of /sup 238/U was shown to be due to the radiationless 3d to 1s quadrupole transition in (74+or-14) % of all events. (5 References).

P. David, "Heavy muonic atoms and muon capture," in *Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei*, (HV. Klapdor, ed.), pp. 833--8, 1986.

Abstract:The study of muonic actinide atoms and the subsequent fission of these deformed heavy nuclei has revealed several aspects about the electromagnetic interaction of the muon with the nucleus at low energies and about the weak interaction. Information on the nuclear ground state shapes, nuclear structure and on capture mechanisms has been obtained. (16 References).

P. David, J. Hartfiel, H. Janszen, T. Mayer-Kuckuk, Mutius R. Von, Laat CTAM De, A. Taal, W. Duinker, J. Konijn, Van Enschut JFM D'Archard, C. Gugler, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, T. Krogulski, C. Petitjean, H. W. Reist, and W. Muller, "The probability of non radiative decay of the 3d level in muonic /sup 237/Np," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 180, no. 4, pp. 324--8, 1986.

Abstract:The X-ray spectrum of muonic /sup 237/Np has been investigated with stopped muons in a NpO/sub 2/ target, containing about 10 g of /sup 237/Np. The probability of the radiationless muonic 3d to 1s transition in /sup 237/Np, (9+or-4)%, was obtained by comparing the relative intensities of the main muonic X-ray transitions in single and coincidence spectra. The coincidences were gated by the 2p to 1s transitions. (14 References).

P. David, H. Hanscheid, J. Koniju, Laat CTAM de, W. Lourens, C. Petitjean, F. Risse, FGCh Rosel, der Schaaf A. van, and W. Schrieder, "Strong interaction effects of deeply bound 1s and 3d pionic orbits," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 19, no. , pp. 60-2, 1987.

Abstract:Pionic atoms are a powerful tool to develop models on the strong pion-nucleus interaction at low energies. In particular, the strong interaction induces shifts and widths on pionic atom levels, which are used as input in the construction of phenomenological optical potentials. Although the standard optical potentials are able to explain the more peripheral pionic atom states in most nuclei, they fail to describe the shifts and widths of these more deeply bound levels. The experiments on pionic atoms of Mg, Pt, /sup 197/Au and /sup 208/Pb have been explained by ascribing this effect to an extra S-wave repulsion in the pi -nucleus optical potential. In view of this assumption and to obtain more accurate results than those from previous experiments the pionic X-ray spectra of /sup 181/Ta, Re and /sup 209/Bi have been reinvestigated. In order to further investigate whether this effect is also present for the pionic 1s orbit the authors have measured the pionic X-ray spectra of Mg, /sup 27/Al and /sup 28/Si. (5 References).

P. David, H. Hanscheid, J. Hartfiel, H. Janszen, T. Mayer-Kuckuk, Mutius R. von, F. Risse, CFG Rosel, W. Schrieder, C. Petitjean, H. W. Reist, S. M. Polikanov, J. Konijn, Laat CTAM de, A. Taal, T. Krogulski, T. Johansson, G. Tibell, van Enschut JFM d'Achard, J. P. Theobald, N. Trautmann, C. Gugler, L. A. Schaller, and L. Schellenberg, "The study of prompt and delayed muon induced fission. II. Mean life times of negative muons bound to /sup 237/Np, /sup 242/Pu and /sup 244/Pu," *Zeitschrift fur Physik a (Atomic Nuclei)*, vol. 330, no. 4, pp. 397--405, 1988.

Abstract:For pt.I see ibid., vol.328, p.37 (1987). The mean life times of negative muons bound to actinide nuclei have been measured by detecting the time difference between a stopped muon and the arrival of fragments from delayed fission after muon capture. The deduced capture rates Lambda /sub c/ are 1.392(4).10/sup 7//s for /sup 237/Np, 1.290(7).10/sup 7//s for /sup 242/Pu and 1.240(7).10/sup 7//s for /sup 244/Pu. The results are compared with published data for the fission and the neutron decay channels and for the electron decay of the bound muon. Including a former measurement of Lambda /sub c/ for /sup 239/Pu, an isotropic dependence of the muon capture rates in the Pu isotopes is clearly observed. (43 References).

P. David, H. Hanscheid, W. Eickhoff, J. Konijn, T. Kozlowski, T. Krogulski, Laat CTAM de, W. Lourens, T. Mayer-Kuckuk, H. Paganetti, C. Petitjean, S. M. Polikanov, H. W. Reist, F. Risse, ChFG Rosel, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, and A. Taal, "Muon induced fission/muon capture on heavy nuclei with high fission threshold," *Psi Nuclear & Particle Physics Newsletter*, no. , pp. 63-4, 1990.

Abstract:The main process of delayed muon capture on heavy target nuclei occurs by the absorption on a single quasi free proton mu +p to n+ nu mu leading to an average excitation energy of E/sub x/=(19+or-1) MeV. This has been deduced from the yield of fragment masses in symmetric fission of actinide nuclei. Differently muons may also be captured on correlated nucleons. (12 References).

P. David, C. Rösel, F. F. Karpeshin, and B. Sabirov, "Recent facets of nuclear fission dynamics and properties of heavy muonic atoms," in *Muonic Atoms and Molecules*, (L. A. Schaller and C. Petitjean, eds.), (CH--4010, Basel), pp. 35--50, 1993.

J. P. Davidson, D. A. Close, and JJ. Malanify, "Evidence for higher shape deformations in muonic X-rays," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 337--9, 1974.

Abstract:The K X-ray energies, hyperfine splittings and electric quadrupole moments of muonic /sup 232/Th and /sup 238/U have been analysed in terms of a distorted Fermi-type nuclear charge distribution model. The rare-earth deformed muonic atom data obtained by Hiflin (1970) has been reanalysed by using the same procedure. Good agreement is found in comparisons with proton and alpha inelastic scattering and for Coulomb excitation. (10 References).

J. D. Davies, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, S. D. Hoath, P. Sharman, and AS. Clough, "Observation of kaonic hydrogen atom X-rays," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 83B, no. 1, pp. 55--8, 1979.

Abstract:A special liquid-hydrogen target has been used with a stopping kaon beam in order to search for the X-rays from kaonic hydrogen atoms. A peak at 6.52+or-0.06 keV, consistent with the unshifted energy of 2p-1s X-rays from K/sup -/-p atoms, has been observed with a yield of about 0.1%. The energy shift would imply rather small values for the real K/sup -/-p scattering length at threshold. (11 References).

J. D. Davies, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, C. J. Batty, S. F. Biagi, S. D. Hoath, and P. Sharman, "Observation of kaonic hydrogen atom X-rays," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 715-16, 1979.

Abstract:Using a specially constructed low Z cryogenic target fitted with a high resolution Si(Li) detector, and the K17 beamline at the Rutherford Laboratory, the authors have obtained some data on K-He, pi -He, K-H and pi -H which indicate the observation of kaonic hydrogen X-rays. (9 References).

D. W. Davies and SJ. Till, "Interaction potentials and rotational scattering for H/sub 2/ and MuH with He," *Molecular Physics*, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 757--71, 1980.

Abstract:Elastic and inelastic differential cross-sections for the rotational scattering of p-H/sub 2/ and MuH by He at a single collision energy are calculated with potential surfaces obtained by varying the parameters in a model potential. The importance of the attractive and repulsive terms in the potential, and of the available kinetic energy in the different channels is demonstrated, and it is shown that the whole potential surface determines the scattering cross-sections. Inelastic and elastic scattering are compared, and the differences between the rotational scattering of homonuclear and heteronuclear homopolar molecules are ascribed to the molecular constants rather than to the numbers of open channels. (28 References).

J. D. Davies, F. D. Brooks, W. A. Cilliers, JBA England, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, M. Piccinini, A. Vitale, A. Zoccoli, S. E. Jones, P. Li, L. M. Rees, E. V. Sheeley, J. K. Shurtleff, S. F. Taylor, G. H. Eaton, B. Alper, V. R. Bom, Eijk CWE van, Haan H. de, A. N. Anderson, A. J. Caffrey, J. Zabriskie, M. A. Paciotti, O. K. Baker, J. N. Bradbury, J. S. Cohen, M. Leon, H. R. Maltrud, and LN. Sturgess, "mu CF thoughts from Birmingham and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 52-6, 1988.

Abstract:This paper gives some ideas to be learnt from magnetic confinement fusion and briefly describes the pulsed muon beam at ISIS, progress with the measurement of W/sub s/ (the mu alpha sticking coefficient), future beam plans and possible experiments. (3 References).

J. D. Davies, JBA England, G. J. Pyle, GTA Squier, F. D. Brooks, W. A. Cilliers, A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, M. Piccinini, A. Vitale, A. Zoccoli, S. E. Jones, V. R. Bom, Eijk CWE van, Haan H. de, A. H. Anderson, M. A. Paciotti, G. H. Eaton, and B. Alper, "A direct measurement of the alpha-muon sticking coefficient in muon-catalysed d-t fusion," *Journal of Physics G-Nuclear & Particle Physics*, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1529--37, 1990.

Abstract:A direct method of determining the alpha-muon sticking coefficient omega /sub 0/ following muon-catalysed d-t fusion, by measuring the ratio of ( alpha mu )-neutron coincidences to neutron singles, is described. Initial measurements have used a low-pressure D-T gas target and the pulsed muon beam at the ISIS facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and give a preliminary result of omega /sub 0/=0.0069+or-0.0040+or-0.0014(sys). (21 References).

JD. Davies, "Possible mu CF experiments with pulsed muons at RAL," *Muon Catalyzed Fusion*, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 195--202, 1992.

Abstract:The authors describe muon catalyzed fusion experiments using pulsed muons produced by a proton beam on a graphite target. (14 References).

J. D. Davies and RE. Welsh, "Muon lifetimes and weak interaction coupling constants," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 439-44, 1996.

Abstract:Improvements in determining muon lifetimes that are possible with the pulsed muon beam at the ISIS accelerator complex near Oxford, UK, are examined. The requirements of the standard model do not require an improvement in tau ( mu /sup +/)G/sub mu /, which is fortunate as the low repetition rate of ISIS make such difficult. However, for stopping mu /sup +or-/ in liquid hydrogen the differences tau ( mu /sup +/)- tau ( mu /sup -/, observing decay e/sup -/) and tau ( mu /sup -/,e/sup -/)- tau ( mu /sup -/, observing capture n) can be well improved to give the induced pseudo-scalar coupling constant, g/sub p/, to +or-2% and hence the first test of the chiral structure of the nucleon. (12 References).

D. H. Davis and D. N. Tovee, "A critique of the Alvarez interpretation of some old emulsion events as $\Omega ^-$ hyperon interactions and decays," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 103, pp. 237--244, 1996.

E. S. Dayhoff, S. Triebwasser, and W. E. Lamb, "Fine structure of the hydrogen atom. Part VI," *Physical Review*, vol. 89, pp. 106--115, 1953.

Renzi R. De and V. Dallacasa, "Muonic Knight shift for simple metals in a linear-response model,"

Abstract:The hyperfine contribution to the magnetic field at the mu /sup +/ site is calculated in the elementary dielectric-constant theory, which reveals itself to be suitable for simple metals, especially in the low-electron-density range. The model is compared with experimental data with better agreement than any previous theory, but still not in a completely satisfactory way. Other contributions to the mu /sup +/ precession frequency shift are discussed. (11 References).

Kam J. de and CK. Wafelbakker, "Three-body approach to pionic /sup 16/O," *Physical Review C*, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 570--7, 1982.

Abstract:Relativistic three-body calculations are presented for the real part of the pi -/sup 16/O scattering length. The effects of the nucleon binding and the exclusion principle are studied in the framework of a covariant three-body model (pion, nucleon, and core) of the optical potential. The present theory is a natural generalization of the optical potential model of Celenza, Liu, and Shakin (1975), who consider only the single-triangle diagram, ignoring the nucleon rescattering. The authors find that the nucleon binding and the exclusion principle each have a large effect on the scattering length. However, the combined effect of both medium corrections is much smaller. Depending on the model for the pi N t matrix, the single-triangle diagram alone accounts for 15% and 33% of the scattering length. With medium correction included, these numbers are 25% and 40%, respectively. Finally, the authors determined the s wave strength parameter B/sub 0/ in a phenomenological rho /sup 2/ term. (25 References).

Kam J. De and G. Wolschin, "Population of isomeric states in muonic atoms," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 125B, no. 2-3, pp. 109--12, 1983.

Abstract:The probability to populate the isomeric state in radiationless muonic transitions is calculated. The authors find that for muon induced reactions the population ratio isomeric state to ground state is larger by an order of magnitude as compared to nucleon induced reactions at the corresponding energy. (14 References).

Laat CTAM De and JG. Kromme, "General-purpose fast CAMAC software for PDP-11 computers,"

Abstract:A set of easy-to-use general purpose software routines for data acquisition in experiments using a GEC-Elliot CAMAC interface is described. The software concerned is based on Digital's IAS real-time operating system and consists of a fast multi-user CAMAC driver, a number of service routines and a FORTRAN library of user-friendly subroutines. The multi-user approach allows several data acquisition programs to be run simultaneously on different terminals. The CAMAC driver supports direct memory access channels, lists and loops of N-A-F functions (software emulated data-channel) and single module operations. Typical data transfer rates on a PDP-11/34 are 150K words per second for hardware direct-memory channels and 40K words per second for software lists and loops. An example of application of this software in pionic- and muonic-atom experiments at NIKHEF-K in Amsterdam and in muon-induced fission experiments at SIN-Villigen, Switzerland is given. (3 References).

Boer FWN De, B. Aas, P. Baertschi, W. Beer, I. Beltrami, K. Bos, PFA Goudsmit, U. Kiebele, B. Jeckelmann, H. J. Leisi, W. Ruckstuhl, G. Strassner, A. Vacchi, and R. Weber, "Precision measurement of the 2p-1s transition wavelength in muonic /sup 13/C," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A444, no. 4, pp. 589--96, 1985.

Abstract:With the bent-crystal spectrometer at the SIN muon channel the authors measure the wavelength of the 2p-1s transition in muonic /sup 13/C with a precision of 13 p.p.m. The result for the 2p/sub 3/2/-1s/sub 1/2/ transition is lambda (2p/sub 3/2/-1s/sub 1/2/)=16.46055+or-0.00021 p.m.; it is interpreted in terms of a short-range muon-nucleon interaction not included in standard QED calculations. (14 References).

Chambrier G. de, W. Beer, Boer FWN de, K. Bos, A. I. Egorov, M. Eckhause, K. L. Giovanetti, PFA Goudsmit, B. Jeckelmann, K. E. Kir'yanov, L. N. Kondurova, L. Lapina, H. J. Leisi, V. I. Marushenko, A. F. Mezentsev, A. A. Petrunin, A. G. Sergeev, A. I. Smirnov, G. Strassner, V. M. Suvorov, A. Vacchi, and D. Wieser, "Precision measurement of the wavelengths and natural line widths of 3d-2p pionic X-ray transitions in low-Z atoms," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A442, no. 4, pp. 637--66, 1985.

Abstract:The wavelengths and the natural line widths of the 3d-2p transitions in the pionic atoms of /sup 12/C, /sup 16/O, /sup 18/O, /sup 24/MG, /sup 26/Mg, /sup 28/Si and /sup 30/Si have been measured at SIN with a bent-crystal spectrometer. The precision reached in the transition wavelengths ranges from 4 to 18 ppm, and in the widths from 2 to 14%. (34 References).

Laat CTAM de, A. Taal, W. Duinker, A. H. Wapstra, J. Konijn, van Enschut JFM D'Achard, P. David, J. Hartfiel, H. Janszen, Mutius R. von, C. Gugler, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, T. Korgulski, C. Petitjean, and HW. Reist, "Strong interaction effects in pionic /sup 208/Pb," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 162B, no. 1-3, pp. 81--6, 1985.

Abstract:The X-ray spectrum of pionic /sup 208/Pb has been measured. The deduced values of the strong interaction monopole shift with respect to the point Coulomb energy are epsilon /sub 0/(4f)=1.49+or-0.02 and epsilon /sub 0/(3d)=19.4+or-1.2 keV. The observed strong interaction absorption widths of this spherical nucleus are found to be Gamma /sub 0/(4f)=1.25+or-0.02 keV and Gamma /sub 0/(3d)=47.0+or-3.6 keV. Important in the analysis of the pionic 4f level is the intensity balance for this level, giving an additional check on the measured absorption width of the pionic 4f level. For the more peripheral 4f state the measured strong interaction shifts and widths are well explained by standard optical model calculations. The values for the 3d state, however, are not in agreement with these calculations. (18 References).

Laat CTAM de, P. David, H. Janszen, J. Konijn, T. Krogulski, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, and A. Taal, "Anomalous strong interaction effects in pionic /sup 181/Ta, Re and /sup 209/Bi," in *Proceedings of the International Nuclear Physics Conference*, (J. L. Durrell, J. M. Irvine, and GC. Morrison, eds.), 1987.

Abstract:The pionic X-ray spectra of /sup 181/Ta, Re and /sup 209/Bi have been reinvestigated to obtain more accurate results than previous experiments. The standard optical potentials are able to explain the more peripheral pionic atom states in most nuclei, but they fail to describe the strong interaction shifts and widths of the more deeply bound levels. The comparison between theory and experiment for the 4f and 3d pionic level widths are shown. (6 References).

Laat CTAM De, A. Taal, W. Duinker, J. Konijn, Van Enschut JFM D'Achard, P. David, J. Hartfiel, H. Janszen, T. Mayer-Kuckuk, Mutius R. Von, C. Piller, L. A. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, T. Krogulski, C. Petitjean, H. W. Reist, and W. Muller, "The quadrupole moment and strong interaction parameters from muonic and pionic X-ray studies of /sup 237/Np," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 189, no. 1-2, pp. 7--11, 1987.

Abstract:The X-ray spectrum of muonic and pionic /sup 237/Np has been investigated with muons and pions stopped in a NpO/sub 2/ target. The nuclear spectroscopic quadrupole moment was determined to be Q=3.886+or-0.006 b from the splittings of the muonic 5g to 4f hyperfine complexes. The B(E2) down arrow -values for the first and second excited states were evaluated as 3.17+or-0.08 and 2.77+or-0.10 e/sup 2/b/sup 2/, respectively. A comparison between the muonic and pionic 5g to 4f hyperfine complexes yields the strong interaction parameters for the pionic 4f state. For the first time a change of sign as a function of Z for the strong interaction quadrupole shift epsilon /sub 2/(4f) has been observed. The standard optical model predictions agree reasonably well with the measured strong interaction monopole shift epsilon /sub 0/(4f), and width, Gamma /sub 0/(4f), while they disagree with the experimental value for epsilon /sub 2/. A stronger s-wave repulsion in the optical potential could explain this effect. (20 References).

Laat CTAM De, A. Taal, J. Konijn, P. David, H. Hanscheid, F. Risse, Ch Rosel, W. Schrieder, and C. Petitjean, "A study of the strong interaction effects on pionic 3d and 4f levels in /sup 181/Ta, /sup nat/Re, /sup nat/Pt, /sup 197/Au, /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi and /sup 237/Np," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A523, no. 3-4, pp. 453--87, 1991.

Abstract:The pionic X-ray spectra of /sup 181/Ta, /sup nat/Re, /sup nat/Pt, /sup 197/Au, /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi and /sup 237/Np have been investigated to obtain data for a systematical study of the pionic 3d and 4f levels. In order to reduce background the experimental method has been improved by using an array of Compton suppression BGO-shields and neutron time-of-flight discrimination. The widths of the pionic 3d levels are observed to be narrower by a factor 1.5 than theoretical predictions obtained with standard optical potentials. A deviation is also found for the strong interaction quadrupole shift, in /sub 2/, for both the 4f and 3d orbits. A possible explanation for the smaller width, Gamma /sub 0/(3d), can be found by extending the parametrization of the optical potential with absorption terms. (42 References).

Vismes A. de, P. Roussel-Chomaz, and F. Carstoiu, "Global analysis of proton nucleus reaction cross sections," *Physical Review C*, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 064612/1-12, 2000.

Abstract:Glauber theory in the optical limit is used in a global analysis of proton-nucleus reaction cross sections. A large body of data with target mass 9[left angle bracket]or=A[left angle bracket]or=238 and energies 6[left angle bracket]or=E[left angle bracket]or=800 MeV has been analyzed. A good description is obtained in the entire range of mass and energy. The extracted rms radii are consistent with the corresponding values from high energy electron scattering and muonic atom X-ray measurements, as well as with relativistic mean field calculations. (43 References).

B. de {B}eauvoir and others, "Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S--8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 78, pp. 440--443, 1997.

B. de {B}eauvoir and others, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," *European Physical Journal D*, vol. 12, pp. 61--93, 2000.

K. Debertin and R. G. Helmer, *Gamma-- and x--ray spectrometry with semiconductor detectors*, NHPC, 1988.

P. DeCecco, P. Hauser, D. Horvath, F. Kottmann, L. M. Simons, and D. Taqqu, "A new method to produce a negative muon beam of keV energies," *Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip.*, vol. 394, pp. 287-294, 1997.

Abstract:A method is described by which muons are decelerated from MeV kinetic energies to energies below 50 keV inside a magnetic focusing device (cyclotron trap) and then extracted by an electric field into a magnetic guiding channel. Test measurements were performed which resulted in about 10(4)/s extracted negative muons, in reasonable agreement with MonteCarlo simulations. Using this method, muon beams in the energy range of 10-50 keV with intensities up to 10(5) mu(-)/s will be available in the near future.

M. Decker, W. Sandhas, and VB. Belyaev, "Muonic three-body Coulomb systems in the hyperspherical approach," *Physical Review A*, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 726--36, 1996.

Abstract:Muonic three-body bound states and resonances are treated within a hyperspherical adiabatic expansion scheme. A new method for determining the basis functions of this expansion is developed: decomposing these functions into Faddeev-type components, an equivalent treatment of all two-body contributions, and thus the correct asymptotics, are guaranteed. This approach is characterized by its high symmetry and a considerable reduction of the numerical effort. Using partial wave and B-spline expansions for the components, wave functions and energies of the dt mu and d/sup 3/He mu molecules are calculated in extreme and uncoupled adiabatic approximation. For dt mu good agreement with alternative calculations, which are based on a much higher number of expansion functions, is found, and the results for the d/sup 3/He mu system are rather close to variational calculations. (32 References).

Rosso A. del, M. Augsburger, V. F. Boreiko, V. M. Bystritsky, M. Filipowicz, O. Huot, R. Jacot-Guillarmod, P. E. Knowles, F. Mulhauser, V. N. Pavlov, C. Petitjean, N. P. Popov, V. G. Sandukovsky, L. A. Schaller, H. Schneuwly, V. A. Stolupin, Y-A Thalmann, S. Tresch, and J. Wozniak, "Measurement of the fusion rate in mu d/sup 3/He," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 118, no. 1-4, pp. 177--82, 1999.

Abstract:Many atomic and molecular processes may occur after a muon has been stopped in a mixture of hydrogen and helium isotopes. In particular, the muonic molecule mu d/sup 3/He can be formed. This molecule either decays or undergoes muon catalyzed fusion. Theory predicts a fusion rate much lower than the decay rate; moreover, the various theoretical predictions differ from each other by several orders of magnitude. With the experiment presented here we intend to measure the effective fusion rate via the detection of the 14.7 MeV fusion proton. A new target and gas mixing system, designed at JINR, were used in a ten-day test run at PSI. The fusion protons and products from other transfer and background reactions were measured with several different detectors (plastic scintillators, BGO, germanium, neutron, and silicon detectors). The formation rate of the mu d/sup 3/He molecule and an upper limit for the effective fusion rate have been measured and are presented here. (10 References).

L. Delker, G. Dugan, C. S. Wu, D. C. Lu, A. J. Caffrey, Y. T. Cheng, and YK. Lee, "Experimental verification of the relativistic fine-structure term of the Klein-Gordon equation in pionic titanium atoms," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 89--92, 1979.

Abstract:A newly designed, large-aperture and high-resolution bent-crystal spectrometer has been used to observe high-intensity sources of pionic X-rays. The pionic X-ray source was a target of natural titanium which was placed adjacent to a copper pion-production target in the external beam of the Nevis synchrocyclotron. The energy difference between the 5g to 4f and 5f to 4d transitions in pionic titanium was measured to be 87.6 +or- 1.8 eV. Comparison with the prediction of the Klein-Gordon equation is made. (12 References).

A. Dellafiore, "On the giant resonance and quasielastic nuclear excitation in electron scattering and muon capture," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A282, no. 3, pp. 493--517, 1977.

Abstract:A simple model of nuclear excitation which allows a simultaneous description of collective and quasielastic processes is developed, and applied to electron scattering and muon capture. Values of free parameters are determined from inelastic electron scattering and used to calculate muon capture rates. (30 References).

A. Dellafiore, "Effects of kinematical constraints in nuclear muon capture," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 82B, no. 2, pp. 155--9, 1979.

Abstract:Muon capture is discussed in the framework of linear response theory. This approach allows a general discussion of the role played by kinematical constraints in determining which features of nuclear dynamics are actually probed in the capture event. It is argued that the muon momentum spread can increase the capture rate at large energy transfer. (14 References).

A. Deloff and J. Law, "Kaon-nucleus interaction at low energies (kaonic atoms)," *Physical Review C*, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1688--96, 1974.

Abstract:The interaction is obtained by folding complex Gaussian K N potentials, whose depths are fitted to K N scattering lengths, into the nuclear density distributions. A value of the range of the potentials is obtained by fitting K-/sup 4/He cross sections. Kaonic atom level shifts and widths are then calculated using the interaction in the Klein-Gordon equation and are consistent with experimental values. (24 References).

A. Deloff and J. Law, "Kaonic atoms level shifts: potential approach," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 544-5, 1976.

Abstract:Presents, for a large number of atoms, kaonic atom level shifts and widths calculated using two different forms of effective kaon-nucleus potential-one based on the multiple scattering theory and the other derived from the effective potential for KN interaction. (4 References).

A. Deloff and J. Law, "Kaonic atoms level shifts: multiple scattering approach," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 546-7, 1976.

Abstract:Presents, for a large number of atoms, kaonic atom level shifts and widths calculated in a multiple scattering formalism which relates the K-nucleus scattering length to the Kp and Kn scattering lengths and the 2l moments of the nuclear density. (4 References).

A. Deloff, "S-matrix approach to hadronic atom level shifts," *Physical Review C*, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 730--6, 1976.

Abstract:A nonperturbative S-matrix approach is used to express the complex energy level shift in a hadronic atom in terms of the logarithmic derivative of the regular wave function at the nuclear boundary. A model-independent linear relation is derived between the shift and the zero-energy hadron-nucleus scattering phase shift. Illustrative model calculations for the k/sup -/-/sup 32/S atom show that the method is sufficiently fast and accurate to be used in all realistic calculations of the levels shifts from given equivalent nuclear potentials. (16 References).

A. Deloff, "Coherent nucleus approximation in kaonic atoms theory," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 436-7, 1979.

Abstract:The author shows that the phenomenological kaon-nucleus optical potential is derivable from microscopic theory. (3 References).

A. Deloff and J. Law, "Strong-interaction effects in kaonic hydrogen," *Physical Review C*, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1597--9, 1979.

Abstract:It is argued that Coulomb corrections to the K/sup -/p scattering length may affect the latter significantly and reduce the strong-interaction effects in kaonic hydrogen to below the observable level. (8 References).

A. Deloff, "Low-energy kaon-nucleus interaction," *Physical Review C*, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1516--24, 1980.

Abstract:Low-energy kaon-nucleus interaction has been considered in the framework of multiple scattering theory as formulated by Watson (1953) and by Kerman, McManus, and Thaler (1951). A kaon-nucleus optical potential of the shape of the nuclear density is shown to follow from theory under the assumption that the nuclear excited states may be neglected and that the range of the underlying microscopic KN interaction is small in comparison with the nuclear radius. The depth of the effective potential is a nonlinear function of the KN scattering lengths and depends upon a single parameter related to the unknown range of the KN interaction. This parameter has been adjusted to the available kaonic atom data. The resulting potential has been used to evaluate the kaonic atom level shifts and widths and the calculated quantities are compared with experiment. (27 References).

J. Delorme, "On the elementary-particle treatment of muon capture and radiative pion capture in /sup 6/Li," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. B19, no. 2, pp. 573--88, 1970.

Abstract:The elementary-particle approach to muon capture and radiative pion capture in nuclei is here discussed for the particular case of the transition between the ground states of /sup 6/Li and /sup 6/He. Its validity is proved by comparison with standard calculations in the impulse approximation. The calculated capture rates are found to be consistent with the experimental data in contra- distinction to previous estimates. (33 References).

J. Delorme and M. Ericson, "Muon capture rate in /sup 6/Li and the PCAC hypothesis," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 32B, no. 6, pp. 443--4, 1970.

Abstract:The recent claim by Kim and Mintz (1970) that there is evidence for large renormalization effects in the pseudo scalar form factor from the transition /sup 6/Li to /sup 6/He in muon capture is critically discussed.

A. V. Demianov, V. S. Evseev, S. Kapusta, T. N. Mamedov, V. S. Roganov, YuV Obukhov, V. I. Kudinov, A. A. Evdokimov, and OP. Tkacheva, "Measurement of the probability of atomic capture and depolarization of negative muons in high-temperature superconductors," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 65, no. 1-4, pp. 1035--8, 1990.

Abstract:The possibility of investigating high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) by the mu SR method with negative muons is discussed in the paper. The results of measurement of the probability of negative muon capture by oxygen and residual polarization of muons in the 1s-state of oxygen in some HTSC at room temperature are reported. (5 References).

D. De{M}ille and M. G. Kozlov, "Stark--induced electric dipole amplitudes for hyperfine transitions," *physics Preprint*, vol. 9901034, 1998.

D. L. Demin, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. V. Filchenkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, D. V. Migachev, A. D. Konin, A. I. Rudenko, V. T. Sidorov, YuG Zhestkov, V. G. Zinov, J. D. Davies, V. R. Bom, and Eijk CWE. van, "Measurement of the spin and temperature dependence of dd mu molecule formation rate in solid and liquid deuterium," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 13-19, 1996.

Abstract:The DD mu molecule formation rate is experimentally measured for the two hyperfine states of the D mu -atom in the temperature range of 5-30 K. Results are consistent with a preliminary measurement by the TRIUMF group and contradict theoretical predictions. The work has been performed on the JINR phasotron (Dubna). (8 References).

D. L. Demin, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. V. Filchenkov, V. G. Grebinnik, A. D. Konin, D. V. Migachev, M. E. Ravodin, A. I. Rudenko, V. T. Sidorov, YuG Zhestkov, and VG. Zinov, "Novel experimental method for the investigation of multiple muon catalysis processes in an H/D/T mixture," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 591-7, 1996.

Abstract:The original experimental method for further mu CF study in double, D/T, and triple, H/D/T, mixtures of high density is considered. This method is the basis of the international project sponsored by the ISTC. (4 References).

D. L. Demin, V. P. Dzhelepov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, A. D. Konin, A. I. Rudenko, YuA Sorokina, YuG Zhestkov, V. G. Zinov, and EP. Krasnoperov, "Solid deuterium target," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 101-102, no. , pp. 583-9, 1996.

Abstract:An installation is made to investigate the temperature and spin dependence of the DD mu {"}meso{"}-molecular formation rate in deuterium in solid, liquid and gaseous phases. It is composed of a target cooled with helium of a volume equal to 280 cm/sup 3/ and target thermostabilization and gas-handling systems. The temperature of the target in the range 5-40 K can be fixed with an accuracy of 0.2 K. (4 References).

D. L. Demin, A. E. Drebushko, V. P. Dzhelepov, V. V. Filchenkov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, A. D. Konin, D. V. Migachev, A. I. Rudenko, V. T. Sidorov, YuG Zhestkov, V. G. Zinov, J. D. Davies, V. R. Born, and Eijk CWE. van, "Measurement of the spin and temperature dependence of the dd mu molecule formation rate in solid and liquid deuterium," *Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 1163--73, 1997.

Abstract:The dd mu molecule formation rates have been measured from the two hyperfine states of the d mu atom in the temperature range T=5-30 K. Results are consistent with the measurement of the TRIUMF group at T=3 K and contradict theoretical predictions. This work was performed on the JINR phasotron (Dubna). (23 References).

D. L. Demin and VI. Pryanichnikov, "Cryogenic reactor for the INS project," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, no. 1-4, pp. 345--7, 1999.

Abstract:A feasible scheme of a cryogenic reactor based on muon catalyzed fusion for an intense 14 MeV neutron source (INS) is considered. (11 References).

D. L. Demin, V. P. Dzhelepov, N. N. Grafov, V. G. Grebinnik, S. V. Medved', V. I. Pryanichnikov, V. A. Utkin, and VG. Zinov, "Liquid tritium target," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 119, no. 1-4, pp. 349--51, 1999.

Abstract:The concentration dependence study of the formation rate of the muon molecules DT mu in equilibrium double D/T and triple H/D/T liquid mixtures of hydrogen isotopes requires an installation consisting of a target of volume 30 cm/sup 3/ with helium cooling and a thermostabilization system. The temperature of the target, close to 22 K is fixed with an accuracy of 0.1 K. (9 References).

YuN Demkov, D. F. Zaretskii, F. F. Karpeshin, M. A. Listengarten, and VN. Ostrovskii, "Distribution of muons among muonic atom fission fragments," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 287--90, 1978.

Abstract:The probability of occurrence of muons in the light and heavy fragments following spontaneous fission of a muonic atom is calculated. (9 References).

A. S. Denisov, A. V. Zhelamkov, YuM Ivanov, L. P. Lapina, P. M. Levchenko, V. D. Malakhov, A. A. Petrunin, A. G. Sergeev, A. I. Smirnov, V. M. Suvorov, and OL. Fedin, "New measurements of the mass of the K/sup -/ meson," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 557--61, 1991.

Abstract:The energy of the 4f-3d transition in the K/sup -/ /sup 12/C atom has been measured with the help of a Cauchois crystal diffraction spectrometer at the proton synchrotron of the Institute of High-Energy Physics. A new value has been found for the mass of K/sup -/ meson: 493.6960+or-0.0059 MeV. This figure is significantly different from the previously accepted value. (11 References).

P. Depommier, D. S. Armstrong, G. Azuelos, W. Bertl, M. Blecher, C-Q Chen, B. Doyle, T. P. Gorringe, P. Gumplinger, M. D. Hasinoff, G. Jonkmans, J. A. MacDonald, S. C. McDonald, M. Munro, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, B. C. Robertson, E. Saettler, D. G. Sample, C. Sigler, G. N. Taylor, and DH. Wright, "Observation of radiative muon capture on the proton," *Chinese Journal of Physics*, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1247-60, 1994.

Abstract:Radiative muon capture on the proton has been observed for the first time at TRIUMF. (22 References).

P. Deponmier, S. Ahmad, D. S. Armstrong, G. Azuelos, W. Bertl, M. Blecher, C-Q Chen, Egidy T. von, T. P. Corringe, M. D. Hasinoff, R. Henderson, A. J. Larabee, J. A. Macdonald, S. C. McDonald, J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, B. C. Robertson, A. Serna-Angel, G. N. Taylor, D. H. Wright, and N-S. Zhang, "Radiative muon capture on hydrogen and nuclei," in *Progress in Nuclear Physics*, (W-YP Hwang, Lee Shih-Chang, Lee Chien-Er, and DJ. Ernst, eds.), pp. 283--9, 1991.

Abstract:A status report is given on the experimental program performed at TRIUMF on radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen and several nuclei. (37 References).

K. Derrick and others, "$\pi ^-$ Capture in hydrogen--deuterium and hydrogen--helium mixtures," *Physical Review*, vol. 151, pp. 82--86, 1966.

F. A. de Saavedra, E. Buendia, F. J. Galvez, and A. Sarsa, "Variational calculation of some S-states of Coulomb three-body systems," *Eur. Phys. J. D*, vol. 13, pp. 201-206, 2001.

Abstract:A generalized Hylleraas-type basis set with three nonlinear parameters is proposed to study three-body systems interacting via coulomb forces within the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. This basis set improves the rate of convergence with respect to previous ones, specially for nonsymmetric systems and excited states of two electron atoms: Accurate binding energies and other properties for S-states of helium-like ions, muonic molecules and the positronium negative ion are reported.

P. Desgrolard, PAM Guichon, and J. Joseph, "Muon capture rates for A=6-14 nuclei," *Nuovo Cimento A*, vol. 43A, no. 3, pp. 475-84, 1978.

Abstract:Total and partial muon capture rates are calculated within the frameworks of the nuclear 1p-shell model and impulse approximation. A systematic study is achieved with the available effective interactions for A=6-14 nuclei. A strong model dependence is exhibited particularly for the partial rates of nuclei in the middle of the shell. The Sussex parametrization yields results which are significantly different from those given by the Cohen and Kurath interaction (1965) for B and C nuclei. (38 References).

P. Desgrolard and PAM. Guichon, "One-pion exchange currents effect on partial muon capture rates for 1p shell nuclei," *Physical Review C*, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 120--8, 1979.

Abstract:Allowed partial transition rates are calculated for muon capture by nuclei with A=6-14. The nuclear 1p shell model is used and the corrections to the impulse approximation due to exchange currents are estimated with the one-pion exchange model. Whereas the capture rates themselves are strongly dependent on the wave functions, similar amounts of exchange current corrections are obtained with all nuclear shell model variants. These percentages vary in a smooth way with the mass number from approximately=-2% for A=6 to approximately=-20% for A=14. It is found that the scalar and tensor parts of the current are responsible for the main contributions to the corrections. (35 References).

RD. Deslattes, "Improved X-ray and gamma -ray measurements have several applications," *Dimensions*, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 18--21, 1980.

Abstract:Describes work done by the National Bureau of Standards (USA) into improved X-ray and gamma -ray measurements. The impetus for this work came from discrepancies between theory and experiment in the quantum electrodynamics (QED) model of muonic atoms; thus the time was ripe for a re-evaluation of the gamma -ray reference lines. (0 References).

RD. Deslattes, "Applications of X-ray interferometry," in *Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants II. Proceedings of the Second International Conference (NBS-SP-617)*, (B. N. Taylor and WD. Phillips, eds.), pp. 303-11, 1984.

Abstract:The review begins by summarizing work at the PTB and NBS on optical interferometry of (220) repeat distances in samples of monocrystalline Si. Distribution of such an initial calibration to other samples and other species is briefly mentioned. The main emphasis is on subsequent applications of these crystals toward determination of fundamental constants, especially N/sub A/ and extension of the congruent electromagnetic scale to gamma -rays has so far been carried out at NBS. In the last mentioned case, applications emerge which include tests of QED in muonic atoms, determination of mass values for the pion and the kaon, and tests of relativistic self-consistent field calculations for inner vacancy states in atoms. (23 References).

J. P. Deutsch, L. Grenacs, J. Lehmann, P. Lipnik, and PC. Macq, "Measurement of muon partial capture rates in /sup 16/O and the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant in muon capture," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 29b, no. 1, pp. 66--9, 1969.

Abstract:The partial rates in the capture of muons by /sup 16/O were measured for the J pi =0/sup -/ and 1/sup -/ excited bound states of /sup 16/N. The energy spectrum and the time dependence of the gamma -rays emitted by the target were observed using a Ge(Li) detector. On the basis of the Rho-Migdal theory (5), the observed lambda /sub 0//sup -// lambda /sub 1//sup -/ ratio led for the induced pseudoscalar coupling to a value of C/sub p/=10.6+or-1.0. (15 References).

JP. Deutsch, "Remarks on muon capture in complex nuclei," in *Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on high-energy physics and nuclear structure*, (S. Devons, ed.), pp. 136-43, 1970.

J. Deutsch, "Nuclear structure information from particle-emission in muon capture," in *Topical Meeting on Intermediate Energy Physics*, pp. 59-61, 1974.

Abstract:A list of 26 references is presented broadly classified into neutron emission and proton emission each of which is subdivided into three groups. (26 References).

JP. Deutsch, "'Overtures' in muon capture," in *Progress in Particle & Nuclear Physics*, pp. 247-52, 1978.

Abstract:The role of the axial current in nuclear muon capture is outlined. The author proposes some novel approaches to solve some of the problems in the conserved isovector current hypothesis. (22 References).

J. P. Deutsch, M. Lebrun, and R. Prieels, "Emission of heavy neutrinos in muon capture," *Physical Review D*, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1644--7, 1983.

Abstract:The possible use of various muon-capture observables is assessed in the search for heavy neutrinos mixed in the dominant variety. Existing data on the triton recoil spectrum measured in the reaction mu /sup -/+/sup 3/He to nu /sub mu /+/sup 3/H readily allow the exclusion of the emission of heavy neutrinos of mass m/sub nu j/ between 60 and 72 MeV/c/sup 2/ with probability higher than mod U/sub mu j/ mod /sup 2/ approximately=0.01. This complements limits on mod U/sub mu j/ mod /sup 2/ obtained from the reactions pi to mu nu /sub mu / and K to mu nu /sub mu /. (19 References).

J. Deutsch, "Time dependence of neutron polarization in hydrogen muon capture: a possible experiment for LAMPF II?," in *Proceedings of the 3rd LAMPF II Workshop*, (J. C. Allred, T. S. Bhatia, K. Ruminer, and B. Talley, eds.), pp. 628--34, 1983.

Abstract:At the 1982 LAMPF II Workshop the author briefly outlined a great number of problems in muon capture which justify both renewed efforts and the development of improved experimental facilities. In this talk the author focuses on the precision measurement of the muon-nucleon couplings in second-generation hydrogen muon-capture experiments. (20 References).

J. Deutsch, J. Egger, Gh Gregoire, H. Kaspar, C. Petitjean, W. Reist, and B. Tasiaux, "Search for massive neutrinos in muon-capture: development of a gas scintillation detector," *Sin Newsletter*, vol. 16, no. , pp. 26-8, 1984.

Abstract:A measurement of the triton recoil-spectrum from the reaction mu /sup -/+/sup 3/He+/sup 3/H+ nu /sub mu / should allow the observation of possible heavy neutrinos in the mass range 30-90 MeV. The ideal tool for the determination of the kinetic energy of the triton in a gas scintillation proportional chamber (GSPC). Two problems have to be solved in building a Helium-GSPC. The first one is that there is a mismatch of the emission spectrum (600-1000 AA) with the sensitive region of the photomultiplier. The goal of these tests is to show that small quantities of nitrogen (100-5000 p.p.m.) added to the gas can replace the normally used wavelength shifters. Secondly, with its quenching property, nitrogen should prevent the UV-light to reach the walls of the counter where these hard photons from He/sub 2//sup +/ can cause photoeffect and liberate new electrons. (11 References).

J. Deutsch, "Nuclear muon capture," in *Muonic Atoms and Molecules*, (L. A. Schaller and C. Petitjean, eds.), (CH--4010, Basel), pp. 3--11, 1993.

J. Deutsch, "Nuclear weak interaction at SC energies: the muon probe," *Physics Reports*, vol. 225, no. 1-3, pp. 133--4, 1993.

Abstract:With the increasing sophistication of the tools at the author's disposal, aspects of increasing complexity could be investigated. The investigations started with total capture-rate measurements in nuclei and also in hydrogen, both liquid and gaseous. At a later stage one could measure partial capture rates to well-defined nuclear levels or the intensity and decay spectra of various nuclear break-up channels. The rare process of radiative muon capture was also discovered and so was the use of mu -mesic X-rays in mapping out electromagnetic properties of the nucleus. At a later stage the muon and nuclear spin (both that of the capturing and of the produced nucleus) were introduced in the investigations; the hyperfine effect was discovered and various correlation experiments became possible. Actually most of the modern muon-capture experiments use either these correlation techniques, explore the rare radiative muon-capture reactions or search for muon-capture channels forbidden by the standard model. (0 References).

V. Devanathan and R. Parthasarathy, "Asymmetry of emitted neutrons in muon capture," in *Nuclear physics and solid state physics symposium. (abstracts only)*, 1972.

Abstract:The asymmetry and spectrum of the emitted neutrons in the capture of polarized muons by complex spin zero nuclei are studied, using Fujii-Primakoff Hamiltonian for the process mu /sup -/+p to n+/sup nu / mu and assuming shell model for the nucleus. Momentum dependent terms are included and the effect of these terms are studied by comparing with the result of momentum independent terms. The outgoing neutrons are assumed to be plane waves but corrections for interaction with the recoil nucleus are taken into account by modifying the neutron momentum inside the nucleus as suggested by the nuclear matter theory. Numerical results are presented for /sup 40/Ca, /sup 32/S, /sup 28/Si, /sup 16/O, and /sup 12/C and compared with the available experimental data. The dependence of the asymmetry on the energy of outgoing neutron and on the Induced pseudo-scalar coupling constant are studied and it is found that a large value for the Induced pseudo-scalar coupling constant gives a high negative value for the asymmetry.

V. Devanathan and R. Parthasarathy, "Polarization of the emitted neutron in muon capture," in *Nuclear physics and solid state physics symposium. (abstracts only)*, 1972.

Abstract:The polarization of the emitted neutrons resulting from the capture of muons by complex nuclei is investigated and it is pointed out that this study provides valuable information which is difficult to obtain from any other source. Starting from the effective muon capture interaction Hamiltonian of Fujii and Primakoff, the sum and average over lepton spins are performed. The resulting nuclear matrix elements are evaluated and expressed in terms of density matrix rho defined in the spin space of the emitted neutron. Then the longitudinal polarization of the emitted neutron is given by trace ( sigma , n rho )/trace rho , where n is the unit vector denoting the direction of emitted neutron. The expression for polarization involves the neutrino direction and since neutrino is not observed, an integration over its direction is performed. Numerical results are presented for /sup 40/Ca, /sup 32/S and /sup 28/Si.

V. Devanathan, R. Parthasarathy, and G. Ramachandran, "Polarization of the emitted neutron in muon capture," *Annals of Physics*, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 428--44, 1972.

Abstract:The polarization of the emitted neutrons resulting from the capture of muons by complex nuclei is investigated and it is pointed out that this study provides valuable information which is difficult to obtain from any other source. Starting from the effective muon-capture interaction Hamiltonian of Fujii and Primakoff, the sum and average over lepton spins are performed. The resulting nuclear matrix elements are evaluated and expressed in terms of density matrix rho defined in the spin space of the emitted neutron. Then the longitudinal polarization of the emitted neutron is given by Tr( delta .n rho )/Tr rho , where n is the unit vector denoting the direction of emitted neutron. The expression for polarization involves the neutrino direction and since a neutriino is not observed, an integration over its direction is performed. Numerical results are presented for /sup 40/Ca, /sup 32/S and /sup 28/Si. (34 References).

V. Devanathan, R. Parthasarathy, and PR. Subramanian, "Recoil nuclear polarization in muon capture," *Annals of Physics*, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 291--302, 1972.

Abstract:The polarization of recoil nuclei resulting from the absorption of polarized muons is investigated. The reaction mu /sup -/+/sup 12/C(J/sup P/=0/sup +/) to nu /sub mu /+/sup 12/B(J/sup P/=1/sup +/) is chosen for the study since in this case the transition probability to the low-lying excited bound states of /sup 12/B is found to be negligible when compared to the transition probability to the ground state of /sup 12/B(J/sup P/=1/sup +/). Numerical calculations are done using both the single particle j-j coupling shell model and the general 1p-shell wavefunctions and it is found that the polarization of /sup 12/B is insensitive to the nuclear model although the capture rate depends very much on it. (22 References).

V. Devanathan, R. Parthasarathy, and PR. Subramanian, "Recoil nuclear polarization in muon capture," in *Nuclear physics and solid state physics symposium. (abstracts only)*, 1972.

Abstract:The polarization of recoil nuclei resulting from the absorption of polarized muons is investigated and it is shown to be always a vector polarization in the direction of muon polarization if the recoil direction is not observed. The reaction mu /sup -/ + /sup 12/C (J/sup P/ = 0/sup +/) to /sup nu / mu + /sup 12/B (J/sup P/ = 1/sup +/) is chosen for the study since in this case the transition probability to the low-lying excited bound states of /sup 12/B is found to be negligible when compared to the transition probability to the ground state of /sup 12/B (J/sup P/ = 1/sup +/). Numerical calculations are done using both the single particle j-j coupling shell model and the general lp-shell wave functions and it is found that the polarization of /sup 12/B is insensitive to the nuclear model although the capture rate depends very much on it.

V. Devanathan and PR. Subramanian, "Cascade process in muon capture and gamma-neutrino angular correlations," *Annals of Physics*, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 25--43, 1975.

Abstract:A nuclear cascade process resulting from muon capture and subsequent deexcitation by gamma emission is considered. Possible observable quantities such as the final nuclear polarization and the gamma-neutrino angular correlation coefficients are investigated. It is shown that the nuclear transition with the spin sequence 0 to J/sub I/ to 0 is very favorable for study since the angular correlation coefficients in this case are not affected by the uncertainties in the gamma decay matrix elements. For a more restricted transition with J/sub I/=1, there exist some simple relations connecting the asymmetry coefficient of the recoil nucleus emitting the gamma ray and the gamma-neutrino angular correlation coefficients. These relations are shown to be independent of both the nuclear structure and the muon capture coupling constants. (24 References).

V. Devanathan, P. R. Subramanian, R. D. Graves, and H. Uberall, "Partial muon capture rates in /sup 12/C from the generalized Helm model," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 57B, no. 3, pp. 241--4, 1975.

Abstract:Partial capture rates in the reaction mu /sup -/+/sup 12/C to nu /sub mu /+/sup 12/B are calculated using the generalized Helm model. The results are in good agreement with the recent experimental data. (19 References).

V. Devanathan and PR. Subramanian, "Recoil nuclear polarization in muon capture-effect of target thickness and finite range of nuclear recoils," *Pramana-Journal of Physics*, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 105--9, 1981.

Abstract:The effect of target thickness and finite range of nuclear recoils is investigated in the study of average and longitudinal polarizations of recoiling nuclei resulting from the capture of muons by spin zero target nuclei. (11 References).

S. Devons and I. Duerdoth, "Muonic atoms," in *Nuclear physics, Advances in Vol.2*, no. (M. Baranger and E. Vogt, eds.), pp. 295-418, 1969.

Abstract:Reviews the work of the past few years, which exploits the greater precision and higher resolution now possible and the attempts to interpret the new experimental results. While the implications of precision and resolution are distinct, they are not unrelated. One can deal sequentially with different aspects of the subject according according to the degrees of refinement which they require in treating the muon-nucleus interaction. Starting with the crudest interaction, that of a nuclear charge Ze with the muon, one treats successively: the influence of the finite extent of this charge; the multipole fields produced by the distributed nuclear charges and currents (treated as static fields); small modifications to such approximations attributable to the general dynamical properties of the nucleus; phenomena where both internal nuclear motion and muon motion must be treated together; and, finally, as an extreme example, situations where it is primarily a nuclear change with the muon playing a relatively passive role that is observed. (158 References).

W. Dey, B. Aas, P. Ebersold, R. Engfer, H. J. Leisi, H. K. Walter, F. Scheck, and WU. Schroeder, "Determination of nuclear spectroscopic quadrupole moment from muonic /sup 175/Lu and observation of quadrupole-hyperfine splitting in pionic /sup 175/Lu," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 924--5, 1972.

Abstract:"Abstract only given, substantially as follows. A new method to measure nuclear spectroscopic quadrupole moments is to observe the quadrupole splitting of excited states of the cascade in muonic atoms for which the splitting is large enough to be observed and at the same time the point-nucleus approximation is satisfied. Furthermore, the field gradient of the muon is precisely known and the magnetic dipole interaction can usually be neglected. From an experiment performed at the muon-channel of the CERN Synchrocyclotron with a parasitic beam, the authors have observed the quadrupole splitting of the 4f-3d X-ray transition in muonic /sup 175/Lu. A preliminary evaluation of the data gives a nuclear spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the ground state of /sup 175/Lu

W. Dey, P. Ebersold, H. J. Leisi, F. Scheck, F. Boehm, R. Engfer, R. Link, R. Michaelsen, B. Robert-Tissot, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, W. U. Schroder, J. L. Vuilleumier, H. K. Walter, and A. Zehnder, "Nuclear spectroscopic quadrupole moments of /sup 175/Lu and /sup 235/U: a new approach (using muonic atoms)," *Journal of the Physical Society of Japan*, vol. 34, no. , pp. 582-3, 1973.

Abstract:The authors propose to measure spectroscopic (model-independent) quadrupole moments from the quadrupole splittings of excited states of muonic atoms for which the mean muon radius is large compared to the nuclear radius but a quadrupole splitting still can be observed experimentally. The dominant part of the quadrupole coupling constant may then be evaluated in the point nucleus approximation. The nuclear finite size effect, nuclear polarization and also effects of the dynamic quadrupole interaction are then small corrections. The splitting can thus be calculated from the spectroscopic quadrupole moment Q and the eigenfunction of the bound muon. They have observed the quadrupole splittings on the 5g-4f and the 4f-3d X-ray transitions in muonic /sup 175/Lu and /sup 235/U. The energy spectra are presented and analysed. (6 References).

W. Dey, P. Ebersold, H. J. Leisi, F. Scheck, F. Boehm, R. Engfer, R. Link, R. Michaelsen, B. Robert-Tissot, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, W. U. Schroder, J. L. Vuilleumier, H. K. Walter, and A. Zehnder, "Search for strong interaction quadrupole effect in the pionic atom of /sup 175/Lu," *Journal of the Physical Society of Japan*, vol. 34, no. , pp. 584-5, 1973.

Abstract:The authors have observed the quadrupole splitting on the 5g-4f X-ray transition in pionic /sup 175/Lu. The intensities of the hfs lines have been calculated assuming a statistical distribution of the initial states. For all components Gaussian line profiles were assumed with the width as a free parameter. The only other important parameter in the fit is the effective quadrupole moment. They obtain Q/sub eff/=3.70+or-0.04b. (4 References).

W. Dey, P. Ebersold, H. J. Leisi, F. Scheck, H. K. Walter, and A. Zehnder, "Spectroscopic quadrupole moments from muonic X-ray transitions and the effect of strong interaction in pionic atoms. (/sup 175/Lu atoms)," *Helvetica Physica Acta*, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 93--6, 1974.

Abstract:Experiments on the quadrupole splitting in muonic and pionic /sup 175/Lu atoms were evaluated. The spectroscopic quadrupole moment was found to be (3.63/sub -0.07//sup +0.06/) b. The mean width of the pionic 5g-4f transition in /sup 175/Lu was shown to be beta 0.15/sub -0.05//sup +0.10/ keV. (4 References).

W. Dey, P. Ebersold, H. J. Leisi, F. Scheck, H. K. Walter, and A. Zehnder, "Nuclear spectroscopic ground-state quadrupole moments from muonic atoms: the quadrupole moment of /sup 175/Lu," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A326, no. 2-3, pp. 418--44, 1979.

Abstract:The authors have measured the quadrupole splittings of the 4f to 3d, 5f to 3d and 5g to 4f X-ray transitions in muonic /sup 175/Lu. These states whose size is large compared to the nuclear dimensions are very much hydrogen-like. Hence the quadrupole splittings is almost exclusively determined by the nuclear spectroscopic quadrupole moment Q. The small corrections due to the finite nuclear size, dynamical nuclear excitation and nuclear polarization, vacuum polarization and the M1 and E4 hyperfine interactions are investigated in detail. The ground-state quadrupole moment of /sup 175/Lu is determined to be Q=+3.49+or-0.02 b. The prediction of the rigid rotar model is tested by combining Q with recently measured B(E2) values. From the h.f.s. of the 3d/sub 5/2/ state the hexadecapole moment of /sup 175/Lu is estimated to be Pi approximately=0+or-0.02 b/sup 2/. The quadrupole structure of the 3d+or-2p and 2p+or-1s transitions have also been measured. By the method described, precise spectroscopic quadrupole moments from muonic atoms can be obtained. (38 References).

Giacomo A. Di, "A sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics the 2S-2P energy difference of muonic hydrogen," *Nuclear Physics B*, vol. b11, no. 2, pp. 411--27, 1969.

Abstract:The 2S and 2P energy levels of muonic hydrogen are evaluated with an accuracy of the order of the width produced by the 2P-1S decay. It is shown that a measurement of the 2S-2P transition frequencies with this accuracy would give a precise determination of order alpha and order alpha /sup 2/ electron vacuum polarization effects, thus providing a very good test of quantum electrodynamics. (17 References).

T. H. V. T. Dias, F. P. Santos, A. D. Stauffer, and C. A. N. Conde, "Monte Carlo simulation of x--ray absorption and electron drift in gaseous xenon," *Physical Review A*, vol. 48, pp. 2887--2902, 1993.

S. A. Diddams and others, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300THz femtosecond laser comb," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 84, pp. 5102--5105, 2000.

H. Dilger, E. Roduner, M. Stolmar, I. D. Reid, D. G. Fleming, D. J. Arseneau, J. J. Pan, M. Senba, and M. Shelley, "Why ALC mu SR is superior for gas-phase radical spectroscopy," *Hyperfine Interactions*, vol. 106, no. 1-4, pp. 137--42, 1997.

Abstract:ALC mu SR spectra of the muonated ethyl and cyclohexadienyl radicals in the gas phase are reported. They have surprisingly narrow lines for a magnetic resonance type technique under conditions near ambient temperature and near 1 atmosphere pressure. The main reason for this behavior is the dramatic reduction of electron spin relaxation in high magnetic fields. (14 References).

M. Dineikhan and GV. Efimov, "Quantum mechanics of bound states in the oscillator representation," *Fizika Elementarnykh Chastits i Atomnogo Yadra*, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 651--718, 1995.

Abstract:A method is formulated for calculating the energies of two- and three-body systems of ground states and of orbital and radial excited states. The perturbation series is rapidly convergent; i.e., the corrections associated with the interaction Hamiltonian are sufficiently small. In particular, the results of calculations for anharmonic potentials show that the zeroth approximation of the oscillator representation agrees with the exact values with good accuracy. Methods of calculating the energy spectra of relativistic Schrodinger equations are presented. The region of stability is established for a three-body Coulomb system of particles with unit charge as a function of the particle masses. The ground-state energies of muonic molecules of light nuclei are calculated, and the critical value of the nuclear charge is determined. (61 References).

M. Dineykhan and GV. Efimov, "Mesic molecules of light nuclei in the oscillator representation," *Modern Physics Letters A*, vol. 9, no. 23, pp. 2083--95, 1994.

Abstract:The mesic molecules (H mu N/sub z/), where H is the hydrogen isotopes (p,d,t) and N/sub z/ are nuclei with charges Z=2,3,4,... and masses M/sub z/=2Zm/sub p/, are studied. The energy values of the ground state for the mesic molecules of light nuclei have been calculated by using the oscillator representation method. The dependence of the binding energies of the muonic molecules on nuclear charges and the critical values of nuclear charges are obtained. (12 References).

M. Dineykhan and GV. Efimov, "The oscillator representation and the stability of three-body Coulomb systems," *Few-Body Systems*, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 59--90, 1994.

Abstract:Within nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the Wick-ordering method, called the oscillator representation, is suggested for calculating the energy spectrum for a wide class of potentials allowing the existence of a bound state. As test cases, anharmonic (V(r)=r/sup 2 sigma /) and screened Coulomb potentials are considered. In particular, the method is applied to three-body Coulomb systems to obtain the dependence of the bound-state energy on the masses and charges of the particles. The calculations of the bound-state energies for the molecules H/sup -/=(pee), H/sub 2//sup +/=(ppe), (e/sup -/e/sup -/e/sup +/) and (pp mu ), (dd mu ), (dt mu ) prove the accuracy of the zeroth approximation to be better than one per cent. For the three-body Coulomb system with charges +, -, - and arbitrary masses the region of stability is determined. For the systems (pe/sup -/C/sup +/), (A/sup +/e/sup -/e/sup +/), and (pB/sup -/e/sup -/) the critical masses are calculated to be M/sub C/=1.945m/sub e/, M/sub A/=4.350m/sub e/ and M/sub B/=1.575m/sub e/. It turns out that the system (pe/sup -/e/sup +/) is unstable. (31 References).

P. C. Divari, J. D. Vergados, T. S. Kosmas, and LD. Skouras, "The exotic double-charge exchange mu /sup -/ to e/sup +/ conversion in nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A703, no. 1-2, pp. 409--31, 2002.

Abstract:The formalism for the neutrinoless ( mu /sup -/,e/sup +/) conversion is investigated in detail and the relevant nuclear matrix elements for light intermediate neutrinos in the case of /sup 27/Al( mu /sup -/,e/sup +/)/sup 27/Na are calculated. The nucleus /sup 27/Al is going to be used as a stopping target in the MECO experiment at Brookhaven, one of the most sensitive probes expected to reach a sensitivity in the branching ratio of the order 10/sup -16/ within the next few years. The relevant transition operators are constructed utilizing a variety of mechanisms present in current gauge theories, with emphasis on the intermediate neutrinos, both light and heavy, and heavy SUSY particles. The nuclear wave functions, both for the initial state and all excited final states are obtained in the framework of 1s-0d shell model employing the wellknown and tested Wildenthal realistic interaction. In the case of the light intermediate neutrinos the transition rates to all excited final states up to 25 MeV in energy are calculated. We find that the imaginary part of the amplitude is dominant. The total rate is calculated by summing over all these partial transition strengths. We also find that the rate due to the real part of the amplitude is much smaller than the corresponding quantity found previously by the closure approximation. (42 References).

M. S. Dixit, H. L. Anderson, C. K. Hargrove, R. J. McKee, D. Kessler, H. Mes, and AC. Thompson, "Experimental test of the theory of muonic atoms," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 878--81, 1971.

Abstract:Muonic X-rays have been measured in the energy region 150 to 440 keV in nine elements with an absolute precision of 15 to 21 eV for transitions with small nuclear effects. Calculated transition energies were found to be consistently larger than those measured by an amount that varied from 15+or-16 eV at 157 keV to 137+or-22 eV at 438 keV. For these transitions, the principal correction to the Dirac energy is the vacuum polarization. The discrepancy, however, lies outside the expected validity of quantum-electrodynamic calculations and we are unable, at present, to offer an explanation for this effect. (17 References).

M. S. Dixit, A. L. Carter, E. P. Hineks, D. Kessler, J. S. Wadden, C. K. Hargrove, R. J. McKee, H. Mes, and HL. Anderson, "New muonic-atom test of vacuum polarisation," *Physical Review Letters*, vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 1633--5, 1975.

Abstract:The higher order quantum electrodynamic corrections to energy level calculations for muonic atoms are tested by measurements of transitions in muonic Pb and Ba. The experimental results for vacuum polarisation agree well with theory. (15 References).

R. M. Djilkibaev and VM. Lobashev, "The solenoid muon capture system for the MELC experiment," in *American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings*, pp. 53-60, 1996.

Abstract:A solenoid capture system for the MELC experiment in which the efficiency of soft muon generation from the primary proton (600 MeV) is 10/sup -4/ in comparison with 10/sup -8/ for ordinary schemes has been proposed. Both signs of muons with an intensity 10/sup 11/ mu /sup -//sec for the negative and 2*10/sup 11/ mu /sup +//sec for the positive component can be generated by a pulsed proton beam with an average current up to approximately= 200 mu A. A detailed 3-D calculation of the magnetic field for the MELC setup is presented. Production of muons from pion decay in the solenoid capture system is studied. The target lifetime and radiation condition of the superconducting coil are considered. (7 References).

VF. Dmitriev, "Electroproduction of pions on nuclei in bound states. (Mesic atoms)," *Pis'Ma V Zhurnal Eksperimental'Noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki*, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 124--7, 1971.

Abstract:It is known that study of pi -mesic atoms is one of the most sensitive methods of investigating the structure of the nucleus. However, the usual method of formation of pi -mesic atoms by capture of stopped (stopping) pions has one fundamental shortcoming. The point is that the probability of the capture of the pion by the nucleus increases with Z more rapidly than the probability of the radiative transition, and therefore, starting with a certain Z, transitions to states with lower orbital angular momentum cannot be seen. Thus, for example, the 2p-1s transition is indiscernible already starting with Z=12, and the transition 3d-2p starting with Z=27. Yet greatest interest attaches to just the levels with small l and n, since their parameters are most sensitive to the interaction of the pion with the nucleus. It is therefore meaningful to consider an experiment on the production of a pion immediately in the bound state of the mesic atom. This experiment supplements all the available experiments and makes it possible to obtain data on the s-levels of mesic atoms with large Z.

VF. Dmitriev, "pi -mesoatom electroproduction," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 800--4, 1973.

Abstract:The pi /sup -/-meson electroproduction into bound states of a mesoatom is calculated. The background from two-nucleon splitting of the nucleus is estimated. It is shown that the ratio of the cross section of the effect to that of the background may be of the order of approximately 1 in the region of light nuclei.

VF. Dmitriev, "Electroproduction of muonic atoms," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 402--6, 1974.

Abstract:An expression is obtained for the total cross section of the electroproduction of muonic atoms on nuclei, as well as for the spectrum of positive muons. Various applications of this process for experiments in region of the low-energy nuclear physics are considered. (2 References).

V. F. Dmitriev and PN. Isaev, "Electroproduction of mu mesoatoms on heavy nuclei," *Yadernaya Fizika*, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1162--7, 1980.

Abstract:The effect of the finite nuclear size on the direct electroproduction of mu mesoatoms is considered. The dependence of the cross section on Z and A is estimated; sigma (Z,A) approximately A-/sup 4///sub 3/ sigma /sub c/(Z), where sigma /sub c/(Z) is the cross section in the case of the Coulomb center. The cross section for the ground state of /sup 244/Pu is obtained numerically and is found to be sigma =6.1*10/sup -9/bn=10/sup -4/ sigma /sub c/(Pu). (4 References).

V. F. Dmitriev and VB. Telitsin, "The influence of the spin-orbit quasiparticle interaction on the magnetic properties of nuclei," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A402, no. 3, pp. 581--95, 1983.

Abstract:The influence of a two-particle spin-orbit interaction on the magnetic dipole and octupole moments, M1, M2 and M4 transitions and on the hyperfine structure in muonic atoms is investigated. The main effect of the spin-orbit interaction arises from its velocity dependence. The description of the allowed transitions becomes better in the presence of the spin-orbit corrections. The l-forbidden transitions are not reproduced. (30 References).

T. A. Dmitrieva, Z. Oziewicz, and A. Pikulski, "Gamma-neutrino correlation in muon capture in /sup 14/N," *Nuclear Physics A*, vol. A155, no. 1, pp. 205--8, 1970.

Abstract:The capture rate and the gamma-neutrino angular correlation for the process /sup 14/N(1/sup +/)/sup mu -/ to /sup 14/C*(2/sup +/)/sup gamma / to /sup 14/C(0/sup +/) is calculated taking into account the second-forbidden terms and it is shown that the inclusion of these terms is necessary.

Dang G. Do, "On the closure approximation in the study of muon capture by nuclei," *Physics Letters B*, vol. 38B, no. 6, pp. 397--400, 1972.

Abstract:A method is developed which allows one to calculate the total capture rate of muons by nuclei in a modified closure approximation in such a way that the result is approximately independent of the average neutrino energy adopted. (10 References).

M. Dobeli, M. Doser, Elmbt L. van, M. Schaad, P. Truol, A. Bay, J. P. Perroud, and J. Imazato, "Experimental results on radiative muon capture in complex nuclei," *Czechoslovak Journal of Physics*, vol. B36, no. 3, pp. 386--9, 1986.

Abstract:Experimental results for the radiative muon capture branching ratio in several nuclei and the photon-muon spin asymmetry in /sup 40/Ca are reported. For the measurements a two arm NaI-spectrometer is used. Apart from /sup 26/O and /sup 40/Ca, where the authors confirm previous results, new data on /sup 12/C, /sup 56/Fe, /sup 165/Ho and /sup 209/Bi are presented. No available theoretical models explain all the data consistently. The preliminary results for the asymmetry measurements, obtained using a stroboscopic method are in agreement with previous measurements and with theoretical calculations. (13 References).

M. Dobeli, M. Doser, Elmbt L. van, M. Schaad, P. Truol, A. Bay, J. P. Perroud, and J. Imazato, "Radiative muon capture and the induced pseudoscalar coupling in nuclei," in *Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei. Proceedings of the International Symposium*, (HV. Klapdor, ed.), pp. 822--30, 1986.

Abstract:The authors have started a series of experiments with two principal goals. The measurement of photon spectra for various other targets ranging from /sup 12/C to /sup 209/Bi should shed light on the question of whether the induced pseudoscalar coupling is indeed enhanced in lighter and suppressed in heavier nuclear systems. Secondly the photon-muon spin angular correlation asymmetry parameter Gamma gamma seems to be less dependent on the model used to describe the initial and the nonobserved final nuclear states than the photon yield. Thus a more precise determination of this quantity aims at eliminating the uncertainties arising from the assumed nuclear response in /sup 40/Ca. (20 References).

M. Dobeli, M. Doser, Elmbt L. van, M. W. Schaad, P. Truol, A. Bay, J. P. Perroud, J. Imazato, and T. Ishikawa, "Radiative muon capture in nuclei," *Physical Review C*, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1633--46, 1988.

Abstract:The energy spectra of photons following negative muon absorption in /sup 12/C, /sup 16/O, /sup 27/Al, /sup 40/Ca, /sup nat/Fe, /sup 165/Ho, and /sup 209/Bi have been measured with two Na